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Matthew L Davies

Matthew L Davies
Swansea University | SWAN · Sustainable Product Engineering Centre for Innovative Functional Industrial Coatings "SPECIFIC"

MChem, PhD

About

78
Publications
18,402
Reads
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1,664
Citations
Additional affiliations
February 2010 - June 2014
Bangor University
Position
  • Technology Transfer Fellow

Publications

Publications (78)
Article
Silver sulfide (Ag2S) nanoparticles were incorporated into the electron transport layer (ETL) of thin-film organic photovoltaic cells to assist in light trapping and improve charge-transport processes. The solar cells were fabricated in an inverted device architecture design using a solar absorber composed of donor polymer poly[4,8-bis(5-(2-ethylhe...
Article
Several strategies have been considered in search of more efficient organic materials for charge transfer in photovoltaic devices. Among them, the integration of donor-acceptor (D-A) functional units on a conjugated copolymer has been widely applied. In this framework, we evaluated four terpolymers made up of donor moieties derived from 9,9-dioctyl...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract In practice, the capacitance from the electrochemical double layer formation on porous carbon‐based electrodes is still below preferred values, limiting their use in electrochemical capacitors. The current drive is to innovate ways that generate additional capacitance in the electrochemical double layer capacitive nature of carbon nanomate...
Article
Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) has received much interest due to its revolutionary development and advantageous properties; particularly in its configurable bandgap that can transit from indirect to direct as the phase changes from the bulk form into the monolayer. MoS2 has found use in a range of solar cell technology as a hole transport layer (HTL)...
Article
Energy and environmental challenges are global concerns that scientists are interested in alleviating. It is on this premise that we prepared boron/nitrogen graphene-coated Cu⁰/TiO2 (B/N-graphene-coated Cu/TiO2) photocatalyst of varying B:N ratios with dual functionality of H2 production and 2-Chlorophenol (2-CP) degradation. In-situ coating of Cu⁰...
Article
Full-text available
Due to the finite nature, health and environmental hazards currently associated with the use of fossil energy resources, there is a global drive to hasten the development and deployment of renewable energy technologies. One such area encompasses perovskite solar cells (PSCs) that have shown photoconversion efficiencies (PCE) comparable to silicon-b...
Article
Full-text available
High-performance electron transport layer (ETL) anode generally needs to form a uniform dense layer with suitable conduction band position and good electron transport properties. The TiO2 photoanode is primarily applied as the ETL because it is low-cost, has diverse thin-film preparation methods and has good chemical stability. However, pure TiO2 i...
Article
Full-text available
For every three people on the planet, there are approximately two Tonnes (Te) of plastic waste. We show that carbon recovery from polystyrene (PS) plastic is enhanced by the coaddition of solvents to grow carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by liquid injection chemical vapour deposition. Polystyrene was loaded up to 4 wt% in toluene and heated to 780 °C in the...
Preprint
Full-text available
For every three people on the planet there is approximately two Tonne (Te) of available plastic waste. We show that carbon recovery from polystyrene (PS) plastic is enhanced by the co-addition to solvents to grow carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by liquid injection chemical vapour deposition. Polystyrene was loaded up to 4 wt% in toluene and heated to 780 °...
Article
Two terpolymers based on fluorene, benzothiadiazole, and carbazole monomer units were investigated as electron donor materials in organic solar cells. Variation of the microstructure, either statistical or in block, significantly affected the polymers' optoelectronic properties. Both terpolymers presented a high open-circuit voltage in photovoltaic...
Article
Full-text available
Mesoscopic carbon‐based lead halide perovskite solar cells (CPSCs) represent a promising architecture for commercialisation in the field of perovskite photovoltaics as they are stable, potentially low cost and use easily scaled production methods. However, the use of toxic and psychoactive solvents such as dimethylformamide (DMF) and γ‐Butyrolacton...
Article
Full-text available
Perovskite solar cells have emerged as a promising and highly efficient solar technology. Despite efficiencies continuing to climb, the prospect of industrial manufacture is in part hampered by concerns regarding the safety and sustainability of the solvents used in lab scale manufacture. In this paper, we aim to present a methodology for green sol...
Article
Full-text available
Time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) spectroscopy is a powerful technique to investigate excited charge carrier recombinations in semiconductors and molecular systems. The analysis of the TRPL decays of many molecular systems (e.g. molecules and organic materials) is usually fairly straightfoward and can be fitted with an exponential function all...
Article
Full-text available
Increasing recovery of critical raw materials (CRMs) from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is a strategic priority to mitigate supply risks. Today, CRM recovery rates are generally low, with increases requiring new recovery processes and interface optimisation with pre-processing to ensure appropriate material flows for efficient re...
Article
Full-text available
Colloidal metal chalcogenide quantum dots (QDs) have excellent quantum efficiency in light-matter interactions and good device stability. Although, QDs have been brought to the forefront as viable building blocks in bottom-up assembling semiconductor devices, the development of QD solar cell (QDSC) is still confronting considerable challenges compa...
Conference Paper
The setup and installation of a solar power system to demonstrate the performance of various battery chemistries unter two distinct storage sonditions is presented in this paper. Lead acid and lithium iron phosphate batteries were installed above ground and underground and their impact on system performance recorded.
Article
The rapid rise in efficiencies of lead halide perovskite solar cells has hastened the case for commercialization. One of the key barriers, however, is stability of devices. In this issue of Joule, Zhou et al. studied the degradation mechanism of a FA-Cs mixed cation perovskite-based solar cell with experimental and modeling techniques to show that...
Article
Zero-valent copper (Cu0) is a promising co-catalyst in semiconductor-based photocatalysis as it is inexpensive and exhibits electronic properties similar to those of Ag and Au. However, its practical application in photocatalytic hydrogen production is limited by its susceptibility to oxidation forming less active Cu species. Herein, we have carrie...
Article
Roll-to-roll coating of all active layers is demonstrated for a P-I-N perovskite solar cell stack, using a single step perovskite ink with an acetonitrile solvent system and flexible plastic substrate. A slot-die coating roll-to-roll process with a common coating speed for all layers is developed by using appropriate length meniscus guides as part...
Article
Full-text available
Perovskite solar cells have attracted a great deal of attention thanks to their high efficiency, ease of manufacturing, and potential low cost. However, the stability of these devices is considered their main drawback and needs to be addressed. Mesoporous carbon perovskite solar cells (m‐CPSC), consisting of three mesoporous layers (TiO2/ZrO2/C) in...
Article
Full-text available
Soil water repellency, that is, the reduced ability of soils to absorb water, is thought to be caused by organic coatings with predominantly non‐polar properties on soil particle surfaces. Given the important role of particle surface polarity in determining soil water repellency, we explored the use of fluorescent probes as a method for the direct...
Article
Unsymmetrical porphyrins were rationally-designed and synthesized to investigate the relation between their structure, properties and adsorption geometries, and their relative performance as dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells. Photophysics, electrochemical and TiO2 anchoring properties of the new unsymmetrical N-glycolic acid amino phenyl porphyrin...
Article
Organic-inorganic perovskite materials, such as methylammonium lead iodide, are good candidates for the next generation of solar cells with an impressive certified 23.7% power conversion efficiency. However, their development is impeded by their poor stability to oxygen, moisture, light and combinations of these. The bulk photoluminescence of perov...
Article
Green technology for nanoparticles synthesis is considered to be of great significance in biomedical applications. Recently, low dimensional semiconductor cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum dots (QDs) have raised great attention due to their optical properties and wide usage in biomedical studies. In our present work, we demonstrate a simple green synth...
Article
Here, we briefly discuss the history of photovoltaic technology and highlight recent progression in its “next generation” of technology – solar cells that we can print in a variety of colours, shapes and sizes, and that can be integrated into the buildings around us. In this paper, we focus on the development of perovskite solar cells and discuss s...
Technical Report
Full-text available
On 5th September 2018, our Environment Sustainability and Energy Division (ESED) held an international scientific meeting at Burlington House, London looking at how the chemical sciences can develop solutions to the scientific and policy challenges to mitigate the issues of waste and resource efficiency for emerging technologies. This report provid...
Article
Full-text available
Photovoltaics (PV) are increasingly important for electrification in rural Sub-Saharan Africa, but what is the best battery technology to use? To explore this question, a small-scale domestic PV system for South Africa (20-year lifetime) to deliver 1.42 kWh electricity from batteries overnight with 10-hour discharge was costed with various Li-ion,...
Article
Full-text available
Colloidal TiO2 films have been prepared using a binder-free aqueous paste with Degussa P25 and hexafluorotitanic acid (H2TiF6), which was optimised for different substrates. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) fabricated using this paste were sintered at (ca. 393 K) and efficiencies (η) of 3.0, 4.2 and 6.1% were measured for devices using titanium fo...
Article
We present a controlled, stepwise formation of methylammonium bismuth iodide (CH3NH3)3Bi2I9 perovskite films prepared via the vapour assisted solution process (VASP) by exposing BiI3 films to CH3NH3I (MAI) vapours for different reaction times, (CH3NH3)3Bi2I9 semiconductor films with tunable optoelectronic properties are obtained. Solar cells prepar...
Article
Full-text available
Low dimensional semiconductor quantum dots (<10 nm) have received great attention for potential use in biomedical applications (diagnosis and therapy) for which larger nanoparticles (>10 nm) are not suitable. Here, we demonstrate a green, biogenic synthesis route for making CdS quantum dots (QDs) with 2-5 nm particle size using tea leaf extract (Ca...
Chapter
In 2014 more than 1.2 billion people, which forms 16% of the world’s population, were without access to electricity. Over half of these were in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). While photovoltaics (PV) appear to offer the possibility of ‘green’ electricity for rural areas, PV electricity generation and storage have major environmental impacts associated w...
Article
Full-text available
Precursors to three new 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) incorportaing dyes have been synthesised via a one-pot C-H activation route using N,N-dimethylaniline as a donor group. We have extended this methodology to provide a convenient one-pot route to dye EDOT-Ph. The electrochemical and optical properties of the new dyes have been correlated with...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Photovoltaics, notably silicon PV, are becoming increasingly important in providing localised energy for rural communities in Africa. Although viewed as 'green', these technologies have environmental impacts associated with their production, use, and disposal, and full lifecycle optimisation for the circular economy is necessary to make every aspec...
Article
The photochemistry and stability of fullerene films is found to be strongly dependent upon film nanomorphology. In particular, PC61BM blend films, dispersed with polystyrene, are found to be more susceptible to photobleaching in air than the more aggregated neat films. This enhanced photobleaching correlated with increased oxygen quenching of PC61B...
Article
Full-text available
To celebrate the centenary of Science Progress we offer a short survey of the progress made over the past one hundred years in the research and application of photoinduced charge transfer. After a brief historical overview and introduction to photoinduced charge transfer, we discuss developments in the theory and practice of photography, photovolta...
Article
Full-text available
Precursors to three new 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) incorportaing dyes have been synthesised via a one-pot C-H activation route using N,N-dimethylaniline as a donor group. We have extended this methodology to provide a convenient one-pot route to dye EDOT-Ph. The electrochemical and optical properties of the new dyes have been correlated with...
Poster
Full-text available
Organic-inorganic solar cells based on lead halide perovskites are drawing unprecedented interest due to their high efficiency, potentially low fabrication cost, and favourable optical and electronic properties such as strong optical absorption in the visible and ultraviolet spectrum.1 A wide range of device architectures employing such perovskite...
Article
Full-text available
We report a solvent-free approach to synthesizing organolead perovskites by using solid state reactions to coat perovskite crystals onto Al2O3 or TiO2 nanoparticles followed by addition of terpineol affording perovskite inks. We have bar cast these inks to produce photoactive perovskite thin films which are significantly more stable to humidity tha...
Article
An extremely fast annealing technique for mixed-halide perovskite solar cells is presented. Using photonic flash sintering, we have demonstrated that a spin-coated perovskite precursor may be fully annealed in as little as 1 ms. Devices annealed in 1.15ms yielded power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of upto 11.3% compared to 15.2% for samples annea...
Article
Full-text available
Low-cost water-based P25-TiO 2 pastes were formulated and used to produce porous TiO 2 films in application to the fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells. The structural properties of the films were characterized using a variety of techniques such as stylus profilometry, FEG-SEM imaging, BET surface area, and BJH pore size analyses. These were c...
Article
Full-text available
The synthesis and full characterization of new half-squaraine dyes (Hf-SQ) containing two or three carboxylate-based linker units is reported and these dyes tested in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) devices. The data show improved device efficiency for a Hf-SQ dye with two linkers (η = 5.5%) compared to the highest efficiency Hf-SQ previously repor...
Article
This paper presents a summary of our recent work on half-squaraine dyes for use as sensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells. Our data include a review of the highest efficiency half-squaraine dyes to date. The discussion also considers how Jsc varies with functionalization of the Hf-SQ dyes and how these modifications affect device lifetime. The p...
Article
A rapid annealing technique for CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells is presented. We report a co-deposited Al2O3- perovskite device annealed in under 2.5 seconds with a PCE of 10.0% compared to 10.9% for a 45 minute ovenannealed device.
Article
This paper describes a facile method of self-assembling different metal oxide nanoparticles into nanostructured materials via di-carboxylate linkers (oxalic acid) using TiO2 as an example. In this method, the di-carboxylate linkers react with surface hydroxyls on metal oxide nanoparticles forming covalent, ester-like bonds, which enable the binding...
Article
A key challenge that can unlock the potential of third generation photovoltaics (PV) is the development of low cost indium free flexible transparent electrodes to enable lightweight, transparent and metal mounted devices. A major breakthrough allows a highly conducting self-adhesive laminate electrode to be applied to devices at room temperature wh...
Article
Developments in the field of organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite based solar cells have metaphorically opened the door to an exciting new solid state photovoltaic technology that retains the low cost and processability benefits of dye sensitised solar cells (DSCs). Encouraging device efficiencies of greater than 10% on both titania and alumina...
Article
Uptake of photovoltaic (PV) devices is increasing rapidly despite difficult economic conditions. The majority of this uptake consist of rigid, rectangular, glass encapsulated cSi modules, which have been retro fitted to roofs. As the PV market grows, more varied products will be developed for a wider range of end uses (both indoor and outdoor). The...
Article
Full-text available
Thermal analysis (TGA and DSC), coupled with evolved gas FTIR spectroscopy, have been used to study the changes occurring during, and differences between materials after, the annealing step of mixed-halide methylammonium lead halide perovskites. This is important because, to date, the material is the most efficient light harvester in highly efficie...
Article
Full-text available
We describe the fastest dyeing of TiO2 photo-electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells reported to date (< 2 min) at room temperature giving η = 7.5% for an N719/SQ1/CDCA mixture which is significantly higher than devices dyed for > 12 h using the same dye mixture (η = 5.5%). Time-lapse photography has been used to monitor the ultra-fast co-sensiti...
Article
Full-text available
High efficiency, solution processed organic-inorganic trihalide perovskite solar cells are now a reality, meaning that perovskite photovoltaics have the potential to challenge more established photovoltaic technologies. To date, some of the most efficient solution processed perovskite solar cells feature a pre-deposited Al2O3 scaffold and we have s...
Article
Full-text available
Nano-structured metal oxide films are key components of dye-sensitized (DSC) solar cells. Scaling such devices requires lower temperature processing to enable cheaper substrates to be used. In this context, we report a new and scalable method to sinter binder-containing metal oxide pastes to make DSC photo-electrodes at lower temperatures. Metal pe...
Article
Dye sensitised solar cells are a potential low cost photovoltaic technology because they can be manufactured by roll to roll processing. However, to achieve this, each manufacturing step must be extremely rapid (taking minutes at most). This paper addresses ultrafast dye sensitisation that can now be achieved in <5 min using one or multiple dyes. T...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports the synthesis of a series of new half-squaraine dyes (Hf-SQ) based around a common chromophoric unit consisting of linked indoline and squaric acid moieties. Carboxylate groups have been incorporated onto this core structure at four different points to study the influence of the anchoring group position on dye-sensitized solar ce...
Article
Full-text available
Enhancing the spectral response of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) is essential to increasing device efficiency and a key approach to achieve this is co-sensitization (i.e. the use of multiple dyes to absorb light from different parts of the solar spectrum). However, precise control of dye loading within DSC mesoporous metal oxide photo-anodes is...