Matthew Altman

Matthew Altman
Central Washington University | CWU

About

78
Publications
2,784
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152
Citations
Citations since 2016
33 Research Items
104 Citations
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2016201720182019202020212022051015202530
2016201720182019202020212022051015202530
2016201720182019202020212022051015202530

Publications

Publications (78)
Article
Full-text available
During the coronavirus pandemic, communities have faced shortages of important healthcare resources such as COVID-19 vaccines, medical staff, ICU beds and ventilators. Public health officials in the U.S. have had to make decisions about two major issues: which infected patients should be treated first (triage), and which people who are at risk of i...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, scholars have documented the racial disparities of mass incarceration. In this paper we argue that, although retributivism and deterrence theory appear to be race-neutral, in the contemporary U.S. context these seemingly contrary theories function jointly to rationalize racial inequities in the criminal justice system. When people...
Article
Full-text available
Most ethics guidelines for distributing scarce medical resources during the coronavirus pandemic seek to save the most lives and the most life‐years. A patient’s prognosis is determined using a SOFA or MSOFA score to measure likelihood of survival to discharge, as well as a consideration of relevant comorbidities and their effects on likelihood of...
Article
Kantian defenders of suicide for the soon-to-be demented claim that killing oneself would protect rather than violate a person’s inherent worth. The loss of cognitive functions reduces someone to a lower moral status, so they believe that suicide is a way of preserving or preventing the loss of dignity. I argue that they misinterpret Kant’s example...
Chapter
Schopenhauer and Freud reject the anthropocentrism of the Western philosophical tradition by claiming that humans and animals are motivated by the same impulses, but they reinforce elements of that anthropocentrism by retaining the identification of animality with self-interested savagery, and by reserving for humans the capacity to overcome that s...
Chapter
Altman examines and evaluates competing interpretations of Kant’s theory of freedom and concludes that the only way for us to be free as noumena and causally determined as phenomena is to conceive of our actions in two different ways, either from the practical standpoint or the theoretical standpoint. That is, we can commit ourselves to causal dete...
Chapter
Kant is often characterized as a system-builder. The conclusion shows the ways in which Kant is a philosopher in the classical sense, as someone driven by questions that challenge basic epistemological and moral beliefs – even his own.
Chapter
The era of German Idealism stands alongside ancient Greece and the French Enlightenment as one of the most fruitful and influential periods in the history of philosophy. Beginning with the publication of Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason in 1781 and ending about ten years after Hegel’s death in 1831, the period of “classical German philosophy” transfo...
Article
Although Kant defends a cosmopolitan ideal, his philosophy is problematically vague regarding how to achieve it, which lends support to the empty formalism charge. How Kant would respond to the crisis in Syria reveals that judgement plays too central a role, because Kantian principles lead to equally reasonable but opposite conclusions on how to we...
Book
This remarkably comprehensive Handbook provides a multifaceted yet carefully crafted investigation into the work of Immanuel Kant, one of the greatest philosophers the world has ever seen. With original contributions from leading international scholars in the field, this authoritative volume first sets Kant’s work in its biographical and historical...
Article
Many philosophers have contributed to the renaissance in Fichte scholarship that began in the mid-twentieth century, but no one has contributed more significantly to Fichte’s reemergence in Anglo-American philosophy than Daniel Breazeale. He has published over sixty articles and book chapters on Fichte, ten edited collections, and numerous translat...
Article
Correction: The wrong gender was used in the last paragraph of this review. The online versions have been updated from the use of "her" to "him". No one doubts that Kant is a systematic thinker. He hopes to achieve what he calls unity of the faculty of reason, which has various meanings: reason unifies appearances into a coherent natural system; th...
Book
The Fractured Self in Freud and German Philosophy examines Freud's transformation of German philosophical approaches to freedom, history, and self-knowledge; defends a theory of situated knowledge and agency; and considers the relevance of Freudian thought for contemporary cultural issues. © Matthew C. Altman and Cynthia D. Coe 2013. All rights res...
Chapter
Comparisons between the work of Freud and Schopenhauer are common in the secondary literature,1 and Freud himself recognizes the affinity of their approaches, as the epigraph indicates. But few critics go beyond the fact that they share similar conceptions of formless drives that motivate our behavior to consider what they recommend we do about it....
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Throughout this book, we have been developing, with Freudian resources, an account of qualified freedom. Human interpretation crucially enters into inheriting our personal and cultural histories, negotiating the demands of society, and expressing the basic drives possessed by embodied beings, but that activity also emerges out of these different co...
Chapter
Kant repeatedly warns us about the ineffectiveness of political revolution, an ineffectiveness caused by the perpetuation of unrecognized prejudices and patterns of thought. But the intellectual revolution he initiates has left us with unresolved anxieties that continue to manifest themselves in academic, political, and religious domains. Kant’s tr...
Chapter
Freud considers his work to be a challenge to the high ideals of modernity, claiming that psychoanalysis is the third “major blow” against human narcissism — the first two having been delivered by Copernicus and Darwin (IL 16:284). Human beings exist contingently as animals that have evolved through a series of random mutations, and we no longer oc...
Chapter
Marx inherits from the Enlightenment the overarching goal of human liberation, but unlike the liberal focus on removing external forms of coercion, such as authoritarian governments or the institution of slavery, Marx emphasizes the importance of identifying and resisting internalized coercion. Accordingly, one of his persistent concerns is the way...
Chapter
One of Freud’s fundamental insights is that our conception of reality is unconsciously permeated by phantasies,1 and it is fair to say that this idea would be impossible prior to Kant’s Copernican revolution in philosophy. By establishing that the activity of judgment (in part) constitutes reality, Kant demonstrates the illegitimacy of metaphysics...
Chapter
Like Fichte, Schelling strives to overcome Kant’s dualisms. Unsatisfied with Fichte’s appeal to the I’s activity, Schelling attempts to derive both the subject and the object from what he takes to be a higher ground, which he calls the Absolute. Although the Absolute is necessarily opaque to consciousness, he proposes two methods of philosophical i...
Chapter
As Freud consistently emphasizes, it is through pathology that normal psychological functioning is most easily understood. In the case of transference, the neurotic restaging of old relationships leads to one of the core insights of psychoanalysis: the world that is real to me is my world, a world conditioned by my own interpretations, repressions,...
Chapter
In the aftermath of Kant’s Copernican turn, philosophers set out to explain the relation between what is given to the senses (sensible intuition) and the way that we order our experience through concepts (the activity of the understanding). Kant rejected both the rationalists’ attempt to derive the whole of experience from our own faculties and the...
Chapter
Hegel and Freud make the apparently identical claim that nothing passes away that has once been present in the mind. But the meaning of this claim is quite different for each of them, and an analysis of its implications for their divergent conceptions of history and historical consciousness illustrates how Freud implicitly challenges faith in human...
Article
Requiring that a woman who is seeking an abortion be given the opportunity to view an ultrasound of her fetus has spread from anti-abortion "pregnancy resource centers" to state laws. Proponents of these laws claim that having access to the ultrasound image is necessary for a woman to make a medically informed decision. In this paper, we argue that...
Article
Kant and Applied Ethics makes an important contribution to Kant scholarship, illuminating the vital moral parameters of key ethical debates. Offers a critical analysis of Kant-s ethics, interrogating the theoretical bases of his theory and evaluating their strengths and weaknesses Examines the controversies surrounding the most important ethical di...
Chapter
The Purpose of Marriage Consent and Coercion Mail-Order Marriages as the Kantian Ideal Treating Mail-Order Brides Merely as Means Attempts to Criticize Mail-Order Marriages from a Kantian Perspective Are Mail-Order Brides Coerced? Questioning the a priori Basis of Kant's Ethics Notes toward a Genealogy of Kantianism
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How Kant Answers Hegel's Formalism Charge Basic Principles versus Particular Duties: Kant and Rawls What Is My Obligation to Reduce Poverty? Social Contexts Specify the Content of Maxims Herman's Rules of Moral Salience The Humanity of Others Is Not Simply Given Developing Moral Judgment: The Case of Kant Himself The Return of Hegel
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The Moral Duty to Assist Others in Their Health Care Health Care Should Be Provided by the Government The Duty to Provide Truly Universal Health Care Rejecting the Liberal Model
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Sex Is Morally Problematic Sex Is (Conditionally) Good Exchanging Ourselves: Marriage in the Moralphilosophie Collins Kant and Political Liberalism Transforming Ourselves into Husbands and Wives: Marriage in the Metaphysics of Morals Is Something Wrong Because It Is Unnatural? Pleasure as an End of Nature Marital Equality as a Criterion of Legitima...
Chapter
emerging from Kant's long shadow;Kant's practical philosophy, resonating within us;moral community, as composed of individual rights-bearers;Kant's ethics, and some problematic implications;Hegel charging Kant with formalism;communitarianism, neo-Hegelian critique of Kantian philosophy;Kant, that as rational beings, conceiving of ourselves as fello...
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Physician-Assisted Suicide Refusing Life-Saving Medical Treatment Organ Donation: Opt-in or Opt-out? Autonomy and the Body
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Immanuel Kant's ethical theory;human subjects in medical research;Kantian concepts in debates, in applied ethics;research ethics, atrocities by Nazi doctors in camps;Kant's object of moral consideration and judgment;Nuremberg Code and Belmont Report, on the individual;The Belmont Report, and “respect for persons”;Tuskegee syphilis study, of African...
Chapter
The Difference between Morality and Legality Retribution and the Death Penalty Consenting to Capital Punishment Determining the “Inner Wickedness” of the Accused The Fallibility of Justice Capital Punishment Cannot Be Categorically Demanded of Us A Moral Assessment of the Supposed Duty to Kill Do These Objections Rule Out All Punishments? Whose Dig...
Chapter
Natural Purposiveness in the Critique of Judgment Furthering Nature's Purposes: The Stewardship Model The Value of Nature for Humanity Considering Future Generations Beauty as a Symbol of Morality Preserving the Sublime Developing Kantian Virtues Norton's Convergence Hypothesis and Light's Practical Pluralism The Appeal to Common Sense Kant's Place...
Chapter
Kant's Logocentrism Kant's Justification for Our Duties (with Regard) to Nonrational Animals Implications of Kant's View for Our Treatment of Animals Kantians Revising Kant: Wood and Korsgaard Problems with Wood and Korsgaard Kant's Response to Wolff: The Difference between Animal Choice and Moral Agency Evaluating Pain and Pleasure Kant's Practica...
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Decision-Making Procedures and Maxims in Corporate Settings The Need for Collective Responsibility in Business Ethics Applying the Categorical Imperative to Businesses Kant's Account of Moral Agency and the Categorical Imperative Must We Never Treat a Business Merely as a Means? Corporate Policies and Individual Agents Bowie's Defense of Collective...
Chapter
The Ancient Practice of Abortion, and Continuing Controversies Universalized Maxims Are Not Retroactive The Formula of Humanity: Appealing to Personhood Thomson and Boonin: The Personhood of the Fetus Does Not Matter The Elements of Personhood: Self-Consciousness, Humanity, Responsibility An Attempt to Bring Fetuses into Kant's Moral Community: The...
Article
Like many of Kant's successors, J. G. Fichte attempted to overcome the various dualisms that were left to us by Kant with a higher and more all-encompassing philosophical standpoint. During the Jena period (1794-99), Fichte appealed to the self-positing I as the ground of both subject and object, matter and spirit, the sensible and intelligible wor...
Article
In his lectures on aesthetics, Hegel famously declares that art has become irrelevant, because at this point in the history of philosophy, artists can only provide us with an incomplete and distorted picture of how we have come to reconcile the opposition between mind and world. The philosopher, not the artist, can bring freedom fully to consciousn...
Article
When examined critically, Kant's views on sex and marriage give us the tools to defend same-sex marriage on moral grounds. The sexual objectification of one's partner can only be overcome when two people take responsibility for one another's overall well-being, and this commitment is enforced through legal coercion. Kant's views on the unnaturalnes...
Article
In addition to preparing students for graduate school or emphasizing transferable skills that are useful in any career, philosophy departments ought to give majors the education and work experience that will train them to become ethics officers outside of academia. This is a growing field that allows students to engage non-philosophers in setting c...
Article
The conception of subjectivity that dominates the Western philosophical tradition, particularly during the Enlightenment, sets up a simple dichotomy: either the subject is ultimately autonomous or it is merely a causally determined thing. Fichte and Freud challenge this model by formulating theories of subjectivity that transcend this opposition. F...
Article
Kant is gaining popularity in business ethics because the categorical imperative rules out actions such as deceptive advertising and exploitative working conditions, both of which treat people merely as means to an end. However, those who apply Kant in this way often hold businesses themselves morally accountable, and this conception of collective...
Article
In order to justify the discipline to administrators and prospective majors, many philosophy departments have begun to emphasize the "transferable skills" that students can develop in their courses — problem-solving and communication skills, the ability to argue and write well, and the capacity to engage in systematic analysis. However, designing t...

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