Massimo Turina

Massimo Turina
Italian National Research Council | CNR · Institute for Sustainable Plant Protection

Bachelor in Agricultural Science, Master in Plant Pathology, PhD in Plant Virology

About

235
Publications
27,861
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3,085
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Additional affiliations
October 2014 - May 2016
Italian National Research Council
Position
  • Senior Researcher

Publications

Publications (235)
Article
The most economically important biotic stresses in crop production are caused by fungi, oomycetes, insects, viruses, and bacteria. Often chemical control is still the most commonly used method to manage them. However, the development of resistance in the different pathogens/pests, the putative damage on the natural ecosystem, and the toxic residues...
Preprint
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Earth’s life may have originated as self-replicating RNA. Some of the simplest current RNA replicators are RNA viruses, defined by linear RNA genomes encoding an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP), and subviral agents with single-stranded, circular RNA genomes, such as viroids encoding paired self-cleaving ribozymes. Amongst a massive expansion of...
Article
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High throughput sequencing allowed the discovery of many new viruses and viral organizations increasing our comprehension of virus origin and evolution. Most RNA viruses are currently characterized through similarity searches of annotated virus databases. This approach limits the possibility to detect completely new virus-encoded proteins with no d...
Article
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Phytoplasmas are insect-borne pathogenic bacteria that cause major economic losses to several crops worldwide. The dynamic microbial community associated with insect vectors influences several aspects of their biology, including their vector competence for pathogens. Unraveling the diversity of the microbiome of phytoplasma insect vectors is gainin...
Article
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Wine yeasts can be natural hosts for dsRNA, ssRNA viruses and retrotransposon elements. In this study, high-throughput RNA sequencing combined with bioinformatic analyses unveiled the virome associated to 16 Saccharomyces cerevisiae and 8 non-Saccharomyces strains of oenological interest. Results showed the presence of six viruses and two satellite...
Article
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Bacterial kiwifruit vine disease (Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae, Psa) and halo blight of bean (P. syringae pv. phaseolicola, Pph) are routinely treated with copper, leading to environmental pollution and bacterial copper resistance. An alternative sustainable control method could be based on bacteriophages, as phage biocontrol offers high spe...
Article
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Microbial multi-level interactions are essential to control the success of spreading and survival of most microbes in natural environments. Phytopathogenic mycotoxigenic fungal species, such as Aspergillus flavus, represent an important issue in food safety. Usually, non-toxigenic strains are exploited for biocontrol strategies to mitigate infectio...
Article
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Frankliniella occidentalis (western flower thrips=WFT) and Thrips tabaci (onion thrips=OT) are insect species that greatly impact horticultural crops through direct damage and their efficient vectoring of tomato spotted wilt virus and iris yellow spot virus. In this study we collected thrips of these species from 12 field populations in various reg...
Article
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Mutualistic plant-associated fungi are recognized as important drivers in plant evolution, diversity and health. The discovery that mycoviruses can take part and play important roles in symbiotic tripartite interactions has prompted us to study the viromes associated with a collection of ericoid and orchid mycorrhizal (ERM and ORM, respectively) fu...
Article
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The obligatory biotrophic oomycetes Plasmopara viticola is the causal agent of downy mildew, a destructive disease of grapevine worldwide. So far, chemical fungicides are widely employed to limit this pathogen, but their adverse effects are stimulating the quest for environmentally friendly alternative approaches. Here we report on the search for m...
Article
In this study, we determined the complete genome sequence of a new blunervirus isolated from tomato plants grown in an open field in Italy in the fall of 2018. Like other blunerviruses, the RNA genome of this virus is quadripartite, positive-sense, and single-stranded. Excluding the polyA tail present in each segment, the RNAs 1 and 2 are 5790 nucl...
Article
Camellia japonica plants manifesting a complex and variable spectrum of viral symptoms like chlorotic ringspots, necrotic rings, yellowing with necrotic rings, yellow mottle, leaves and petals deformations, and flower color-breaking have been studied since 1940, mainly by electron microscopic analyses; however, a strong correlation between the symp...
Article
Full-text available
The family Botourmiaviridae includes viruses infecting plants and filamentous fungi containing a positive-sense, ssRNA genome that can be mono- or multi-segmented. Genera in the family include: Ourmiavirus (plant viruses), and Botoulivirus, Magoulivirus and Scleroulivirus (fungal viruses). This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonom...
Article
This study combined phytosanitary surveys, laboratory analyses and mathematical modelling to show how hail-induced wounds can foster the infections of the blight pathogen Cryphonectria parasitica, locally associated with extensive dieback of chestnut (Castanea sativa). Orchards and coppices located within and outside the assessed dieback area in a...
Article
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RNA interference (RNAi) is a key regulatory pathway of gene expression in almost all eukaryotes. This mechanism relies on short non-coding RNA molecules (sRNAs) to recognize in a sequence-specific manner DNA or RNA targets leading to transcriptional or post-transcriptional gene silencing. To date, the fundamental role of sRNAs in the regulation of...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we analysed a total of 16 libraries from over 150 grapevine leaf and grape samples infected with Plasmopara viticola (downy mildew of grapevine) to characterize the virome associated to this oomycete. Samples were collected in five distinct regions in Italy and in four different regions in Spain, representative of different pedoclima...
Preprint
Camellia japonica plants manifesting a complex and variable spectrum of viral symptoms like chlorotic ringspots, necrotic rings, yellowing with necrotic rings, yellow mottle, leaves and petals deformations, flower color-breaking were studied since 1940 essentially through electron microscopic analyses; however, a strong correlation between symptoms...
Article
Full-text available
Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is one of the major vegetable crops in Jordan. During the winter growing seasons of 2015 and 2016, virus symptoms including stunting of young plants, puckering, and yellow mottling of leaves in sweet pepper plants grown under plastic houses in Jordan Valley were observed. The most obvious symptoms were the misshapen frui...
Preprint
Full-text available
Plants have a highly sophisticated endomembrane system that is targeted by plant viruses for cell-to-cell movement. The movement protein (MP) of Ourmia melon virus (OuMV) is targeted to plasmodesmata (PD) and forms tubules to facilitate cell-to-cell movement. Despite a number of functionally important regions for correct subcellular localization of...
Article
Holothuria polii is a marine animal with an important ecological and economic impact. In the present study we analysed the presence of mycoviruses associated to fungi that were isolated from different H. polii tissues. Among the 48 fungal isolates analysed we identified 10 viruses in 8 strains belonging to 7 fungal species. Five out of nine viruses...
Article
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Zoysia japonica, in Brazil, is commonly infected by Rhizoctonia solani (R. solani) in humid and cool weather conditions. Eight isolates of R. solani, previously identified as belonging to the AG2-2 LP anastomosis group, isolated from samples from large path symptoms, were collected from three counties in São Paulo state (Brazil) and investigated fo...
Article
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In February 2019, following the annual taxon ratification vote, the order Bunyavirales was amended by creation of two new families, four new subfamilies, 11 new genera and 77 new species, merging of two species, and deletion of one species. This article presents the updated taxonomy of the order Bunyavirales now accepted by the International Commit...
Article
Europe is the world largest grape producer, but in recent years, the report of diseases due to infection by grapevine trunk pathogens (GTPs) is becoming one of the main constraints for viticulture. Among grapevine trunk diseases (GTDs), esca syndrome is one of the most complex, characterized by simultaneous infection of several fungi, which lead to...
Article
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Background Small RNAs (sRNAs) are short non-coding RNA molecules (20–30 nt) that regulate gene expression at transcriptional or post-transcriptional levels in many eukaryotic organisms, through a mechanism known as RNA interference (RNAi). Recent studies have highlighted that they are also involved in cross-kingdom communication: sRNAs can move acr...
Article
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In October 2018, the order Bunyavirales was amended by inclusion of the family Arenaviridae, abolishment of three families, creation of three new families, 19 new genera, and 14 new species, and renaming of three genera and 22 species. This article presents the updated taxonomy of the order Bunyavirales as now accepted by the International Committe...
Article
This paper reports the first biological characterization of a bona fide plant mitovirus in an important crop, Chenopodium quinoa , providing data supporting that mitoviruses have the typical features of cryptic (persistent) plant viruses. We, for the first time, demonstrate that plant mitoviruses are associated with mitochondria in plants. In contr...
Chapter
Most of the molecular diagnostic protocols used for phytoplasmas detection are based on the purification of total nucleic acids and on the use of genomic DNA of the pathogen as the target of amplification. Here we describe a diagnostic approach that, avoiding the purification of nucleic acids and exploiting the amplification of the abundant phytopl...
Article
To date, no demonstration of a direct correlation between the presence of mycoviruses and the quantitative or qualitative modulation of mycotoxins has been shown. In our study, we transfected a virus‐free ochratoxin A (OTA)‐producing isolate of Aspergillus ochraceus with purified mycoviruses from a different A. ochraceus isolate and from Penicilliu...
Article
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Identification of Thysanoptera is based mainly on external morphology examination that can be time-consuming and difficult for non taxonomic experts. In this work, we propose a rapid and efficient molecular method to identify Frankliniella schultzei, an important and widespread pest thrips vector of tospoviruses in South America countries. Species-...
Chapter
Here we describe the protocols to characterize the virome associated to fungi isolated from marine organisms assessed on the seagrass Posidonia oceanica and on the marine animal Holothuria poli. We provide detailed protocols for fungal isolation, fungal growth, and total RNA extraction. Ribosomal RNA depletion, cDNA library synthesis and normalizat...
Article
Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) are key components of the plant microbiota. AMF genetic complexity is increased by the presence of endobacteria, which live inside many species. A further component of such complexity is the virome associated to AMF, whose knowledge is still very limited. Here, by exploiting transcriptomic data we describe the vir...
Article
Tomato apex necrosis virus (species Tomato marchitez virus, genus Torradovirus, family Secoviridae) causes a severe tomato disease in Mexico. One distinctive feature of torradoviruses compared to other members of the family Secoviridae is the presence of an additional open reading frame (ORF) in genomic RNA2 (denominated RNA2-ORF1), located upstrea...
Article
We attempted to transfect six recently characterized virus species to protoplasts of Penicillium janczewskii and Chryphonectria parasitica. None of the recovered P. janczewskii colonies was positive for the transfected viruses, but Penicillium aurantiogriseum partiti-like virus 1 (PaPLV1) was detected in three distinct regenerated C. parasitica col...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
As very ancient and widespread in nature, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are key com-ponents of the plant microbiota. Recent publication of genomic and transcriptomic data shed light on the biology and evolution of AMF. The genetic complexity of AMF is increased by the presence of endobacteria which live inside many AMF1. A further component of...
Article
Full-text available
So far there is no record of a specific virus able to infect both fungal and plant hosts in nature. However, experimental evidence shows that some plant virus RdRPs are able to perform replication in trans of genomic or DI RNAs in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Furthermore, tobacco mosaic virus was recently shown to replicate in a filamentous...
Article
Full-text available
The complete genome sequence of melon severe mosaic virus (MSMV), genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae, was determined. The small segment is 3283 nucleotide (nt) long and contains two open reading frames in an ambisense organization. The medium segment is 4873 nt long and also encodes two proteins in an ambisense organization. The large segment is...
Article
Full-text available
The leafhopper Euscelidius variegatus is a natural vector of chrysanthemum yellows phytoplasma (CY) and an efficient vector of flavescence dorée phytoplasma (FD) under laboratory conditions. During a transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) project aimed at investigating the interactions between the insect and the two phytoplasmas, a 10,616-nucleotide-lo...
Article
Full-text available
Members of the plant virus genus Ourmiavirus are characterized by having non-enveloped bacilliform virions with a series of discrete lengths from 30 to 62 nm composed of a single coat protein (CP). The genome consists of three positive-sense single-stranded RNAs, each encoding a single protein. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) has closest si...
Article
Full-text available
Author Summary To better understand the specific effect of p19 viral suppressor of RNA silencing (VSR) on antiviral silencing and endogenous small RNA pathways, we generated a N. benthamiana plant (p19syn) capable of sustaining the ectopic expression of the Cymbidium ringspot virus (CymRSV) p19 upon infection with a suppressor-deficient CymRSV (Cym...
Data
Comparison of p19syn plants’ phenotype with CymRSV- or Cym19stop-infected viral symptoms and virus distribution in wt or p19syn plants. (A) Characteristic phenotype of p19syn (1–57 line)(blue arrow) and virus-induced sytemic symptoms on wt or p19syn plants (red arrow) are shown. Pictures were taken at 10 dpi. (B) In situ hybridization of Cym19stop-...
Data
p19’s miRNA binding and its consequences on downstream targets in the absence and presence of the virus. (A) Abundance of p19-bound miRNAs (listed on the left) in mock- or Cym19stop-infected p19syn plants and in CymRSV-infected wild type plants. The normalized total reads are shown on a log10 scale, values under threshold (ut). Heatmap legend is sh...
Data
Distribution of vsiRNAs along the viral genome in input, AGO1- and AGO2-immunoprecipitations from CymRSV- and Cym19stop-infected plants. Location of vsiRNAs on the viral genome is presented on the x-axis, read counts are shown on the y-axis. Y-axis positive and negative values represent read counts derived from the positive or negative viral strand...
Data
Deep sequencing analysis of AGO1- and AGO2-bound vsiRNAs (2nd biological replicate). N. benthamiana specific reads from mock-inoculated (A), CymRSV- (C) and Cym19stop-infected wild-type plants (E). The vsiRNA reads of the same samples are presented in (B), (D) and (F), respectively. 5’ nucleotides of vsiRNAs are indicated by color code on the right...
Data
NbAGO1 is involved in antiviral silencing against TBSV. (A) Genomic organization of pTBSV-PDS-GFP and pTBSV-PDS-NbAGO1-1 VIGS constructs. (B) TBSV virus accumulation in NbAGO1-silenced, GFP-silenced and mock-infected (negative control) plants. (C) GFP-silenced but not NbAGO1-silenced plants show fast recovery phenotype. (TIFF)
Data
Synthetic CymRSV p19 ORF used for generation of p19-expressing transgenic N. benthamiana plants (p19syn). (A) Nucleotide sequence of CymRSV p19 synthetic ORF used for plant transformation (p19syn). Start and stop codons are in bold, modified nucleotides are in red lowercase letters, red and green highlights are restriction sites used for cloning. (...
Data
Distribution of vsiRNAs along the viral genome in input and p19-immunoprecipitated samples. Location of vsiRNAs on the viral genome is presented on the x-axis, read counts are shown on the y-axis. Y-axis positive and negative values represent read counts derived from the positive or negative viral strand, respectively. 21nt and 22nt vsiRNAs are ind...
Data
Abundance of selected miRNAs in the mock-, CymRSV- or Cym19stop-infected input samples. miRNAs analyzed are listed on the left. The normalized read counts values are shown on a log10 scale, values under threshold (ut). Read counts were normalized to 106 N. benthamiana genome matching read counts. (TIF)
Data
Shortening of p19-bound synthetic siRNAs in vitro. 5’ labeled siRNAs were incubated for 10 minutes with different amout of p19 and then exposed to RNase A-digestion for 10 and 30 minutes, upper and lower panel, respectively. The protected p19-bound RNA duplexes were analyzed on 16% denaturing acrylamide gel. Size marker is shown on the left. (TIF)
Data
Relative abundance of AGO1- and AGO2-bound miRNAs in the mock-, CymRSV- or Cym19stop-infected wild type plants. Abundance of miRNAs (listed on the left) in IP fraction were calculated relative to their inputs. The normalized values are shown on a log2 scale. Heatmap is shown on the right. (TIF)
Data
Quality control and processing data of deep sequencing analysis of sRNA samples from input, p19-, AGO1- and AGO2-immunoprecipitated sample libraries. For detailed data processing information, please see Materials and Methods. (TIF)
Article
During the past three decades, the economic impact of tospoviruses has increased, causing high yield losses in a variety of crops and ornamentals. Owing to the difficulty in combating thrips vectors with insecticides, the best way to limit/prevent tospovirus-induced diseases involves a management strategy that includes virus resistance. This review...
Article
Polygonum ringspot virus (PolRSV) is a recently characterized tospovirus reported in Italy. Northern blot analyses of PolRSV infections in Nicotiana benthamiana (NB) and tomato plants showed that a viral RNA species with nearly twice the length of the genomic S-RNA accumulated abundantly in the former host, but was not detected in the latter. Addit...