Massimo Tornatore

Massimo Tornatore
Politecnico di Milano | Polimi · Department of Electronics, Information, and Bioengineering

Ph.D.

About

477
Publications
67,231
Reads
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8,639
Citations
Citations since 2016
246 Research Items
6188 Citations
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201620172018201920202021202202004006008001,000

Publications

Publications (477)
Article
Artificial Intelligence (AI) has demonstrated superhuman capabilities in solving a significant number of tasks, leading to widespread industrial adoption. For in-field network-management application, AI-based solutions, however, have often risen skepticism among practitioners as their internal reasoning is not exposed and their decisions cannot be...
Article
Full-text available
The Internet of Things (IoT) universe will continue to expand with the advent of the sixth generation of mobile networks (6G), which is expected to support applications and services with higher data rates, ultra-reliability, and lower latency compared to the fifth generation of mobile networks (5G). These new demanding 6G applications will introduc...
Article
Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL) is rising as a promising tool for solving optimization problems in optical networks. Though studies employing DRL for solving static optimization problems in optical networks are appearing, assessing strengths and weaknesses of DRL with respect to state-of-the-art solution methods is still an open research question...
Conference Paper
We quantify spectrum usage and transponder cost when deploying next-generation transponders that support up to 1.6 Tbit/s, in both C- and C+L bands. We compare two transponder architectures: a) single-carrier, operating beyond 100 Gbaud and b) multi-carrier with each carrier operating below 100 Gbaud.
Article
The high reliability required by many future-generation network services can be enforced by proper resource assignments by means of logical partitions, i.e., network slices, applied in optical metro-aggregation networks. Different strategies can be applied to deploy the virtual network functions (VNFs) composing the slices over physical nodes, whil...
Article
Full-text available
Data-parallel computing applications (DPCAs) (e.g., MapReduce, web search, etc.) are driving the need of scalable, low-latency, high-speed, and energy-efficient datacenters, because a DPCA consists of a series of heavy-computation stages within a datacenter, and each stage contains multiple parallel flows that must be completed before next stage st...
Article
Full-text available
Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks represent a major concern in modern Software Defined Networking (SDN), as SDN controllers are sensitive points of failures in the whole SDN architecture. Recently, research on DDoS attacks detection in SDN has focused on investigation of how to leverage data plane programmability, enabled by P4 language,...
Article
Flexible optical networks (FONs) are being adopted to accommodate the increasingly heterogeneous traffic in today’s Internet. However, in presence of high traffic load, not all offered traffic can be satisfied at all time. As carried traffic load brings revenues to operators, traffic blocking due to limited spectrum resource leads to revenue losses...
Conference Paper
A novel cooperation strategy among DC service provider and carriers (operating optical networks) is proposed for disaster recovery. This cooperation improves service restoration by 70% w.r.t. benchmark methods for typical scenarios, with reduced cost.
Article
Following the emergence of Elastic Optical Networks (EONs), Machine Learning (ML) has been intensively investigated as a promising methodology to address complex network management tasks, including, e.g., Quality of Transmission (QoT) estimation, fault management, and automatic adjustment of transmission parameters. Though several ML-based solution...
Article
In presence of multiple failures affecting their network infrastructure, operators are faced with the Progressive Network Recovery (PNR) problem, i.e., deciding the best sequence of repairs during recovery. With incoming deployments of 5G networks, PNR must evolve to incorporate new recovery opportunities offered by network slicing. In this study,...
Article
The recent acceleration in fiber-to-the-home deployment worldwide along with the emerging 5G communications are pressuring network operators to enhance their networks to serve these new deployments. Hence, operators are seeking new high-capacity optical-network architectures, while averting excessive capital and operational expenditures. Filterless...
Article
Optical network failure management (ONFM) is a promising application of machine learning (ML) to optical networking. Typical ML-based ONFM approaches exploit historical monitored data, retrieved in a specific domain (e.g., a link or a network), to train supervised ML models and learn failure characteristics (a signature) that will be helpful upon f...
Article
The interdependence between communication networks, e.g., an optical backbone network, and power grids is a critical issue to take into account when designing and operating both systems. In fact, failures in one network may cause further failures in the other network and vice versa. This is because nodes in power grids (i.e., power generators, load...
Article
Reduced fertility is one of the main causes of economic losses in dairy farms. The cost of a stillbirth is estimated in US$ 938 per case in Holstein herds. Machine learning (ML) is gaining popularity in the livestock sector as a mean to identify hidden patterns and due to its potential to address dimensionality problems. Here we investigate the app...
Article
Full-text available
Network Function Virtualization (NFV) provides higher flexibility for network operators and reduces the complexity in network service deployment. Using NFV, Virtual Network Functions (VNF) can be located in various network nodes and chained together in a Service Chain (SC) to provide a specific service. Consolidating multiple VNFs in a smaller numb...
Article
Full-text available
Optical circuit switching networks have been recognized as a promising solution for inter-datacenter networks. However, for intra-datacenter networks, they may fall short in efficiently provisioning traffic requests due to their relatively coarse-grained channel assignment and special intra-datacenter traffic patterns. Optical time slice switching...
Article
Full-text available
Filterless Optical Networks (FONs) (i.e., optical networks where switching nodes are solely based on passive splitters and combiners) enjoy features that are highly appreciated by network operators, such as their low cost and their energy efficiency, posing them as an alternative solution to filtered Wavelength-Switched Optical Networks (WSON) base...
Article
This Special Issue contains a collection of outstanding papers covering several recent advances in optical networks for 5G communications and beyond. Papers are organized into four categories: network resource planning; optical access networks; optical fronthaul solutions; and autonomous and data-driven network management. In this introduction, a b...
Article
Full-text available
The outbreak of coronavirus 2019 (Covid-19) has imposed a worldwide lockdown, changing the way people live and work, and pressuring the healthcare systems in many countries. Contact tracing based on smartphone apps (app-based contact tracing) has emerged as a possible solution to trace contagions and enforce more sustainable and selective quarantin...
Article
Edge computing provides computing capability at close-user proximity to reduce service latency for end users. To improve the efficiency of edge computing infrastructures, geographically-distributed edge datacenters can co-work with each other and with cloud datacenters, forming a new paradigm referred to as cooperative edge-cloud computing. In this...
Article
This Special Issue contains a collection of outstanding papers covering several recent advances regarding the design and management of reliable networks. Papers are organized into seven categories: resilience in NFV-based networks; resilient software defined networks; resiliency of optical networks; Internet of Things and safety of critical service...
Preprint
Full-text available
Flexible optical networks (FONs) are being adopted to accommodate the increasingly heterogeneous traffic in today's Internet. However, in presence of high traffic load, not all offered traffic can be satisfied at all time. As carried traffic load brings revenues to operators, traffic blocking due to limited spectrum resource leads to revenue losses...
Article
Full-text available
We investigate cost-efficient upgrade strategies for capacity enhancement in optical backbone networks enabled by C+L-band optical line systems. A multi-period strategy for upgrading network links from the C band to the C+L band is proposed, ensuring physical-layer awareness, cost effectiveness, and less than 0.1% blocking. Results indicate that th...
Article
For several decades, optical networks, due to their high capacity and long-distance transmission range, have been used as the major communication technology to serve network traffic, especially in the core and metro segments of communication networks. Unfortunately, our society has often experienced how the correct functioning of these critical inf...
Article
With the risk of natural disaster occurrence rising globally, the interest in innovative disaster resilience techniques is greatly increasing. In particular, Data Center (DC) operators are investigating techniques to avoid data-loss and service downtime in case of disaster occurrence. In cloud DC networks, DCs host Virtual Machines (VM) that suppor...
Article
Estimating the quality of transmission (QoT) of a candidate lightpath prior to its establishment is of pivotal importance for effective decision making in resource allocation for optical networks. Several recent studies investigated machine learning (ML) methods to accurately predict whether the configuration of a prospective lightpath satisfies a...
Conference Paper
We investigate new methods for reliable provisioning of dynamic content requests in optical metro networks. Our methods leverage content replication across multiple edge datacenters and multipath routing.
Conference Paper
Resource re-provisioning during network upgrade from C to C+L bands can optimize resource allocation and postpone upgrade cost. Results show re-provisioning shorter lightpaths to L band leads to a more cost-effective upgrade.
Conference Paper
We experimentally demonstrate cascaded performance degradation caused by increased inter-core crosstalk due to optical power fluctuation of adjacent core in multi-core fiber networks, and we show that a burst-mode EDFA is a candidate solution.
Conference Paper
We discuss how to optimize deployment of optical amplifiers (inline, booster and pre-amplifiers), in realistic metro networks with the objective of minimizing their cost while ensuring the Quality-of-Transmission of all lightpaths.
Preprint
Full-text available
Malicious jamming launched by smart jammer, which attacks legitimate transmissions has been regarded as one of the critical security challenges in wireless communications. Thus, this paper exploits intelligent reflecting surface (IRS) to enhance anti-jamming communication performance and mitigate jamming interference by adjusting the surface reflec...
Article
Quantum cryptography (QC) is currently under investigation to build highly secure optical communication networks. QC requires distribution of quantum keys (also called "secret" keys) on separate wavelength channels than those used to transmit the encrypted data. Hence, we propose a quantum-secured passive optical network (QS-PON) that supports both...
Preprint
Full-text available
Filterless Optical Networks (FONs) in which optical nodes are formed by only passive splitters and combiners, are widely-adopted technical solution for transport networks, especially in the metro area, where relatively-low nodal degrees and limited link lengths allow to limit waste of wavelengths due to the broadcast nature of FONs. Up to now, FONs...
Article
Full-text available
Optical multi-domain transport networks are often controlled by a hierarchical distributed architecture of controllers. Optimal placement of these controllers is very important for efficient management and control. Traditional SDN controller placement methods focus mostly on controller placement in datacenter networks. But the problem of virtualize...
Article
5G radio access network (RAN) slicing has recently been proposed to adapt service provision over substrate network resources to the diversified requirements of 5G services in terms of bandwidth, computation, latency, and reliability. 5G RAN slicing allows baseband processing functions, including centralized units and distributed units, to be deploy...
Article
Full-text available
Malicious jamming launched by smart jammers can attack legitimate transmissions, which has been regarded as one of the critical security challenges in wireless communications. With this focus, this paper considers the use of an intelligent reflecting surface (IRS) to enhance anti-jamming communication performance and mitigate jamming interference b...
Article
Automated failure-cause identification in communication networks allows operators to reduce service unavailability. Once the most likely failure root-cause is identified, appropriate countermeasures can be effectively put in place (e.g., by choosing an in-field intervention vs. a remote equipment reconfiguration). In this paper, we describe a succe...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Network Function Virtualization (NFV) refers to the process of running network functions in virtualized IT infrastructures as softwarized Virtual Network Functions (VNFs). Several telecom service providers are currently benefiting from this concept, as it enables a faster introduction of new network services, thereby meeting changing requirements....
Article
Cloud-Fog Radio Access Network (CF-RAN) is a new architecture that increases network capacity in Cloud RAN (CRAN) by moving some BaseBand Units (BBU) from cloud to fog nodes closer to Remote Radio Heads (RRH). However, fog nodes increases CapEx and OpEx. Moreover, tidal traffic fluctuations may lead to an energy-inefficient operation if resources b...
Article
Filterless Optical Networks (FONs) represent a novel cost-effective solution for metro optical networks, that allows to achieve equipment-cost savings by removing expensive optical-switching components from network nodes. In this study, we investigate how to further reduce equipment cost in FONs by minimizing amplifiers’ cost. We propose a Genetic...
Article
Machine learning (ML) is currently being investigated as an emerging technique to automate quality of transmission (QoT) estimation during lightpath deployment procedures in optical networks. Even though the potential network-resource savings enabled by ML-based QoT estimation has been confirmed in several studies, some practical limitations hinder...
Article
The problem of optimally deploying a virtual network onto a substrate physical network is referred to as Virtual Network Embedding (VNE). In general, this embedding is requested by a customer to an Internet Service Provider (ISP), which performs the VNE over its physical telecom network. In several situations, the physical substrate infrastructure...
Article
To support new emerging and highly-dynamic 5G services, optical metro networks must be capable of provisioning services on the fly. Network Function Virtualization (NFV) is leveraged to fulfill these dynamic service demands by placing Virtual Network Functions (VNFs) in NFV-capable network nodes and chaining them together (“service chaining”). In a...
Chapter
In this chapter, we present an overview of the Network Functions Virtualization (NFV) concept and discuss the main design features with respect to their dependability implications. As NFV systems are expected to be used extensively in the future to enable flexible and robust provisioning of numerous network services, including mobile telecommunicat...
Chapter
Network and service disruptions could have several causes ranging from software to hardware failures, due to malicious users and/or weather-related failures. While most of the failures are unpredictable, weather-based disasters such as tornadoes, hurricanes, wildfires or floods can be often predicted well in advance, which leaves enough time for op...
Chapter
Communication networks are exposed to a variety of massive failure events following from activities of nature, weather-induced disruptions, technology-implied problems, and malicious human activities. In this chapter, we first highlight the characteristics of these scenarios and discuss example failure events reported during the last three decades....
Chapter
Full-text available
Driven by the requirement of increasing performance and flexibility, networks are being softwarized by paradigms such as software-defined networking (SDN) and network function virtualization (NFV). These solutions reduce the complexity and the specialization of hardware devices, by extracting the inherently distributed control plane of forwarding n...