Matthew Baylis

Matthew Baylis
University of Nottingham | Notts · Hallward Library

About

171
Publications
37,001
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6,143
Citations
Citations since 2017
84 Research Items
3756 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230200400600800
20172018201920202021202220230200400600800
20172018201920202021202220230200400600800
Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (171)
Preprint
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Background: Monkeypox is a zoonotic virus which persists in animal reservoirs and periodically spills over into humans, causing outbreaks. During the current 2022 outbreak, monkeypox virus has persisted via human-human transmission, across all major continents and for longer than any previous record. This unprecedented spread creates the potential...
Article
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In 2017, a mortality event affected Humboldt penguins at Chester Zoo (UK), which coincided with the diagnosis of avian malaria (AM) in some birds. AM is found worldwide wherever a competent mosquito vector is present, but the disease is particularly severe in penguins and other species that originate from non-endemic regions. To better understand t...
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African horse sickness virus (AHSV) is a vector-borne virus spread by midges (Culicoides spp.). The virus causes African horse sickness (AHS) disease in some species of equid. AHS is endemic in parts of Africa, previously emerged in Europe and in 2020 caused outbreaks for the first time in parts of Eastern Asia. Here we analyse a unique historic da...
Preprint
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Culex (Cx.) tritaeniorhynchus is a mosquito species with an extensive and expanding inter-continental geographic distribution, currently reported in over 50 countries, across Asia, Africa, the Middle East, Europe and now Australia. It is an important vector of medical and veterinary concern, capable of transmitting multiple arboviruses which cause...
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The World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 a pandemic on March 11, 2020 and by November 14, 2020 there were 53.3M confirmed cases and 1.3M reported deaths in the world. In the same period, Ethiopia reported 102K cases and 1.5K deaths. Effective public health preparedness and response to COVID-19 requires timely projections of the time an...
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Background One Health is particularly relevant to the Horn of Africa where many people’s livelihoods are highly dependent on livestock and their shared environment. In this context, zoonoses may have a dramatic impact on both human and animal health, but also on country economies. This scoping review aimed to characterise and evaluate the nature of...
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Our knowledge of viral host ranges remains limited. Completing this picture by identifying unknown hosts of known viruses is an important research aim that can help identify and mitigate zoonotic and animal-disease risks, such as spill-over from animal reservoirs into human populations. To address this knowledge-gap we apply a divide-and-conquer ap...
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Background Zoological gardens contain unique configurations of exotic and endemic animals and plants that create a diverse range of developing sites and potential sources of blood meals for local mosquitoes. This may imply unusual interspecific pathogen transmission risks involving zoo vertebrates, like avian malaria to captive penguins. Understand...
Article
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Background: Avian malaria has caused mortalities in captive penguins worldwide and it is a conservation threat for some wild penguins. The experience of staff working on penguins is highly valuable for the improvement of captivity conditions. Methods: An online questionnaire was designed to collect avian malaria information in penguins in the UK...
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Dengue is considered non-endemic to mainland China. However, travellers frequently import the virus from overseas and local mosquito species can then spread the disease in the population. As a consequence, mainland China still experiences large dengue outbreaks. Temperature plays a key role in these outbreaks: it affects the development and surviva...
Article
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Background Rickettsia are intracellular bacteria best known as the causative agents of human and animal diseases. Although these medically important Rickettsia are often transmitted via haematophagous arthropods, other Rickettsia, such as those in the Torix group, appear to reside exclusively in invertebrates and protists with no secondary vertebra...
Article
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Novel pathogenic coronaviruses – such as SARS-CoV and probably SARS-CoV-2 – arise by homologous recombination between co-infecting viruses in a single cell. Identifying possible sources of novel coronaviruses therefore requires identifying hosts of multiple coronaviruses; however, most coronavirus-host interactions remain unknown. Here, by deployin...
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Background Culicoides imicola (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is an important Afrotropical and Palearctic vector of disease, transmitting viruses of animal health and economic significance including African horse sickness and bluetongue viruses. Maternally inherited symbiotic bacteria (endosymbionts) of arthropods can alter the frequency of COI (cytochr...
Article
Full-text available
Approximately a year into the COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, many countries have seen additional “waves” of infections, especially in the temperate northern hemisphere. Other vulnerable regions, such as South Africa and several parts of South America have also seen cases rise, further impacting local economies and livelihoods. De...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Zoological gardens contain unique configurations of exotic and endemic animals and plants that create a diverse range of developing sites and potential sources of blood meals for local mosquitoes. This may imply unusual interspecific pathogen transmission risks involving zoo animals, like avian malaria to captive penguins. Understanding...
Preprint
Full-text available
The World Health Organisation (WHO) declared COVID-19 a pandemic on March 11, 2020 and by November 14, 2020 there were 53.3M confirmed cases and 1.3M reported deaths in the world. In the same period, Ethiopia reported 102K cases and 1.5K deaths. Effective public health preparedness and response to COVID-19 requires timely projections of the time an...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Culicoides imicola (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is an important Afrotropical and Palearctic vector of disease, transmitting viruses of animal health and economic significance. The apparent incursions of C. imicola into mainland Europe via wind-movement events has made it important to trace this species to better predict new areas of arbov...
Preprint
Full-text available
Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are disease vectors responsible for the transmission of several viruses of economic and animal health importance. The recent deployment of Wolbachia with pathogen-blocking capacity to control viral disease transmission by mosquitoes has led to a focus on the potential use of endosymbionts to contr...
Preprint
Full-text available
Culicoides imicola (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is an important Afrotropical and Palearctic vector of disease, transmitting viruses of animal health and economic significance. The apparent incursions of C. imicola into mainland Europe via wind-movement events has made it important to trace this species to better predict new areas of arbovirus outbrea...
Article
Full-text available
We investigate the restriction of animal movements as a method to control the spread of bluetongue, an infectious disease of livestock that is becoming increasingly prevalent due to the onset of climate change. We derive control policies for the UK that minimise the number of infected farms during an outbreak using Bayesian optimisation and a simul...
Article
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Microbial symbionts of disease vectors have garnered recent attention due to their ability to alter vectorial capacity. Their consideration as a means of arbovirus control depends on symbiont vertical transmission, which leads to spread of the bacteria through a population. Previous work has identified a Rickettsia symbiont present in several speci...
Article
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Background: There has been no evidence of transmission of mosquito-borne arboviruses of equine or human health concern to date in the UK. However, in recent years there have been a number of outbreaks of viral diseases spread by vectors in Europe. These events, in conjunction with increasing rates of globalisation and climate change, have led to c...
Preprint
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We are now over seven months into a pandemic of COVID-19 caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus and global incidence continues to rise. In some regions such as the temperate northern hemisphere there are fears of "second waves" of infections over the coming months, while in other, vulnerable regions such as Africa and South America, concerns remain that ca...
Article
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Mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission has almost exclusively been detected in the tropics despite the distributions of its primary vectors extending farther into temperate regions. Therefore, it is unknown whether ZIKV's range has reached a temperature-dependent limit, or if it can spread into temperate climates. Using field-collected mosqu...
Preprint
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Rickettsia are a group of intracellular bacteria which can manipulate host reproduction and alter sensitivity to natural enemy attack in a diverse range of arthropods. The maintenance of Rickettsia endosymbionts in insect populations can be achieved through both vertical and horizontal transmission routes. For example, the presence of the symbiont...
Preprint
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Novel pathogenic coronaviruses - including SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 - frequently arise by homologous recombination in a host cell. This process requires a single host to be infected with multiple coronaviruses, which can then recombine to form novel strains of virus with unique combinations of genetic material. The most fundamental requirement for h...
Preprint
Full-text available
Our knowledge of viral host ranges remains limited. Completing this picture by identifying unknown hosts of known viruses is an important research aim that can help identify zoonotic and animal-disease risks. Furthermore, such understanding can be used to mitigate against viral spill-over from animal reservoirs into human population. To address thi...
Article
Diseases that spread to humans from animals, zoonoses, pose major threats to human health. Identifying animal reservoirs of zoonoses and predicting future outbreaks are increasingly important to human health and well-being and economic stability, particularly where research and resources are limited. Here, we integrate complex networks and machine...
Article
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Emerging infectious diseases arising from pathogen spillover from mammals to humans constitute a substantial health threat. Tracing virus origin and predicting the most likely host species for future spillover events are major objectives in One Health disciplines. We assessed patterns of virus sharing among a large diversity of mammals, including h...
Article
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During February 2018–January 2019, we conducted large-scale surveillance for the presence and prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and louping ill virus (LIV) in sentinel animals and ticks in the United Kingdom. Serum was collected from 1,309 deer culled across England and Scotland. Overall, 4% of samples were ELISA-positive for the T...
Article
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Large scale modes of climate variability, including the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), have been shown to significantly impact mosquito-borne diseases in the Tropics, including malaria. However, the mechanistic cascade from ENSO and the IOD, to induced changes in regional climate and ultimately mosquito abund...
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In the Anthropocene, in which we now live, climate change is impacting most life on Earth. Microorganisms support the existence of all higher trophic life forms. To understand how humans and other life forms on Earth (including those we are yet to discover) can withstand anthropogenic climate change, it is vital to incorporate knowledge of the micr...
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Background It is estimated that 13% of arthropod species carry the heritable symbiont Cardinium hertigii . 16S rRNA and gyrB sequence divides this species into at least four groups (A–D), with the A group infecting a range of arthropods, the B group infecting nematode worms, the C group infecting Culicoides biting midges, and the D group associated...
Article
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There is concern that climate change will lead to expansion of vector-borne diseases as, of all disease types, they are the most sensitive to climate drivers¹. Such expansion may threaten human health, and food security via effects on animal and crop health. Here we quantify the potential impact of climate change on a vector-borne disease of livest...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background : It is estimated that 13% of arthropod species carry the heritable symbiont Cardinium hertigii . 16S rRNA and gyrB sequence divides this species into three clades, with the A group infecting a range of arthropods, the B group infecting nematode worms, and the C group infecting Culicoides biting midges. To date, genome sequence has only...
Preprint
Background : It is estimated that 13% of arthropod species carry the heritable symbiont Cardinium hertigii . 16S rRNA and gyrB sequence divides this species into three clades, with the A group infecting a range of arthropods, the B group infecting nematode worms, and the C group infecting Culicoides biting midges. To date, genome sequence has only...
Article
Full-text available
Schmallenberg virus (SBV) causes abortions, stillbirths and fetal malformations in naïve ruminants. The impact of the initial outbreak (2011/2012) on British sheep farms has been previously investigated, with higher farmer perceived impacts and increased lamb and ewe mortality reported on SBV-affected farms. After several years of low, or no, circu...
Preprint
Full-text available
Emerging infectious diseases arising from pathogen spillover from mammals to humans comprise a substantial health threat. Tracing virus origin and predicting the most likely host species for future spillover events are major objectives in One Health disciplines. However, the species that share pathogens most widely with other mammals, and the role...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are responsible for the biological transmission of arboviruses of international importance between ruminant livestock. These arboviruses include bluetongue virus (BTV) and Schmallenberg virus (SBV), which have emerged in unprecedented outbreaks in northern Europe. The impact of breed...
Article
Full-text available
Background Liver fluke infection caused by the parasite Fasciola hepatica is a major cause of production losses to the cattle industry in the UK. To investigate farm-level risk factors for fluke infection, a randomised method to recruit an appropriate number of herds from a defined geographical area into the study was required. The approach and hur...
Article
Full-text available
Increased globalisation and climate change have led to concern about the increasing risk of arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) outbreaks globally. An outbreak of equine arboviral disease in northern Europe could impact significantly on equine welfare, and result in economic losses. Early identification of arboviral disease by horse owners may help l...
Article
Full-text available
Tick cell lines are increasingly used in many fields of tick and tick-borne disease research. The Tick Cell Biobank was established in 2009 to facilitate the development and uptake of these unique and valuable resources. As well as serving as a repository for existing and new ixodid and argasid tick cell lines, the Tick Cell Biobank supplies cell l...
Article
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A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper.
Article
Equine populations worldwide are at increasing risk of infection by viruses transmitted by biting arthropods including mosquitoes, biting midges (Culicoides), sandflies and ticks. These include the flaviviruses (Japanese encephalitis, West Nile and Murray Valley encephalitis), alphaviruses (eastern, western and Venezuelan encephalitis) and the orbi...
Data
.pdf file containing supplemental material for: https://doi.org/10.1128/IAI.00607-17 Graham-Brown J, Hartley C, Clough H, Kadioglu A, Baylis M, Williams DJL. 2018. Dairy heifers naturally exposed to Fasciola hepatica develop a type 2 immune response and concomitant suppression of leukocyte proliferation. Infect Immun 86:e00607-17.
Article
Full-text available
Climate is one of several causes of disease emergence. Although half or more of infectious diseases are affected by climate it appears to be a relatively infrequent cause of human disease emergence. Climate mostly affects diseases caused by pathogens that spend part of their lifecycle outside of the host, exposed to the environment. The most import...
Article
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Climate change is expected to threaten human health and well-being via its effects on climate-sensitive infectious diseases, potentially changing their spatial distributions, affecting annual/seasonal cycles, or altering disease incidence and severity. Climate sensitivity of pathogens is a key indicator that diseases might respond to climate change...
Article
Full-text available
Fasciola hepatica is a parasitic trematode of global importance in livestock. Control strategies reliant on anthelmintics are unsustainable due to the emergence of drug resistance. Vaccines are under development, but efficacy is variable. Evidence from experimental infection suggest vaccine efficacy may be affected by parasite-induced immunomodulat...
Data
Fig. S2. BUSCO completeness assessment results for RiCNE draft genome in relation to selected complete Rickettsia genomes. The results are based on the presence or absence of 148 single‐copy universal bacterial markers. BUSCO notation: complete (C), single‐copy (S), duplicated (D), fragmented (F) and missing (M).
Data
Fig. S3. Circular representation of the RiCNE draft genome. For visualization purposes, the 193 scaffolds were concatenated into a pseudomolecule. Alternating gray and white strips indicate scaffold borders. Inwards, the first, second and third circles are color‐coded according to the eggNOG functional categories and represent: (a) the complete RiC...
Data
Table S6. omp conventional PCR assay results for Rickettsia‐negative Culicoides species under study, given by subgenus, species, location, date and sex. a Culicoides newsteadi haplotype N1 designated by Ander et al. (2013). b Culicoides newsteadi N6 previously undesignated.
Data
Table S10. Core genes used for phylogenomic analysis.
Data
Fig. S1. Taxon annotated GC‐coverage plots. (A) Primary genome assembly of Culicoides newsteadi N5. (B) Postfiltering against a local database containing all available (complete and draft) Rickettsia genomes.
Data
Table S3. Genes encoding for the P‐T4SS and the tra conjugative DNA‐transfer element in RiCNE genome.
Data
Table S7. Genetic characteristics of housekeeping and omp alleles.
Data
Fig. S4. Cladogram of the complete core‐genome phylogeny. Phylogenomic placement of the Rickettsia endosymbiont of C. newsteadii were inferred using maximum likelihood (RaxML, model: Lag + G + I) from the concatenated protein alignments of 189 single copy ortholog genes. Support values are based on 100 rapid bootsrap replicates.
Data
Table S1. Functional annotation of RiCNE draft genome including Interproscan results against Pfam and eggNOG results.
Data
Table S2. Publicly available Rickettsiaceae genomes used in this study for ortholog identification and phylogenomic analysis.
Data
Table S8. Rickettsia strains recovered from Culicoides midges, with allelic profiles; strains sharing the same allelic profiles at all five loci were designated as a single strain. NA: non amplifiable.
Data
Table S11. Housekeeping and omp gene primer attributes.
Data
Fig. S5. Individual trees for the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) proteins. Tree topology and posterior probabilities were inferred with MrBayes using a mixed model of amino acid substitution. The trees were midpoint rooted.