Mathieu Pernot

Mathieu Pernot
French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Inserm · Physics for Medicine

PhD

About

328
Publications
47,725
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8,132
Citations
Additional affiliations
October 2016 - February 2017
École Supérieure de Physique et de Chimie Industrielles
Position
  • Research Director

Publications

Publications (328)
Article
Full-text available
Background Non-invasive high-resolution imaging of the cerebral vascular anatomy and function is key for the study of intracranial aneurysms, stenosis, arteriovenous malformations, and stroke, but also neurological pathologies, such as degenerative diseases. Direct visualization of the microvascular networks in the whole brain remains however chall...
Article
Objectives The purpose of this study was to demonstrate 3-dimensional (3D) coronary ultrasound localization microscopy (CorULM) of the whole heart beyond the acoustic diffraction limit (<20 μm resolution) at ultrafast frame rate (>1000 images/s). Background Direct assessment of the coronary microcirculation has long been hampered by the limited sp...
Article
Mapping blood microflows of the whole brain is crucial for early diagnosis of cerebral diseases. Ultrasound localization microscopy (ULM) was recently applied to map and quantify blood microflows in 2D in the brain of adult patients down to the micron scale. Whole brain 3D clinical ULM remains challenging due to the transcranial energy loss which s...
Article
Objectifs L’évaluation actuelle des plaques carotidiennes d’athérosclérose instables reste actuellement difficile et de nouveaux marqueurs de risque sont requis afin d’orienter la décision chirurgicale. Des marqueurs d’analyse des tissus par élastographie pourraient permettre de mieux caractériser la composition de la plaque d’athérosclérose. L’ima...
Article
Full-text available
Ultrafast ultrasound imaging (UUI) provides an estimation of carotid plaque stiffness by shear wave elastography (SWE) and the quantification of wall shear stress (WSS) by ultrafast Doppler. We aimed to evaluate the combined criteria of plaque stiffness and WSS applied on the plaque as potential biomarkers of plaque vulnerability assessed by histol...
Article
Full-text available
Myocardial stiffness is an intrinsic property of the myocardium that influences both diastolic and systolic cardiac function. Myocardial stiffness represents the resistance of this tissue to being deformed and depends on intracellular components of the cardiomyocyte, particularly the cytoskeleton, and on extracellular components, such as collagen f...
Preprint
Technologies to visualize whole organs across scales in vivo are essential for our understanding of biology in health and disease. To date, only post-mortem techniques achieve cellular resolution across entire organs. 2D ultrasound localization microscopy (ULM) suffers from reprojection issues and out-of-plane motion preventing complex blood flow q...
Article
Shear wave elastography offers a new dimension to echocardiography: it measures myocardial stiffness. Therefore, it could provide additional insights into the pathophysiology of cardiac diseases affecting myocardial stiffness and potentially improve diagnosis or guide patient treatment. The technique detects fast mechanical waves on the heart wall...
Article
Purpose New biomarkers are needed to assess the vulnerability of carotid plaque to guide carotid surgery decision. Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging (UUI) provides an estimation of plaque stiffness by Shear Wave Elastography (SWE) and the quantification of wall shear stress (WSS) by ultrafast Doppler. We aimed at evaluating the plaque stiffness and WSS...
Preprint
Full-text available
Technologies to visualize whole organs across scales in vivo are essential for our understanding of biology in health and disease. To date, only post-mortem techniques such as perfused computed tomography scanning or optical microscopy of cleared tissues achieve cellular resolution across entire organs and imaging methods with equal performance in...
Article
Quantitative assessment of myocardial stiffness is crucial to understand and evaluate cardiac biomechanics and function. Despite the recent progresses of ultrasonic shear wave elastography, quantitative evaluation of myocardial stiffness still remains a challenge because of strong elastic anisotropy. In this paper we introduce a smart ultrasound ap...
Article
Row column addressing (RCA) transducers have the potential to provide volumetric imaging at ultrafast frame rate using a low channel count over a large field of view. In previous works we have shown that vascular imaging of large arteries as well as functional neuroimaging of the rat brain were feasible using RCA orthogonal plane wave imaging (OPW)...
Article
Introduction Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging (UUI) provides an estimation of carotid plaque stiffness by shear wave elastography (SWE) and the quantification of wall shear stress (WSS) by ultrafast Doppler. Objective We aimed to evaluate the combined criteria of plaque stiffness and WSS applied on the plaque as potential biomarkers of plaque vulnerab...
Article
Full-text available
Changes in cerebral blood flow are associated with stroke, aneurysms, vascular cognitive impairment, neurodegenerative diseases and other pathologies. Brain angiograms, typically performed via computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, are limited to millimetre-scale resolution and are insensitive to blood-flow dynamics. Here we show that u...
Article
Full-text available
Funding Acknowledgements Type of funding sources: Foundation. Main funding source(s): Bettencourt Foundation Background/Introduction We demonstrated recently that Ultrafast ultrasound Doppler imaging can image the intramyocardial coronary circulation in beating hearts of large animals and patients [1]. Yet, ultrasound spatial resolution remains lim...
Article
Full-text available
Funding Acknowledgements Type of funding sources: Public grant(s) – EU funding. Main funding source(s): ERC Introduction Myocardial stiffness (MS) is crucial to understand cardiac biomechanics and evaluate cardiac function. We recently demonstrated that shear wave imaging using acoustic radiation force can provide quantitative end-diastolic MS in...
Article
Doppler ultrasound is the premier modality to analyze blood flow dynamics in clinical practice. With conventional systems, Doppler can either provide a time-resolved quantification of the flow dynamics in sample volumes (spectral Doppler) or an average Doppler velocity/power [color flow imaging (CFI)] in a wide field of view (FOV) but with a limite...
Article
Background: Not all patients with severe aortic valve stenosis are eligible for open-heart surgery or TAVR. CARDIAWAVE (Paris, France) has developed Valvosoft, a unique non-invasive ultrasound therapy device to treat aortic stenosis. The therapy aims to improve the opening of severely calcified aortic valves by cracking the calcium and reducing the...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives We recently developed a unique transthoracic non-invasive ultrasound therapy device called Valvosoft to treat aortic stenosis. The therapy consists in delivering trans-thoracically precisely focused and controlled short ultrasound pulses (<20μsec) at a high acoustic intensity to produce non-thermal mechanical tissue softening of the calc...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Coronary artery disease affecting myocardial perfusion continues to be the leading cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality worldwide. While invasive evaluation based on coronary angiography and flow measurements still is considered the reference technique for assessing myocardial perfusion, technological evolutions in noninvasi...
Preprint
Full-text available
The objectives were to develop a novel three-dimensional technology for imaging naturally occurring shear wave (SW) propagation, demonstrate feasibility on human volunteers and quantify SW velocity in different propagation directions. Imaging of natural SWs generated by valve closures has emerged to obtain a direct measurement of cardiac stiffness....
Article
Full-text available
The objectives were to develop a novel three-dimensional technology for imaging naturally occurring shear wave (SW) propagation, demonstrate feasibility on human volunteers and quantify SW velocity in different propagation directions. Imaging of natural SWs generated by valve closures has emerged to obtain a direct measurement of cardiac stiffness....
Article
Aims Pulsed Cavitational Ultrasound Therapy (thombotripsy) allows the accurate fractionation of a distant thrombus. We aimed at evaluating the efficacy and safety of non‐invasive thrombotripsy using a robotic assisted and high frequency ultrasound approach to recanalize proximal deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in a swine model. Methods Occlusive thro...
Article
Calcific aortic stenosis (CAS) is associated with advanced age and comorbidities, therefore a non-invasive therapy would be beneficial. We previously demonstrated that ultrasound therapy (UT) improved calcified bioprosthetic valves function, in open chest model. For translational application, we tested Non-Invasive Ultrasound Therapy (NIUT) transth...
Article
Coronary flow rate remains complex to assess in clinical practice using non-invasive, non-ionizing imaging tools. In this study, we introduce 3-D Ultrafast Doppler Coronary Angiography (3-D UDCA), an ultrasound-based method to assess coronary blood flows in three-dimensions at high volume-rate and in one single heartbeat. We demonstrate that 3-D UD...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The degree of stenosis of a carotid plaque is a well-established risk factor for ischemic stroke. Nevertheless, the risk of ipsilateral stroke in asymptomatic carotid stenosis remains low and new imaging markers are needed to better target which patients would benefit most from endarterectomy or intensive medical therapy. Ultrafast ultr...
Article
Purpose To develop specific aortic sequences in ultrafast ultrasound imaging (UF) to provide access to the aortic MRSD. Methods We used a phased array probe (Supersonic Imagine©) and dedicated sequences at 2000 frames/s developed in the laboratory. Data were analyzed with a created interface (Fig. 1) to automatically track the anterior and posteri...
Article
Background Post thrombotic syndrome is a frequent complication of deep venous thrombosis, associated with high morbidity. Treatments currently available are invasive. Pulsed cavitational ultrasound therapy (PCUT) is a new technique to destroy remotely soft tissue. We demonstrated that PCUT was able to recanalize non-invasively in in-vitro model of...
Article
Funding Acknowledgements European Research Council under the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP/2007-2013) / ERC Grant Agreement n° 311025 and the ANR-10-IDEX-00 Background 4D echocardiography has the strong potential to improve cardiac index quantification by providing reproducible and user independent measurements. Quantification of...
Article
Objective Carotid plaque vulnerability assessment could guide the decision to perform endarterectomy. Ultrafast ultrasound imaging (UF) can evaluate local flow velocities over an entire 2D image, allowing measurement of the wall shear stress (WSS). We aimed at evaluating the feasibility of WSS measurement in a prospective series of patients with ca...
Article
Functional ultrasound imaging (fUS) recently emerged as a promising neuroimaging modality to image and monitor brain activity based on cerebral blood volume response (CBV) and neurovascular coupling. fUS offers very good spatial and temporal resolutions compared to fMRI gold standard as well as simplicity and portability. It was recently extended t...
Article
Ultrasound techniques currently used in echocardiography are limited by conventional frame rates. Ultrafast ultrasound imaging is able to capture images at frame rates up to 100 times faster compared with conventional imaging. Specific applications of this technology have been developed and tested for clinical use in pediatric and adult cardiac ima...
Conference Paper
Multi-plane-transmit (MPT) is a matrix array based 3D beamforming methodology, which combines the features of diverging wave compounding (DWC) and multi-line-transmit (MLT). The MPT beams are diverging in one lateral dimension, while focused in the other lateral dimension, leading to a plane-wise reconstruction process. As a result, compounding is...
Article
Full-text available
We extended the capabilities of functional ultrasound to whole-brain four-dimensional (4D) neuroimaging. Our multiplane-wave transmission scheme on matrix arrays at thousands of frames per second provides volumetric recordings of cerebral blood volume changes at high spatiotemporal resolution. We illustrated the approach in rats while providing mul...
Article
Background Carotid plaque vulnerability assessment is an important factor in guiding the decision to treat significant carotid stenosis. Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging (UF) offers the possibility of evaluating local flow velocities over an entire 2D image, allowing access to velocity measurements in contact with the arterial wall and to measure the w...
Article
Full-text available
Background Post thrombotic syndrome is a frequent complication of deep venous thrombosis and is associated with high morbidity and hospitalization. Treatments currently available are invasive, involve use of endovenous procedures with stents and balloons, and frequently require general anesthesia. Pulsed cavitational ultrasound therapy (PCUT) emerg...
Article
Background Aortic valve stenosis is associated with age and comorbidities, which require exploring less invasive therapeutic approach to improve patient outcome. We previously demonstrated in vitro and in vivo that pulsed cavitational ultrasound therapy (PCUT) can improve calcified bioprosthesis stenosis by softening leaflets remotely. To apply thi...
Article
Background Magnetic resonance imaging allows evaluation of aortic stiffness by the maximum rate of systolic distension (MRSD) a new prognosis factor of aortic dilatation in patients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV). MRSD requires a continuous monitoring of the aortic diameter during the cardiac cycle, not accessible to conventional echocardiography...
Article
Full-text available
Aims: To compare the carotid stiffness and flow parameters by ultrafast ultrasound imaging (UF), in bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) patients to first-degree relatives (controls). Methods: BAV patients (n = 92) and controls (n = 48) were consecutively included at a reference center for BAV. Aortic valve and ascending aorta were evaluated by echocardi...
Article
Full-text available
Ultrasound localization microscopy can map blood vessels with a resolution much smaller than the wavelength by localizing microbubbles. The current implementations of the technique are limited to 2-D planes or small fields of view in 3-D. These suffer from minute-long acquisitions, out-of-plane microbubbles, and tissue motion. In this paper, we exp...
Article
Introduction Carotid plaque vulnerability assessment is an important factor in guiding the decision to perform carotid endarterectomy in case of asymptomatic stenosis. Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging (UUI) offers the possibility of evaluating local flow velocities over an entire 2D image, allowing access to measure the wall shear stress (WSS). Our obj...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose of the Review Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is associated with a significant risk of development of aneurysm and dissection of the ascending thoracic aorta. Development of what is called BAV associated aortopathy is particularly heterogeneous with an uncertain prognosis and with no prognostic biomarkers except for the aortic diameter. This si...
Article
Objectives The goal of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of semi-automatic evaluation of cardiac Doppler indices in a single heartbeat on human hearts by performing 4D ultrafast echocardiography with a dedicated sequence of 4D simultaneous tissue and blood flow Doppler imaging. Background 4D echocardiography has the potential to improv...
Article
Shear wave elastography and ultrafast imaging of the carotid artery pulse wave were performed in 27 normotensive participants and 29 age- and sex-matched patients with essential hypertension, and compared with reference techniques: carotid–femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) determined via arterial tonometry and carotid stiffness (carPWV) determine...
Article
Full-text available
Objectif La bicuspidie aortique valvulaire (BAV) est associée à une atteinte aortique spécifique. Malgré une origine embryologique commune des carotides et de l’aorte ascendante, l’atteinte carotidienne associée à la BAV demeure controversée. Notre objectif était d’évaluer les paramètres de rigidité carotidienne par imagerie ultrasonore ultra-rapid...
Article
Contexte, motivation et objectifs L’évaluation de la vulnérabilité de la plaque carotidienne est un facteur important pour guider l’indication d’une endartériectomie carotidienne en cas de sténose asymptomatique. L’Ultrarast Ultrasound Imaging (UUI) offre la possibilité d’évaluer les vitesses de flux sur une image 2D, permettant l’accès aux mesures...
Article
Ultrafast acoustoelectric imaging (UAI) is a novel method for the mapping of biological current densities, which may improve the diagnosis and monitoring of cardiac activation diseases such as arrhythmias. This paper evaluates the feasibility of performing UAI in beating rat hearts. A previously described system based on a 256-channel ultrasound re...
Article
Objective Ultrafast ultrasonic imaging (UF) offers the possibility of evaluating local flow velocities over an entire 2D image, allowing access to velocity measurements in contact with the arterial wall and to measure the wall shear stress (WSS). Our objective was to evaluate the feasibility of WSS measurement in a prospective series of patients wi...
Article
Purpose Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is associated with a well-known aortic impairment. Despite a common embryological origin of the carotids and ascending aorta, carotid involvement associated to BAV remains controversial. We aimed at evaluating carotid stiffness by ultrafast ultrasound imaging (UF) in a prospective series of BAV patients. Methods...
Article
Objectives Histotripsy has been shown promising for non-invasive treatment of deep venous thrombosis. Important challenges remain, however, to perform a safe and accurate treatment in human patients. The objective of this work was to evaluate 1) the feasibility of this approach assisted by a robot to recanalize effectively a venous thrombosis in vi...
Article
Objective: Pulsed cavitation ultrasound therapy (PCUT) is an effective non-invasive therapeutic approach in various medical indications that relies on the mechanical effects generated by cavitation bubbles. Even though limited by the poor contrast, conventional ultrasound B-Mode imaging has been widely used for the guidance and monitoring of the th...
Article
Full-text available
Patient mortality at one year reaches 90% after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and resuscitation. Temperature management is one of the main strategies proposed to improve patient outcome after resuscitation and preclinical studies have shown neuroprotective effects when hypothermia is achieved rapidly, although the underlying mechanisms have not ye...
Article
4D Ultrafast ultrasound imaging was recently proposed to image and quantify blood flow with high sensitivity in 3D (Provost et al., 2014) as well as anatomical, mechanical or functional information. In 4D Ultrafast imaging, coherent compounding of tilted planes waves emitted by a 2-D matrix array are used to image the medium at high volume rate. 4D...
Article
Objective Vascular Ehlers–Danlos syndrome (vEDS) is associated with arterial ruptures due to a mutant gene encoding collagen type III (Col-III). To better understand the role of Col-III, we aimed at evaluating aortic stiffness and dynamic stiffening in vEDS mouse models, with either a quantitative (col3KO mice) or a qualitative Col-III defect (col3...
Article
The heart’s supply in oxygen and nutrients relies on the coronary vasculature, which branches from millimeter-sized arteries down to micron-sized capillaries. To date, imaging technologies can only detect large epicardial coronary vessels whereas the intramural coronary vasculature remains invisible due to cardiac motion. We recently introduced Cor...
Article
Described here is a study of transesophageal thermal ablation of isolated and perfused beating hearts and non-human primates. An endoscope integrating a transesophageal echocardiography probe and a high-intensity focused ultrasound transducer was built and tested on five Langendorff-isolated hearts and three 30-kg baboons. B-Mode ultrasound, passiv...
Article
Ultrasound shock wave therapy is increasingly used for non-invasive surgery. It requires the focusing of very high pressure amplitude in precisely controlled focal spots. In transcostal therapy of the heart or the liver the high impedance mismatch between the bones and surrounding tissues gives rise to strong aberrations and attenuation of the ther...
Article
Aims To compare the stiffness index in patients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) with first-degree relatives at each segment of the thoracic ascending aorta and to compare segmental analysis of aortic stiffness in association with BAV morphotype and function. Methods 219 patients with BAV and 148 first-degree relatives (without BAV) were consecuti...