Mathew V Kiang

Mathew V Kiang
Stanford University | SU · Center for Population Health Sciences

ScD

About

81
Publications
18,807
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2,498
Citations
Citations since 2016
59 Research Items
2366 Citations
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Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (81)
Article
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BACKGROUND Quantifying the effect of natural disasters on society is critical for recovery of public health services and infrastructure. The death toll can be difficult to assess in the aftermath of a major disaster. In September 2017, Hurricane Maria caused massive infrastructural damage to Puerto Rico, but its effect on mortality remains contenti...
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Background: Recent research on the US opioid epidemic has focused on the white or total population and has largely been limited to data after 1999. However, understanding racial differences in long-term trends by opioid type may contribute to improving interventions. Methods: Using multiple cause of death data, we calculated age-standardized opi...
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Summary Points • During the past year, the United States has experienced major controversies—and civil unrest—regarding the endemic problem of police violence and police deaths. • Although deaths of police officers are well documented, no reliable official US data exist on the number of persons killed by the police, in part because of long-standing...
Article
Scant research has analyzed the health impact of abolition of Jim Crow (ie, legal racial discrimination overturned by the US 1964 Civil Rights Act). We used hierarchical age-period-cohort models to analyze US national black and white premature mortality rates (death before 65 years of age) in 1960-2009. Within a context of declining US black and wh...
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Debates exist over whether health inequities are bound to rise as population health improves, due to health improving more quickly among the better off, with most analyses focused on mortality data. We analysed 50 years of socioeconomic inequities in measured health status among US-born Black and White Americans, using data from the National Health...
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As research documenting disparate impacts of COVID-19 by race and ethnicity grows, little attention has been given to dynamics in mortality disparities during the pandemic and whether changes in disparities persist. We estimate age-standardized monthly all-cause mortality in the United States from January 2018 through February 2022 for seven racial...
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Background During the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic, workers in essential sectors had higher rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 mortality than those in non-essential sectors. It is unknown whether disparities in pandemic-related mortality across occupational sectors have continued to occur during the periods of SARS-CoV-2 variants and...
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Official COVID-19 mortality statistics are strongly influenced by local diagnostic capacity, strength of the healthcare and vital registration systems, and death certification criteria and capacity, often resulting in significant undercounting of COVID-19 attributable deaths. Excess mortality, which is defined as the increase in observed death coun...
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Background Precipitated by an unusual winter storm, the 2021 Texas Power Crisis lasted February 10 to 27 leaving millions of customers without power. Such large-scale outages can have severe health consequences, especially among vulnerable subpopulations such as those reliant on electricity to power medical equipment, but limited studies have evalu...
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Background The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is co-occurring with a drug addiction and overdose crisis. Methods We fit overdispersed Poisson models, accounting for seasonality and secular trends, to estimate the excess fatal drug overdoses (i.e., deaths greater than expected), using data on all deaths in California from 2016 to 2020...
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Excess mortality has exceeded reported deaths from Covid-19 during the pandemic. This gap may be attributable to deaths that occurred among individuals with undiagnosed Covid-19 infections or indirect consequences of the pandemic response such as interruptions in medical care; distinguishing these possibilities has implications for public health re...
Preprint
Introduction A small body of epidemiological research suggests that working in an essential sector is a risk factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection or subsequent disease or mortality. However, there is limited evidence to date on the US, or on how the risks associated with essential work differ across demographic subgroups defined by age, sex, and race/et...
Preprint
Background During the first year of the pandemic, essential workers faced higher rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 mortality than non-essential workers. It is unknown whether disparities in pandemic-related mortality across occupational sectors have continued to occur, amidst SARS-CoV-2 variants and vaccine availability. Methods We obtain...
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Identifying sources and sinks of malaria transmission is critical for designing effective intervention strategies particularly as countries approach elimination. The number of malaria cases in Thailand decreased 90% between 2012 and 2020, yet elimination has remained a major public health challenge with persistent transmission foci and ongoing impo...
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The possibility of a massive oil spill in the Red Sea is increasingly likely. The Safer, a deteriorating oil tanker containing 1.1 million barrels of oil, has been deserted near the coast of Yemen since 2015 and threatens environmental catastrophe to a country presently in a humanitarian crisis. Here, we model the immediate public health impacts of...
Article
In 2019, there were nearly 50,000 opioid-related deaths in the US, with substantial variation across sociodemographic groups and geography. To systematically investigate patterns of racial/ethnic inequities in opioid-related mortality, we used joinpoint regression models to estimate the trajectory of the opioid epidemic among non-Hispanic Black ver...
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COVID-19 mortality increases dramatically with age and is also substantially higher among Black, Indigenous, and People of Color (BIPOC) populations in the United States. These two facts can have conflicting implications because BIPOC populations are younger than white populations. In analyses of California and Minnesota--demographically divergent...
Article
Building integrated translational pipelines that use data rapidly and effectively to address health effects of natural disasters will require substantial investment, which must rely on evidence of which approaches improve outcomes. But promising solutions are available.
Article
Background Effective, evidence-based treatments for opioid use disorder are not equally accessible to Americans. Recent studies have found urban/rural disparities in the driving times to the nearest opioid treatment providers. These disparities may be even worse than currently reported in the literature because patients may not be able to obtain ap...
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The ubiquity of smartphones, with their increasingly sophisticated array of sensors, presents an unprecedented opportunity for researchers to collect longitudinal, diverse, temporally-dense data about human behavior while minimizing participant burden. Researchers increasingly make use of smartphones for “digital phenotyping,” the collection and an...
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University administrators and mental health clinicians have raised concerns about depression and anxiety among Ph.D. students, yet no study has systematically synthesized the available evidence in this area. After searching the literature for studies reporting on depression, anxiety, and/or suicidal ideation among Ph.D. students, we included 32 art...
Article
The horrific nature of George Floyd's killing by a Minneapolis Police Department officer on May 25, 2020 sparked an enduring stretch of nationwide protests against police brutality and in support of the Black Lives Matter movement. During periods of crisis, anchor institutions may exert leadership by issuing public statements to communicate shared...
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Background: As the global climate changes in response to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, weather and temperature are expected to become increasingly variable. Although heat sensitivity is a recognized clinical feature of multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system, few studies have examined the i...
Preprint
Full-text available
The possibility of a massive oil spill in the Red Sea is increasingly likely. The Safer, a deteriorating oil tanker containing 1.1 million barrels of oil, has been deserted near the coast of Yemen since 2015, and threatens environmental catastrophe to a country presently in a humanitarian crisis. Here, we model the immediate public health impacts o...
Article
Objective COVID-19 disproportionately affects racial/ethnic minority groups in the United States. We evaluated characteristics associated with obtaining a COVID-19 test from the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) and receiving a positive test result for COVID-19. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of 6 292 800 veterans in VHA c...
Preprint
Full-text available
COVID-19 mortality increases dramatically with age and is also substantially higher among Black, Indigenous, and People of Color (BIPOC) populations in the United States. These two facts introduce tradeoffs because BIPOC populations are younger than white populations. In analyses of California and Minnesota--demographically divergent states--we sho...
Article
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For most pathogens, transmission is driven by interactions between the behaviours of infectious individuals, the behaviours of the wider population, the local environment, and immunity. Phylogeographic approaches are currently unable to disentangle the relative effects of these competing factors. We develop a spatiotemporally structured phylogeneti...
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Importance State cannabis laws are changing rapidly. Research is inconclusive about their association with rates of self-harm and assault. Existing studies have not considered variations in cannabis commercialization across states over time. Objective To evaluate the association of state medical and recreational cannabis laws with self-harm and as...
Article
Background Routine viral testing strategies for SARS-CoV-2 infection might facilitate safe airline travel during the COVID-19 pandemic and mitigate global spread of the virus. However, the effectiveness of these test-and-travel strategies to reduce passenger risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and population-level transmission remains unknown. Methods In...
Preprint
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Properties of city-level commuting networks are expected to influence epidemic potential of cities and modify the speed and spatial trajectory of epidemics when they occur. In this study, we use aggregated mobile phone user data to reconstruct commuter mobility networks for Bangkok (Thailand) and Dhaka (Bangladesh), two megacities in Asia with popu...
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Background: Duration and number of power outages have increased over time, partly fueled by climate change, putting users of electricity-dependent durable medical equipment (hereafter, "durable medical equipment") at particular risk of adverse health outcomes. Given health disparities in the United States, we assessed trends in durable medical equ...
Article
Full-text available
Properties of city-level commuting networks are expected to influence epidemic potential of cities and modify the speed and spatial trajectory of epidemics when they occur. In this study, we use aggregated mobile phone user data to reconstruct commuter mobility networks for Bangkok (Thailand) and Dhaka (Bangladesh), two megacities in Asia with popu...
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Background The U.S. has experienced an unprecedented number of orders to shelter in place throughout the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. We aimed to ascertain whether social distancing; difficulty with daily activities; and levels of concern regarding COVID-19 changed after the March 16, 2020 announcement of the nation’s first shelter-in-place orders (S...
Article
Full-text available
Over 390 million people worldwide are infected with dengue fever each year. In the absence of an effective vaccine for general use, national control programs must rely on hospital readiness and targeted vector control to prepare for epidemics, so accurate forecasting remains an important goal. Many dengue forecasting approaches have used environmen...
Preprint
Full-text available
The ubiquity of smartphones, with their increasingly sophisticated array of sensors, presents an unprecedented opportunity for researchers to collect diverse, temporally-dense data about human behavior while minimizing participant burden. Researchers increasingly make use of smartphone applications for "digital phenotyping," the collection of phone...
Article
Background Millions of opioid and benzodiazepine prescriptions are dispensed near end-of-life. After death, patients’ unused prescription pills belong to family members, who often save rather than dispose of them. We sought to quantify this exposure in Medicare beneficiaries. Methods We estimated the share of decedent Medicare beneficiaries who po...
Preprint
Full-text available
For most pathogens, transmission is driven by interactions between the behaviours of infectious individuals, the behaviours of the wider population, the local environment, and immunity. Phylogeographic approaches are currently unable to disentangle the relative effects of these competing factors. We develop a spatiotemporally structured phylogeneti...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Airline travel has been significantly reduced during the COVID-19 pandemic due to concern for individual risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and population-level transmission risk from importation. Routine viral testing strategies for COVID-19 may facilitate safe airline travel through reduction of individual and/or population-level risk, altho...
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Purpose of Review Power outages, a common and underappreciated consequence of natural disasters, are increasing in number and severity due to climate change and aging electricity grids. This narrative review synthesizes the literature on power outages and health in communities. Recent Findings We searched Google Scholar and PubMed for English lang...
Article
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As of mid-August 2020, more than 170 000 U.S. residents have died of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); however, the true number of deaths resulting from COVID-19, both directly and indirectly, is likely to be much higher. The proper attribution of deaths to this pandemic has a range of societal, legal, mortuary, and public health consequences. T...
Article
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A surge of interest has been noted in the use of mobility data from mobile phones to monitor physical distancing and model the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, the virus that causes COVID-19. Despite several years of research in this area, standard frameworks for aggregating and making use of different data streams from mo...
Article
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Objectives To illustrate the intersections of, and intercounty variation in, individual, household and community factors that influence the impact of COVID-19 on US counties and their ability to respond. Design We identified key individual, household and community characteristics influencing COVID-19 risks of infection and survival, guided by inte...
Preprint
Full-text available
Over 390 million people worldwide are infected with dengue fever each year. In the absence of an effective vaccine for general use, national control programs must rely on hospital readiness and targeted vector control to prepare for epidemics, so accurate forecasting remains an important goal. Many dengue forecasting approaches have used environmen...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: The U.S. has experienced an unprecedented number of shelter-in-place orders throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. There is limited empirical research that examines the impact of these orders. We aimed to rapidly ascertain whether social distancing; difficulty with daily activities (obtaining food, essential medications and childcare); and l...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: The horrific nature of George Floyd's killing by a Minneapolis Police Department officer on May 25, 2020 has sparked more than a month of nationwide protests against police brutality and in support of the Black Lives Matter movement. At critical junctures of the nation's public health such as these, academic medical institutions may exe...
Preprint
Full-text available
There has been a recent surge of interest in using mobility data from mobile phones to monitor social distancing and model the spread of SARS-COV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. Despite several years of research in this area, standard frameworks for aggregating and making use of different data streams from mobile phones are lacking and difficult...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background The spread of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) across the United States confirms that not all Americans are equally at risk of infection, severe disease, or mortality. A range of intersecting biological, demographic, and socioeconomic factors are likely to determine an individual’s susceptibility to COVID-19. These factors vary signif...
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Objective To examine the distribution and patterns of opioid prescribing in the United States. Design Retrospective, observational study. Setting National private insurer covering all 50 US states and Washington DC. Participants An annual average of 669 495 providers prescribing 8.9 million opioid prescriptions to 3.9 million patients from 2003...
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Alexander Tsai and co-authors discuss the role of stigma in responses to the US opioid crisis.
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Objective Decompose the US black/white inequality in premature mortality into shared and group-specific risks to better inform health policy. Setting All 50 US states and the District of Columbia, 2010 to 2015. Participants A total of 2.85 million non-Hispanic white and 762 639 non-Hispanic black US-resident decedents. Primary and secondary outc...
Article
Matching methods are assumed to reduce the likelihood of a biased inference compared with ordinary least squares (OLS) regression. Using simulations, we compared inferences from propensity score matching, coarsened exact matching, and unmatched covariate-adjusted OLS regression to identify which methods, in which scenarios, produced unbiased infere...
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Importance: As the opioid epidemic evolves, it is vital to identify changes in the geographical distribution of opioid-related deaths, and the specific opioids to which those deaths are attributed, to ensure that federal and state public health interventions remain appropriately targeted. Objective: To identify changes in the geographical distri...
Article
Background Military service is associated with smoking initiation, but U.S. veterans are also eligible for special social, financial, and healthcare benefits, which are associated with smoking cessation. A key public health question is how these offsetting pathways affect health disparities; we assessed the net effects of military service on later...
Preprint
The opioid-related mortality rate in the United States more than tripled between 2000 and 2015. However, there were stark differences in the trend for the non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white populations. In this paper we assess differences in opioid deaths by race. We analyze patterns and trends in multiple cause-of-death data to gain a bette...
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Background A longstanding barrier to progress in psychiatry, both in clinical settings and research trials, has been the persistent difficulty of accurately and reliably quantifying disease phenotypes. Mobile phone technology combined with data science has the potential to offer medicine a wealth of additional information on disease phenotypes, but...
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Introduction: Little current research examines associations between infant mortality and US states' funding for family planning services and for abortion, despite growing efforts to restrict reproductive rights and services and documented associations between unintended pregnancy and infant mortality. Material and methods: We obtained publicly a...
Article
Background: Previous research suggests that surgical safety checklists (SSCs) are associated with reductions in postoperative morbidity and mortality as well as improvement in teamwork and communication. These findings stem from evaluations of individual or small groups of hospitals. Studies with more hospitals have assessed the relationship of ch...