Matt Mcglone

Matt Mcglone
Manaaki Whenua - Landcare Research · Ecosystems and Global Change Team

PhD

About

209
Publications
60,108
Reads
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Introduction
I am a research associate with Landcare Research, Lincoln based in the Long-Term Ecology Laboratory. My main research interests are palaeoecology and biogeography of the New Zealand region
Additional affiliations
February 1972 - June 2015
Manaaki Whenua - Landcare Research
Position
  • Senior Researcher

Publications

Publications (209)
Article
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Our paper about the impacts of the Laschamps Geomagnetic Excursion 42,000 years ago has provoked considerable scientific and public interest, particularly in the so-called Adams Event associated with the initial transition of the magnetic poles. Although we welcome the opportunity to discuss our new ideas, Hawks' assertions of misrepresentation are...
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Our study on the exact timing and the potential climatic, environmental, and evolutionary consequences of the Laschamps Geomagnetic Excursion has generated the hypothesis that geomagnetism represents an unrecognized driver in environmental and evolutionary change. It is important for this hypothesis to be tested with new data, and encouragingly, no...
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Geological archives record multiple reversals of Earth’s magnetic poles, but the global impacts of these events, if any, remain unclear. Uncertain radiocarbon calibration has limited investigation of the potential effects of the last major magnetic inversion, known as the Laschamps Excursion [41 to 42 thousand years ago (ka)]. We use ancient New Ze...
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Supplementary Material for 'A global environmental crisis 42,000 years ago' Geological archives record multiple reversals of Earth’s magnetic poles, but the global impacts of these events, if any, remain unclear. Uncertain radiocarbon calibration has limited investigation of the potential effects of the last major magnetic inversion, known as the...
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The New Zealand flora has a high proportion of endemic species but has been invaded by almost the same number of non-native plant species. To support management of invasive plant species, we provide an updated inventory of New Zealand’s naturalised flora and compare it with the native flora to identify key taxonomic and functional distinctions. We...
Article
Lineage through time plots (LTTs) are often used to explore past patterns of lineage diversification and community assembly. However, as they are based solely on extant species their ability to accurately depict past events can be questioned. Here, simulation models based on neutral processes are used to explore immigration and extinction scenarios...
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Oceanic islands remained free of humans until relatively recent times. On contact, humans encountered pristine environments with unique ecosystems and species highly vulnerable to novel impacts. In the course of rendering an island habitable, the new settlers transformed it through fire, deforestation, hunting and introduction of pests and weeds. T...
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For tens of millions of years the ratite moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes) were the largest herbivores in New Zealand’s terrestrial ecosystems. In occupying this ecological niche for such a long time, moa undoubtedly had a strong influence on the evolution of New Zealand’s flora and played important functional roles within ecosystems. The extinction of...
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Campbell Island, which is 600 km south of New Zealand, has the southernmost tree line in this ocean sector. Directly under the maximum of the westerlies, the island is sensitive to changes in wind strength and direction. Pollen records from three peat cores spanning the tree line ecotone provide a 17,000-year history of vegetation change, temperatu...
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New Zealand's unique biodiversity is the product of at least 55 million years of geographic isolation, supplemented by persistent transoceanic migration. Palaeontological and genetic evidence suggest most New Zealand avifauna has colonized from Australia. We synthesize evolutionary genetic studies to show a previously unrecognized clustering of div...
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The New Zealand subantarctic islands of Auckland and Campbell, situated between the subtropical front and the Antarctic Convergence in the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean, provide valuable terrestrial records from a globally important climatic region. Whilst the islands show clear evidence of past glaciation, the timing and mechanisms behind P...
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Central Otago is one of the driest parts of New Zealand, and much of the natural vegetation of the region was lost to fires following human settlement in the 13th Century AD. Plant macrofossil and pollen records have provided detailed insights into the vegetation communities that existed in Central Otago’s lowlands at the time of human settlement,...
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Impacts of global climate change on terrestrial ecosystems are imperfectly constrained by ecosystem models and direct observations. Pervasive ecosystem transformations occurred in response to warming and associated climatic changes during the last glacial-to-interglacial transition, which was comparable in magnitude to warming projected for the nex...
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Fire is a major threat to remnant native woody vegetation in dry, lowland New Zealand. This is because the woody flora lacks specific adaptations to survive fire, and seedling regeneration is constrained by summer drought, limited native seed rain and intense competition from non-native grasses that are often favoured by fire. In December 2000, a f...
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The New Zealand subantarctic islands of Auckland and Campbell, situated between the Subtropical Front and the Antarctic Convergence in the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean, provide valuable terrestrial records from a globally-important climatic region. Whilst the islands show clear evidence of past glaciation, the timing and mechanisms behind P...
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Canterbury’s gravelly outwash plains offer few of the natural deposits in which floral remains are typically preserved and hence represent a significant geographical gap in our knowledge about New Zealand’s pre-settlement terrestrial ecosystems and their response to anthropogenic activities. We contribute new insights into the poorly known Holocene...
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Anthropogenic activity is now recognised as having profoundly and permanently altered the Earth system, suggesting we have entered a human-dominated geological epoch, the ‘Anthropocene’. To formally define the onset of the Anthropocene, a synchronous global signature within geological-forming materials is required. Here we report a series of precis...
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The New Zealand conifers (20 species of trees and shrubs in the Araucariaceae, Podocarpaceae, and Cupressaceae) are often regarded as ancient Gondwanan elements, but mostly originated much later. Often thought of as tall trees of humid, warm forests, they are present throughout in alpine shrublands, tree lines, bogs, swamps, and in dry, frost-prone...
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Categorical analysis of neo- and palaeo-endemism (CANAPE), phylogenetic diversity (PD) and phylogenetic weighted endemism (PWE) were used to explore patterns of diversity, endemism and biogeography in the indigenous vascular flora of the New Zealand archipelago. Distributional data comprising 213142 records for 436 genera and 2187 species and a phy...
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We present new pollen-temperature reconstructions for the Last Interglacial from central North Island, New Zealand using partial least squares regression (PLS) and modern analogue technique applied with the New Zealand pre-deforestation calibration pollen dataset. The pollen-bearing organic sequence includes numerous millimetre- to decimetre- thick...
Article
Immigrant floras often have distinctive traits, well suited to the host region but absent from the autochthonous flora. An example is serotiny in the New Zealand (NZ) small tree, Leptospermum scoparium (Myrtaceae) belonging to a strongly fire-adapted Australian clade. Serotiny in L. scoparium has been attributed either to strong selection by fire s...
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Occupying about 14 % of the world's surface, the Southern Ocean plays a fundamental role in ocean and atmosphere circulation, carbon cycling and Antarctic ice-sheet dynamics. Unfortunately, high interannual variability and a dearth of instrumental observations before the 1950s limits our understanding of how marine–atmosphere–ice domains interact o...
Chapter
The biotic- and ecological-changes of the New Zealand Quaternary unfolded against a background of mountain-building, marine transgression and volcanism—a legacy of the mid-Tertiary that continued unabated through the Plio-Pleistocene. In the stable, warm northern regions much of the old Tertiary biota survives; in the mountainous, glaciated south,...
Chapter
This chapter examines likely future changes in New Zealand over the intermediate (100 year) and a longer term (5000 year) futures. The first section examines the underlying processes and concludes that in the longer term future, tectonic and volcanic processes are likely to have a stronger impact on New Zealand, as a landmass, than foreseeable futu...
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Occupying 14% of the world’s surface, the Southern Ocean plays a fundamental role in global climate, ocean circulation, carbon cycling and Antarctic ice-sheet stability. Unfortunately, high interannual variability and a dearth of instrumental observations before the 1950s limits our understanding of how marine-atmosphere-ice domains interact on mul...
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If we are to make meaningful and measurable progress in restoring New Zealand's biological heritage by 2050, a range of fundamental issues need to be addressed. These relate not just to restoration science but also to building ecosystem resilience in the wider socio-economic and cultural context within which restoration occurs.
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The pre-clearance New Zealand lowlands were largely in complex, liana-rich, multi-layered conifer–angiosperm forest. Here it is designated oceanic temperate forest (OTF), its climatic envelope is defined, global distribution is assessed and origin is reviewed. Often described as Gondwanan or relic, tree genera characteristic of the OTF are more lik...
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Puzzling features of plants are sometimes explained as legacies of co-evolution with extinct herbivores. One example is the convergent evolution of a small-leaved, twiggy ‘divaricate’ form in > 50 woody species in New Zealand. This growth form was first interpreted as a response to the Plio-Pleistocene onset of frosty, droughty environments, but op...
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The Southern Ocean plays a significant role in driving global climate–ocean–carbon dynamics. Unfortunately, a relative dearth of datasets across the region limits our ability to understand past and future mechanisms of change. Here we report a new dataset from the south-west Pacific: radiocarbon-dated subfossil tree stumps (Dracophyllum) eroding ou...
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Premise of the study: In fire-prone ecosystems, variation in bark thickness among species and communities has been explained by fire frequency; thick bark is necessary to protect cambium from lethal temperatures. Elsewhere this investment is deemed unnecessary, and thin bark is thought to prevail. However, in rain forest ecosystems where fire is r...
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Alien plants are a pervasive environmental problem, particularly on islands where they can rapidly transform unique indigenous ecosystems. However, often it is difficult to confidently determine if a species is native or alien, especially if establishment occurred before historical records. This can present a management challenge: for example, shou...
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The relative importance of people and climate in shaping prehistoric fire regimes is debated around the world, and this discussion has helped inform our understanding of past and present ecosystem dynamics. Evidence for extensive anthropogenic burning of temperate closed-canopy forests prior to European settlement is geographically variable, and th...
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Results from terrestrial and marine palaeoclimate proxies are integrated to reconstruct palaeoclimate variations in New Zealand from the Last Interglacial to the global Last Glacial Maximum (gLGM). By combining data from 21 speleothems we have constructed composite O–C stable isotope sequences from 0 to 88.5 ka BP and from 107.8 to 128.2 ka BP. The...
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In two recent papers in this journal a leading proponent of panbiogeography, Michael Heads, has continued his critique of long-distance dispersal and molecular clocks, and promotion of alternative geological and evolutionary ideas. An axiomatic rejection of long-distance dispersal, on the grounds that it has no explanatory power, informs these crit...
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Human-caused forest transitions are documented worldwide, especially during periods when land use by dense agriculturally-based populations intensified. However, the rate at which prehistoric human activities led to permanent deforestation is poorly resolved. In the South Island, New Zealand, the arrival of Polynesians c. 750 years ago resulted in...
Article
We challenge the concept that intermediate woody species heights are suboptimal.•There is no bimodality in woody species heights at a regional flora scale.•Claims that there is a deficit in 8–10 m high species are incorrect.•Global plant trait databases under-represent shrubs and over-represent forests.
Article
QuestionRare and threatened species are a common focus of natural area protection, but selecting sites to protect them must be balanced against other conservation objectives. Using a series of wetlands as a case study, we ask: (i) will protecting sites based on species rarity capture all critical community types; (ii) do rare plant species occur in...
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Abstract A robust understanding of Antarctic Ice Sheet deglacial history since the Last Glacial Maximum is important in order to constrain ice sheet and glacial-isostatic adjustment models, and to explore the forcing mechanisms responsible for ice sheet retreat. Such understanding can be derived from a broad range of geological and glaciological da...
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A robust understanding of Antarctic Ice Sheet deglacial history since the Last Glacial Maximum is important in order to constrain ice sheet and glacial-isostatic adjustment models, and to explore the forcing mechanisms responsible for ice sheet retreat. Such understanding can be derived from a broad range of geological and glaciological datasets an...
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This paper is the maritime and sub–Antarctic contribution to the Scientific Committee for Antarctic Research (SCAR) Past Antarctic Ice Sheet Dynamics (PAIS) community Antarctic Ice Sheet reconstruction. The overarching aim for all sectors of Antarctica was to reconstruct the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) ice sheet extent and thickness, and map the sub...
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Campbell Island, an isolated island 600 km south of New Zealand mainland (52°S, 169°E) is oceanic (Conrad Index of Continentality = -5) with small differences between mean summer and winter temperatures. Previous work established the unexpected result that a mean annual climate warming of c. 0.6°C since the 1940's has not led to upward movement of...
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Fire is a complex physical and ecological process and one that has dramatically affected New Zealand's landscapes and ecosystems in the post-settlement era. Prior to human settlement in the late 13th century, the Holocene palaeoenvironmental record suggests that fire frequencies were low across most of New Zealand, with the notable exception of som...
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Climate refugia, locations where taxa survive periods of regionally adverse climate, are thought to be critical for maintaining biodiversity through the glacial–interglacial climate changes of the Quaternary. A critical research need is to better integrate and reconcile the three major lines of evidence used to infer the existence of past refugia –...
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AimSouthern temperate tree lines are found at low elevations compared with their Northern Hemisphere counterparts. They are also regarded as forming at warm temperatures, which has been attributed to taxon-specific limitations. Using New Zealand tree lines as an example, we assess whether these tree lines are anomalously warm compared with the glob...
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Ongoing changes in disturbance regimes are predicted to cause acute changes in ecosystem structure and function in the coming decades, but many aspects of these predictions are uncertain. A key challenge is to improve the predictability of postdisturbance biogeochemical trajectories at the ecosystem level. Ecosystem ecologists and paleoecologists h...
Article
Anthropogenic fires caused New Zealand's temperate rain forests to decline rapidly from 80% to 50% cover after Polynesian arrival. In contrast, Australian temperate rain forests have remained stable in spite of a longer history of fire and human occupation. We evaluate whether New Zealand's conifer-dominated forests declined because they lack fire...
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Ecosystems change between arbuscular mycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal vegetation dominance over anthropological and geological time scales, yet consequences for ecosystem function are unclear. We review four hypotheses for the effect of mycorrhizal status on ecosystem function. Specifically, that differences between ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular my...
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Less than 4% of the non-bamboo grasses worldwide abscise old leaves, whereas some 18% of New Zealand native grasses do so. Retention of dead or senescing leaves within grass canopies reduces biomass production and encourages fire but also protects against mammalian herbivory. Recently it has been argued that elevated rates of leaf abscission in New...
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In New Zealand, there are treelines of two main forms: abrupt southern beech treelines and gradual conifer-broadleaved treelines. At similar latitudes, abrupt treelines form at higher elevation than gradual treelines, but it is unclear whether this difference is also reflected in the climatic conditions experienced at the contrasting treeline ecoto...
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The increased incidence of large fires around much of the world in recent decades raises questions about human and non-human drivers of fire and the likelihood of increased fire activity in the future. The purpose of this paper is to outline a conceptual framework for examining where human-set fires and feedbacks are likely to be most pronounced in...
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The Kawakawa/Oruanui tephra (KOT) is a key chronostratigraphic marker in terrestrial and marine deposits of the New Zealand (NZ) sector of the southwest Pacific. Erupted early during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), the wide distribution of the KOT enables inter-regional alignment of proxy records and facilitates comparison between NZ climatic varia...
Article
Understanding the evolutionary history and biogeography of the New Zealand alpine flora has been impeded by the lack of an integrated model of geomorphology and climate events during the Late Miocene, Pliocene and Pleistocene. A new geobiological model is presented that integrates rock uplift age, rate of uplift and the resulting summit elevations...
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Aim Despite small and transient populations, early Māori transformed large areas of New Zealand's forest landscapes. We sought to isolate the biophysical predictors that explain forest loss in the pre-historic (i.e. pre-European) period in New Zealand. Location New Zealand. Methods We used resampled boosted regression trees to isolate the key predi...