Massimo Guarnieri

Massimo Guarnieri
University of Padova | UNIPD · Department of Industrial Engineering

PhD

About

212
Publications
128,943
Reads
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2,474
Citations
Additional affiliations
November 1992 - present
Università degli Studi di Padova
Position
  • Professor
July 1983 - present
University of Padova
Position
  • Professor (Full)

Publications

Publications (212)
Article
A vast literature exists on modelling of small-scale single-cell experiments for flow batteries, but very few reports have been published on large stacks, consisting of tens of cells, each with an active area of hundred square centimeters. In this report, a large set of measurements taken on a kW-class vanadium test facility is used to develop an a...
Article
Today, electrical traction constitutes the most successful railway technology, but during the 19th century, the situation was quite different. Steam, produced by burning coal, was the dominant energy vector for transportation. Steam railways experienced a period of sensational development from 1830 to 1875, with frenetic construction in the Western...
Article
An experimental and numerical time-domain analysis of the early electric response of two kw-class Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries (VRFBs) under different state of charge, electrolyte flow and load is presented. The numerical analysis resorted to an equivalent circuit whose parameters were identified from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measure...
Article
Full-text available
An original multichannel Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) system operating at high bias current and suitable for kW-class Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries (VRFBs) is presented. Power and signal connections, whose stray parameters affected measurements, required a careful optimization and calibration in the implementation of the measurement...
Article
Although circuit theory is fundamental in the study and design of electric systems for both information and power applications, its history has seldom been told in the scientific literature. This article is an attempt to fill that gap, at least partially, by surveying its development up to circa 1924, i.e., mainly in the preclassical period, accord...
Article
Full-text available
Redox-flow batteries, based on their particular ability to decouple power and energy, stand as prime candidates for cost-effective stationary storage, particularly in the case of long discharges and long storage times. Integration of renewables and subsequent need for energy storage is promoting effort on the development of mature and emerging redo...
Chapter
Battery Management Systems (BMSs) for Redox Flow Batteries (RFBs) and Fuel Cells (FCs) are intrinsically different from BMSs for solid-state batteries, e.g. Li-ion, lead-acid etc.…, due to the different structures, operating principles, critical conditions and the literature on these topics is exiguous. This chapter presents the fundamental functio...
Chapter
This chapter introduces two electrochemical energy storage technologies: Redox Flow Batteries (RFBs) and Electrolyzers (ELs) combined with Fuel Cells (FCs) in ELFC Energy Storage Systems (ESSs). These devices are quite different in their working principles, since RFBs are rechargeable batteries, namely real energy storage devices, whereas FCs and E...
Chapter
Mass transport plays a major role in the operation of Redox Flow Batteries (RFBs). This chapter aims to provide an overview on how electrolyte transport affects RFB performance and operations and how they must be accounted for in the cell design, plant configurations and mode of operations. It aims to provide an introductory background and to addre...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A Battery Management System (BMS) for a kW-class vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) was developed and is reported in this paper. This kind of BMSs is intrinsically different from those of solid-state batteries, due to the very different battery operating principle. Such BMS was built entirely in-house around a desktop computer provided with LabVIEW...
Article
Full-text available
Standby is a condition that may occur several times and for long periods in the operation of a redox flow battery for energy storage services in electrical grids (from a national grid down to smart grids, microgrids, …), so that the efficient operation of these batteries calls for specific standby management procedures, capable of minimizing losses...
Article
This historical column follows the article on Mario Tchou's ELEA 9003, which was published in the June 2020 issue of IEEE Industrial Electronics Magazine , and recounts events that also took place at the Olivetti Company. We know that much of the early progress in personal computers took place in the United States, and particularly on the West Coas...
Article
Full-text available
Solute transport and reaction in porous electrodes at high Schmidt numbers - Volume 896 - Dario Maggiolo, Francesco Picano, Filippo Zanini, Simone Carmignato, Massimo Guarnieri, Srdjan Sasic, Henrik Ström
Article
A new method is proposed that restores the battery energy and capacity of a Vanadium Redox Flow Battery, by counteracting the charge imbalance caused by air-oxidation and hydrogen evolution in the negative electrolyte. The process makes use of a regeneration system specifically designed and successfully tested. This system is built around an electr...
Article
In the late 1950s, the advent of computers was evolving into a technological revolution, and within it the era of the transistorized computer, the so-called second generation, was beginning. Although much of that progress took place in the United States and United Kingdom, enthusiastic pioneers were also making important contributions in other nati...
Article
An industrial-scale Vanadium redox flow battery test facility (IS-VRFB) is operating at the Electrochemical Energy Storage and Conversion Laboratory of University of Padua aiming to explore the technological developments from VRFB laboratory test-beds to grid scale VRFB systems. The 40-cell 600-cm2 active-area stack and two 550-L tanks provide a po...
Article
Today, electric railways have wide diffusion and promise to expand much more in the coming years due to climate change issues and decarbonization policies. Metropolitan areas are serviced by underground, surface, and elevated electric trains that provide fast high-capacity passenger transport with zero emission. Electric motors powered by hydrogen...
Article
Full-text available
The paper presents a control method of the electrolyte flow factor in kW-class Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries that minimizes transport losses without affecting the battery's electrical performance. This method uses experimental data acquired on a 9 kW/27kWh test facility at varying operating conditions. The effects of overpotentials on the polarizat...
Article
The development of redox flow batteries depends on the research on new materials as well as on the technological development, but also on appropriate models which allow to simulate their performance in operative conditions. Very few investigations are reported in the literature concerning the technology, modelling and simulation of large-scale Vana...
Book
Full-text available
È un fatto sorprendente quanto la Storia della Tecnologia sia trascurata nel nostro paese, benché tutti dipendiamo sempre di più da quest’ultima. Eppure già nel quinto secolo prima dell’era attuale (come qualcuno preferisce dire oggi, per rispetto delle diverse culture) Confucio ammoniva “Studia il passato se vuoi prevedere il futuro”, un pensiero...
Article
Full-text available
An analysis is presented of the losses occurring in a kW-class vanadium redox flow battery due to species crossover, shunt current, hydraulic pressure drops and pumping, in addition to cell overpotentials. The study was developed on a 9 kW / 27 kW h test facility that includes a stack consisting of a 40 600-cm 2 cells and two 550 L electrolyte tank...
Article
The story goes that 500 years ago, on 2 May 1519, in the Clos Lucé manor house near the royal castle of Amboise, King Francis I of France was lovingly assisting an old man who was on his deathbed. The man was neither a king, an aristocrat, nor a victorious general. He was the out-of-wedlock son of an Italian notary. France was, after Spain, the mos...
Article
Full-text available
Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries are one of the most interesting options for the large storage of energy. In spite of the tremendous improvements that have taken place in recent years concerning materials and architectures, laboratory tests under controlled conditions have almost always been confined to small-scale single-cell devices. This paper repo...
Article
Discusses the engineering achievements which led up to the American space program landing on the moon in July 1969 from an historical perspective that incorporates the political, economic, and technology challenges involved. Today, it may not be easy to grasp the hurdles that had been overcome before the feat we were going to witness could take pla...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents an original model capable of simulating the thermal behavior of a vanadium redox flow battery stack in standby condition, i.e. without power and reactant flow, where the temperature distribution in the cells evolves because of ions crossover through the membrane, Joule losses due to shunt currents and inherent self-discharge eff...
Article
Full-text available
A cell-resolved model that simulates the dynamic thermal behavior of a Vanadium Redox Flow Battery during charge and discharge is presented. It takes into account, at a cell level, the reversible entropic heat of the electrochemical reactions, irreversible heat due to overpotentials, self-discharge reactions due to ion crossover, and shunt current...
Article
We currently live in an age so dominated by easy access to information through the Internet that people born in the last three decades have been referred to as digital natives [1]. According to some historians, the Internet constitutes the fourth epoch-making phase of the evolution of communication, which started some 60,000 years ago with the deve...
Article
Full-text available
Redox Flow Batteries (RFBs) have a strong potential for future stationary storage, in view of the rapid expansion of renewable energy sources and smart grids. Their development and future success largely depend on the research on new materials, namely electrolytic solutions, membranes and electrodes, which is typically conduced on small single cell...
Article
A microgrid currently under construction in Venice, Italy, is part of a plant for testing quasi-zero-emission processes. It has a 400-V ac bus and works islanded and connected. It includes three renewable-source generators and five energy storage (ES) systems (ESSs), based on lithium (Li), lead (Pb), sodium (Na), vanadium, and hydrogen. The hierarc...
Article
In an age largely characterized by information and communication technology, which uses more and more feeble currents, electrical power is experiencing a period of excellent health and heading toward a bright future. This success is largely due to electric motors, which are available in different types and powered by dc as well as ac sources operat...
Article
Computer speed and web interconnectivity are allowing us to manage and process data at unprecedented levels. In the past two decades, we have discovered new paradigms for extracting valuable information from such data, and it is very likely that this process has only just begun. These paradigms have resulted in market and financial forecasts of hug...
Article
Full-text available
Following the celebration of the International Year of Light and Light-based Technologies in 2015, this paper presents a survey of the exploitation of light throughout our history. Human beings started using light far into the Stone Age, in order to meet immediate needs, and widened its used when ancient civilizations developed. Other practical use...
Article
Full-text available
Porous electrodes are pivotal components of Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries, which influence the power density, pressure drop losses, activation overpotentials, limit current density, bulk and contact resistance, and ohmic losses. The quantification of the fluid-mechanic efficiency of porous electrodes based on their real geometry is a useful measure...
Article
More than a century ago, in 1902, American Engineer Peter Cooper Hewitt (1861-1921) derived the mercury-arc rectifier, enclosed in a glass bulb, from his mercury-vapor lamp of the previous year. He devised its use for feeding dc motors from alternating currents. As the first rectifier for power uses (two years before John Ambrose Fleming's diode an...
Article
Nafion‑tungsten oxide hybrid membranes, [Nafion/(WO3)x], with varying loading levels of WO3 nanofiller (x = 0, 0.024, 0.329) are prepared and investigated as candidates for application as solid electrolytes in vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). The thermal properties of [Nafion/(WO3)x] hybrid membranes are probed both by high-resolution thermog...
Article
Vacuum tubes appeared at the break of the 20th century, giving birth to electronics [1]. By the 1930s, they had become established as a mature technology, spreading into areas such as radio communications, longdistance radiotelegraphy, radio broadcasting, telephone communication and switching, sound recording and playing, television, radar, and air...
Article
Full-text available
This study presents the conversion of a dieselbased watercraft for public transportation in Venice, Italy, to an electric propulsion technology, with a view to wide future adoption of electrical transportation. It takes into account energy-storage systems, electrical machines, and drives and examines them in light of economic, environmental, and so...
Book
The book, in Italian, presents the fundamentals of Electric Engineering and is devoted to undergratuate non-electric engineering programs
Article
The invention of the negative feedback amplifier by Harold S. Black (1898-1983) in 1928 is considered one of the great achievements in electronics. In fact, it is listed among the IEEE Milestones, where it is credited to Bell Labs. Black was hired by Western Electric in 1921 and assigned to work on the Type C system, a newly introduced three-channe...
Article
Over the last six decades, electronic computing has been thoroughly integrated into the field of science and technology to become a fundamental tool for study, research, and design. Developing into vacuum tube, transistor, integrated circuit, and microprocessor technologies, electronics has boosted an amazing growth in computing power [1]. The comm...
Article
The title of this article may suggest that it constitutes a tribute to the recent Nobel Prize in Literature and a sweet remembrance of our 20s for those of us who are now in our 60s. That could be the case. After all, scientists and technicians live in a diversified and interconnected world where culture, art, and civil actions are interdependent w...
Book
Full-text available
Elettrotecnica Circuitale presenta i fondamenti della teoria dei circuiti elettrici. Vi sono definiti i concetti fondamenti relativi agli elementi che compongono i circuiti funzionanti in regime quasi-stazionario, lineari e non lineari, e le proprietà delle loro interconnessioni che realizzano i circuiti stessi. Di questi sono illustrate i teoremi...
Article
Full-text available
Two vanadium redox flow battery topologies have been compared. In the conventional series stack, bipolar plates connect cells electrically in series and hydraulically in parallel. The alternative topology consists of cells connected in parallel inside stacks by means of monopolar plates in order to reduce shunt currents along channels and manifolds...
Article
Vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) systems complemented with dedicated power electronic interfaces are a promising technology for storing energy in smart-grid applications in which the intermittent power produced by renewable sources must face the dynamics of requests and economical parameters. In this article, we review the vanadium-based technolo...
Article
The sun has given light to the Earth since the formation of the solar system 4.6 billion years ago, and through photosynthesis, it has fed almost all its life forms for at least 2.45-2.32 billion years. Photosynthesis is estimated to capture in biomass approximately 833 PWh (1012 kWh) yearly, at an average power of 95 TW-the same produced by 100,00...
Article
Full-text available
The in situ identification of fuel-cell material parameters is crucial both for guiding the research for advanced functionalized materials and for fitting multiphysics models, which can be used in fuel cell performance evaluation and optimization. However, this identification still remains challenging when dealing with direct measurements. This pap...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Lattice-Boltzmann simulations of fluid flow in fully reconstructed porous materials are performed in order to characterized the macroscopic behavior of fluid flow and dispersion in porous media for flow batteries applications [1]. The material quantitative reconstruction has been performed by means of X-ray microtomography and the obtained data hav...
Article
Electromagnetic waves were first postulated by James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) in 1865. To demonstrate their existence 22 years later, Heinrich Hertz (1857-1894) had to design new instrumentation that he used to carry out an experiment than had never been performed before. To detect the waves produced by his oscillating electric circuit, he used a...
Article
Full-text available
Given their capability of spreading active chemical species and collecting electricity, porous media made of carbon fibers are extensively used as diffusion layers in energy storage systems, such as redox flow batteries. In spite of this, the dispersion dynamics of species inside porous media is still not well understood and often lends itself to d...
Article
After dealing with the very recent history of Moore's law in the previous issue of IEEE Industrial Electronics Magazine, I will jump far back into the past for this issue, taking the opportunity given by a present-world economic event. The recent collapse in oil prices to around US$30/barrel, after it soared in 2008 to peak at US$140/barrel, was we...
Article
In 1960, three years before receiving the Nobel Prize in Physics, Hungarian-born American theoretical physicist and mathematician Eugene Wigner (1902-1995) published a paper, "The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Mathematics in the Natural Sciences." In it, he argued about the surprising precision with which mathematical equations can describe physica...
Article
Full-text available
Inspired by the celebration of the year of light in 2015, this article considers the long lasting interaction among man, vision and light. Our knowledge of light has greatly evolved in time together with the development of our civilization, with a tremendous boost in the last two centuries thanks to the outstanding contributions of many scholars an...
Article
Full-text available
A three-dimensional coupled thermoelectromechanical model for electrical connectors is here proposed to evaluate local stress and temperature distributions around the contact area of electric connectors under different applied loads. A micromechanical numerical model has been developed by merging together the contact theory approach, which makes us...
Article
At the turn of the 20th century, when electric light superseded chemically fueled lamps [1], new uses of light began to emerge. They regarded information processing and transmission rather than power and within a few decades resulted in the technological domain of photonics. These applications consisted of photocells, light-emitting diodes (LEDs),...
Article
Full-text available
The most important component in a redox flow battery (RFB) cell is the MEA (membrane electrode assembly), a sandwich consisting of two catalyzed electrodes with an interposed polymeric membrane. In order to allow electrolyte flow toward the electroactive sites, the electrodes have a porous structure that can be obtained with carbon base materials s...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Thanks to the independent sizing of power and energy, hydrogen-based energy storage is one of the very few technologies capable of providing long operational times in addition to the other advantages offered by electrochemical energy storage, for example scalability, site versatility, and mobile service. The typical design consists of an e...
Article
Full-text available
There are many good reasons to celebrate light besides the scientific achievements triggered by al-Haytham?s work 1,000 years ago, which was described in the ?Historical? column in the last issue of IEEE Industrial Electronics Magazine [1]. Long before Maxwell discovered the secret nature of light, mankind had learned how to manage it to improve li...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This article is inspired by the celebration of the year light in 2015 and regards the long lasting relationship between man and light. Man started using light in prehistoric times and the oldest traces of scientific investigations on light date back to ancient China and Greece. While the long march of science led to the modern theories of light Max...
Article
The paper reports the results of a study for moving the present diesel-based watercraft propulsion technology used for public transportation in Venice city and lagoon to a more efficient and smart electric propulsion technology, in view of its adopted in a near future. Energy generation and storage systems, electrical machines and drives, as well a...
Article
The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) has designated 2015 the International Year of Light and Light-Based Technologies [1]. Those of us who remember the exceptional contributions to science made by James Clerk Maxwell can be led to believe that UNESCO's choice is related to the publication of A Dynamical The...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
All-Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries (VRFBs) are emerging as a novel technology for stationary energy storage. Numerical models are useful for exploring the potential performance of such devices, optimizing the structure and operating condition of cell stacks, and studying its interfacing to the electrical grid. A one-dimensional steady-state multiphy...
Article
Electronics is the branch of physics and technology concerning the behavior and movement of electrons in solids, fluids, and in a vacuum; it also deals with tubes, solid-state components, and integrated ?circuits, which work according to electron motions. It was the discovery of the electron that opened the way to this sector of science and technol...
Article
Full-text available
Novel basis functions are proposed for enforcing continuity constraints in 3-D elliptic problems discretized by non-conforming domain decomposition methods. The major advantage over standard coupling methods is that the projection matrix, mapping degrees of freedom from master to slave surface, can be constructed with minimum computing effort since...
Article
Full-text available
A novel 3-D integral formulation for solving eddy currents in thin conductors of any shape and topology is presented. The field problem is formulated with the cell method in terms of mesh currents in order to minimize the number of unknowns and, thus, computing requirements. We prove that additional degrees of freedom, globally defined, are require...
Article
Some classes of bone fractures are routinely stabilized and aligned by the use of intramedullary nails. The identification of the pose, i.e., the position and the orientation of the drill holes hidden by a bone and the tissue is currently obtained by X-ray with all the well-known disadvantages of this technology. The idea of substituting this metho...
Article
In recent years, we have witnessed growth in the importance of electrochemical storage for both stationary and mobile applications. With regard to the former, we have seen that the increasing penetration of intermittent renewable sources and of smart grids requires energy storage capabilities suitable for providing services with different technoeco...
Article
Full-text available
Several experiments have proved that water in liquid phase can be present at the anode of a PEM fuel cell due to vapor condensation resulting in mass transport losses. Nevertheless, it is not yet well understood where exactly water tends to cumulate and how the design of the gas channel (GC) and gas diffusion layer (GDL) could be improved to limit...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
All-Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries (VRFBs) represent a promising technology as a way to store energy because of their high energy efficiency, long cycle life, independently tunable power/energy size, and lack of contamination from cross-mixing of electrolytes.However, in order to improve VRFBs performance, some conceptual and technological issues ar...
Article
When the scientific revolution took off at the end of the 16th century, it was mainly concerned with mechanics and medicine. Celestial mechanics was the fulcrum of Copernicus’ heliocentric theory, Galileo’s astronomical observations, Kepler’s planetary analyses, and, later, Huygens’ discoveries as well as Newton’s universal gravitational theory. Th...
Article
Some time ago, a short article about the magnetic compass was placed on the Internet by ?The Institute Alert? of the IEEE, which brought to my mind that the story of this small and simple device deserves our attention.
Article
A novel domain decomposition technique is proposed in order to enforce either continuity or jump conditions on subdomain interfaces in nonconforming 2D discrete formulations, based on the cell method or the finite integration technique. Lagrange multiplier basis functions are proposed for an easy computation of the Schur complements in the partitio...
Article
We are all used to the possibilities made available by the Internet and information and communications technology (ICT), but only those of us who are at least in our 40s can truly appreciate the difference between the present day and the time when rapid long-distance bidirectional communication could only take place via telegraph, telephone, and te...
Article
Full-text available
The accurate modeling of complex multiphysical devices and systems is a crucial problem in engineering. Such models are usually characterized by highly nonlinear equations and depend on a high number of parameters, which often cannot be directly measured. In this paper, two stochastic optimization techniques are applied to the solution of such chal...