Masatoshi Koizumi

Masatoshi Koizumi
Tohoku University | Tohokudai · Graduate School of Arts and Letters

Ph.D. MIT

About

68
Publications
17,264
Reads
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1,139
Citations
Citations since 2016
26 Research Items
430 Citations
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2016201720182019202020212022020406080
Introduction
My research interests are in grammatical theory and neuro-cognition of language. I am currently working on a field-based cognitive neuroscientific study of the sentence and discourse processing of OS (object-before-subject) languages such as Kaqchikel and Seediq.
Additional affiliations
August 2017 - July 2018
Harvard University
Position
  • Visiting Scholar
April 2017 - September 2022
National Institute for Japanese Language and Linguistics
Position
  • Visiting Professor
April 2000 - present
Tohoku University
Position
  • Professor (Full)
Education
September 1991 - June 1995
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Field of study
  • Linguisitcs
September 1989 - June 1991
The Ohio State University
Field of study
  • East Asian Languages and Literatures
April 1984 - March 1988
International Christian University
Field of study
  • Liberal Arts

Publications

Publications (68)
Article
Full-text available
The processing load of sentences with different word orders in the Kaqchikel Mayan language was investigated using event-related potentials. We observed a P600 for subject-verb-object and verb-subject-object sentences as compared to verb-object-subject (VOS) sentences, suggesting that VOS order is easier to process than the other orders. This is co...
Article
Full-text available
The word order that is easiest to understand in a language generally coincides with the word order most frequently used in that language. In Kaqchikel, however, there is a discrepancy between the two: the syntactically basic VOS incurs the least cognitive load, whereas SVO is most frequently employed. This suggests that processing load is primarily...
Article
Full-text available
When bilingual speakers plan to speak in one of their languages, the other language remains active and exerts an influence on the chosen language. However, the factors that modulate this influence, and particularly the extent to which syntactic structures and word order need to be the same in both languages for this influence to occur, are not yet...
Article
Full-text available
In many languages with subject-before-object as a syntactically basic word order, transitive sentences in which the subject precedes the object have been reported to have a processing advantage over those in which the subject follows the object in sentence comprehension. Three sources can be considered to account for this advantage, namely, syntact...
Article
Full-text available
In many languages with flexible word orders, canonical word order has a processing advantage over non-canonical word orders. This observation suggests that it is more costly for the parser to represent syntactically complex sentences because of filler-gap dependency formation. Alternatively, this phenomenon may relate to pragmatic factors because m...
Article
This study is the first to report chronometric evidence on Tongan language production. It has been speculated that the mora plays an important role during Tongan phonological encoding. A mora follows the (C)V form, so /a/ and /ka/ (but not /k/) denote a mora in Tongan. Using a picture-word naming paradigm, Tongan native speakers named pictures cont...
Article
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We investigated pupillary responses to the world's shortest fixed verses, Japanese haiku as aesthetic poetry (AP) and senryu as comic poetry (CP), in comparison with non-poetry control stimuli (NP) comprised of slogans that had the same rhythm patterns. Native Japanese speakers without literary training listened to these stimuli while we recorded t...
Article
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Refusal is considered a face-threatening act (FTA), since it contradicts the inviter’s expectations. In the case of Japanese, native speakers (NS) are known to prefer to leave sentences unfinished for a conventional indirect refusal. Successful comprehension of this indirect refusal depends on whether the addressee is fully conventionalized to the...
Article
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Sentences with filler-gap dependency are more difficult to process than those without, as reflected by event-related brain potentials (ERPs) such as sustained left anterior negativity (SLAN). The cognitive processes underlying SLAN may support associating a filler with a temporally distant gap in syntactic representation. Alternatively, processing...
Article
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There are two major proposals regarding how to derive the VOS word order in the Mayan family. One is a right-specifier analysis, according to which specifiers of lexical categories are located to the right of the heads and the subject occupies a right-specifier. The other is a predicate fronting analysis, in which vP is preposed across the subject....
Article
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The embodied cognition hypothesis postulates that human cognition is fundamentally grounded in our experience of interacting with the physical world (Barsalou in Behav Brain Sci 22:577–609, 1999). Research has shown bi-directional associations between physical action and the processes of understanding language: language comprehension seems to activ...
Article
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Syntactic properties such as word orders are a major factor determining the difficulty of a sentence. In SO-type languages where the subject (S) precedes the object (O) in canonical word order, there is clear evidence that the SO word order is preferred over the OS word order. We investigate to what extent this SO bias is maintained even in typolog...
Article
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Japanese has functional elements with grammatical, semantic, or pragmatic functions. Case markers mark grammatical relations; the Q-particle clause-types the sentence as an interrogative; and the topic marker designates a phrase as the topic of the sentence. Along with these functions, we argue that these functional elements have a uniform function...
Article
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Linguistic expressions are composed of smaller units such as words and phrases. The single most important operation in narrow syntax is, therefore, Merge: Merge applies to two syntactic objects α and β, and forms a new object γ = {α, β}. The syntactic object γ must be given a label for it to be interpreted. Given that γ consists of two terms, α and...
Article
It is known that consonants can act as boundary markers when they are located at the left edge of a prosodic domain, helping listeners to parse incoming speech. To achieve maximum efficiency in marking out boundaries, those markers should be acoustically salient. In Element Theory, domain markers are represented by the elements |H| and |ʔ|. Being i...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, we propose a spoken term detection method for detection of terms in zero-resource languages. The proposed method uses the classifier (the speech comparator) trained by a machine learning method combined with the dynamic time warping method. The advantage of the proposed method is that the classifier can be trained using a large langu...
Article
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The present study examined the locus responsible for the effect of emotional state on sentence processing in healthy native speakers of Japanese, using event-related brain potentials. The participants were induced into a happy, neutral, or sad mood and then subjected to electroencephalogram recording during which emotionally neutral sentences, incl...
Article
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Some natural languages grammatically allow different types of changing word orders, such as object scrambling and topicalization. Scrambling and topicalization are more related to syntax and semantics/phonology, respectively. Here we hypothesized that scrambling should activate the left frontal regions, while topicalization would affect the bilater...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Kuno (1973) and others describe the Japanese junctor ya as conjunction. But, Sudo (2014) analyzes ya as a disjunction with a conjunctive implicature. We compare ya with other junctors and implicature triggers experimental using mouse-tracking. Our two main results are: (1) ya differs from lexical conjunctions corroborating Sudo’s (2014) proposal. (...
Article
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Children naturally acquire a language in social contexts where they interact with their caregivers. Indeed, research shows that social interaction facilitates lexical and phonological development at the early stages of child language acquisition. It is not clear, however, whether the relationship between social interaction and learning applies to a...
Article
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The effects of syntactic and information structures on sentence processing load were investigated using two reading comprehension experiments in Japanese, a head-final SOV language. In the first experiment, we discovered the main effects of syntactic and information structures, as well as their interaction, showing that interaction of these two fac...
Chapter
Full-text available
In many languages with flexible word order, transitive sentences in which the subject precedes the object have been reported to have a processing advantage during sentence comprehension compared with those in which the subject follows the object. This observation brings up the question of why this subject-before-object (SO) order should be preferre...
Article
Full-text available
Cortical activations during the processing of Kaqchikel transitive sentences with canonical and non-canonical word orders were investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Kaqchikel is an endangered Mayan language spoken in Guatemala. The word order in this language is relatively flexible. We observed higher cortical activations in the...
Article
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This article presents two reading comprehension experiments, using the sentence correctness decision task, that explore the causes of processing cost of Japanese sentences with SNOMOACCV, STOPOACCV, OACCSNOMV, and OTOPSNOMV word orders. The first experiment was conducted in order to see if either syntax or frequency plays a significant role in the...
Article
Full-text available
This article presents two reading comprehension experiments, using the sentence correctness decision task, that explore the causes of processing cost of Japanese sentences with SNOMOACCV, STOPOACCV OACCSNOMV, and OTOPSNOMV word orders. The first experiment was conducted in order to see if either syntax or frequency plays a significant role in the p...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The particle ya in Japanese has been described as a marker of conjunction. But recently Sudo (2014, unpublished) suggested to analyze ya as a disjunction with a conjunctive implicature. We present data from a mouse-tracking study that support Sudo's general perspective. Our data further distinguish between two derivations of the conjunctive implica...
Article
Full-text available
Nasukawa, Yasugi and Koizumi (2013) propose that the dependency structure and stress assignment patterns in Kaqchikel are reversed compared to Indo-European languages. Following this argument, words in Kaqchikel are expected to be phonologically processed in a right-to-left incremental fashion, whereas the majority of languages process words left-t...
Article
Full-text available
The processing load of sentences with three different word orders (VOS, VSO, and SVO) in Kaqchikel Maya was investigated using a sentence-plausibility judgment task. The results showed that VOS sentences were processed faster than VSO and SVO sentences. This supports the traditional analysis in Mayan linguistics that the syntactically determined ba...
Article
Full-text available
The processing load of sentences with three different word orders (VOS, VSO, and SVO) in Kaqchikel Maya was investigated using a sentence-plausibility judgment task. The results showed that VOS sentences were processed faster than VSO and SVO sentences. This supports the traditional analysis in Mayan linguistics that the syntactically determined ba...
Article
Full-text available
The present study investigates whether or not "a trace", which is linguistically hypothesized to be left behind by syntactic movement, is mentally created when a scrambled sentence in Japanese is processed. From past to present, the result or a self-paced reading experiment has supported the psychological reality of trace, but the result or a probe...
Article
Language experience can alter perceptual abilities and the neural specialization for phonological contrasts. Here we investigated whether dialectal differences in the lexical use of pitch information lead to differences in functional lateralization for pitch processing. We measured cortical hemodynamic responses to pitch pattern changes in native s...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated the processing load of transitive sentences in two different basic word orders (i.e., VOS and SVO) in Kaqchikel Maya, with a particular focus on the animacy of the object. The results of a sentence plausibility judgment task showed that VOS sentences were processed faster than SVO sen- tences regardless of the animacy of the...
Article
Full-text available
Kaqchikel, one of the Mayan languages, is recognized as having the Verb-Object-Subject (VOS) order as its basic word order, similar to many of the other Mayan languages. In reality, however, the SVO word order is more frequently used than VOS, which comes in second by comparison. For this reason, Kaqchikel is often referred to as a language that is...
Article
Full-text available
To elucidate the relationships between syntactic and semantic processes, one interesting question is how syntactic structures are constructed by the argument structure of a verb, where each argument corresponds to a semantic role of each noun phrase (NP). Here we examined the effects of possessivity [sentences with or without a possessor] and canon...
Article
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In order to clarify the relationship among grammatical knowledge, processing components, and neural substrates in sentence comprehension, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate how brain activation is affected by two types of scrambling (short scrambling and middle scrambling) in ditransitive sentences in Japanese. Short scram...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated brain activity in 3-5-year-old preschoolers as they listened to connected speech stimuli in Japanese (first language), English (second language), and Chinese (a rarely exposed, foreign language) using near-infrared spectroscopy. Unlike the younger preschoolers who had been exposed to English for almost 1 year, brain activity in the...
Article
This article presents a study of sentences in which the object is marked with the nominative case-marker ga (the nominative object construction), and outlines major grammatical properties of the nominative-object construction in Japanese. It then describes how the case and scope properties of the nominative object can be explained within the broad...
Article
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Adults seem to have greater difficulties than children in acquiring a second language (L2) because of the alleged "window of opportunity" around puberty. Postpuberty Japanese participants learned a new English rule with simplex sentences during one month of instruction, and then they were tested on "uninstructed complex sentences" as well as "instr...
Article
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We investigated the effects of non-native language (English) exposure on event-related potentials (ERPs) in first- and second-year (four- and five-year-old) preschool Japanese native speakers while they listened to semantically congruent and incongruent Japanese sentences. The children were divided into a non-native language exposed group (exposed...
Article
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The question of whether the subject stays in its thematic position within the VP or moves to Spec, TP is difficult to answer with respect to free word order languages such as Japanese because the surface constituent orders in these languages do not necessarily provide sufficient information to determine syntactic positions. In this article, we pres...
Article
Full-text available
We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the effects of non-native language (English) exposure in first-, second-, and third-year (4- to 6-year-old) preschool Japanese native children while they listened to semantically congruent and incongruent Japanese sentences. Our previous study (Takahashi et al., in press) showed that difference...
Article
The present study aims to confirm the cortical correlates of scrambling effects, a free word order phenomenon that has been observed in a variety of cross-linguistic investigations but whose mechanism still remains unclarified. Many syntax-oriented hypotheses on scrambling have been provided to develop the structural basis of the free word order pe...
Article
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Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Linguistics and Philosophy, 1995. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 213-226). by Masatoshi, Koizumi. Ph.D.
Article
Full-text available
According to a widely held view, the object-subject-verb word order in Japanese is derived from the subject-object-verb word order by shifting the object to the sentenceinitial position. This movement of the object, called scrambling, is hypothesized to leave “a trace” in the original object position (Saito, 1985). With regard to this view, during...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
With the aban don ment of the Pro jec tion Prin ci ple and the q-Cri te rion, a num ber of in ter est ing is - sues have arisen in the re cent min i mal ist pro gram re gard ing the way q-roles are as signed or re - ceived. One of them has to do with whether or not an NP can re ceive more than one theta-role, and an other is con cerned with whether...
Article
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The present study investigated scrambling effects on the processing of Japanese sentences and priority information used among thematic roles, case particles and grammatical functions. Reaction times for correct sentence decisions were significantly prolonged for scrambled active sentences with transitive verbs in the first experiment and with ditra...
Article
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Although evidence is abundant for overt syntactic verb raising in head initial languages, no convincing evidence has been found for comparable verb movement in head final languages such as Japanese. This state of affairs has led some researchers to conclude that there is no Head Parameter as such in UG. In this paper, we present arguments for overt...
Article
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Article
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La grammaire traditionnelle japonaise classe les particules post-NP en deux categories, les postpositions et les marqueurs de cas. La particule ni pose un probleme car elle presente des caracteristiques des deux categories. L'A. examine le comportement de cette particule dans des contextes differents et montre qu'il y a quatre types de ni: la marqu...
Article
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One problem in linguistic theory concerns the way in which a predication relation between a predicate and its subject (antecedent) is formally licensed by the grammar. The aims of this paper are: (i) to describe in detail the syntactic relationships between secondary predicates and their subjects (antecedents) in Japanese, a language that has not b...
Article
It has been proposed that subjects are base-generated under VP (VP internal subjects hypothesis). In this paper, we argue that the VP internal subject hypothesis that allows the subject to be base-generated under VP and move above VP at S-structure is not warranted in Japanese. Four pieces of evidence are discussed: floating numeral quantifiers; ps...
Article
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While Standard (Tokyo) Japanese has a lexical tonal system known as a system of 'lexical pitch accent', there are some varieties of Japanese, called 'accentless' dialects, which do not have any lexical tonal phenomena. We investigated how the speakers of those dialects perceive Standard Japanese accent, which is nonexistent in their native dialect'...
Article
Full-text available
While Standard (Tokyo) Japanese has a lexical tonal system known as 'lexical pitch accent', there are some varieties of Japanese, called 'accentless' dialects, which do not have any lexical tonal phenomena. We investigated the differ-ences in the perception of lexical pitch accent between the speakers of the accentless dialect and those of Standard...
Article
Full-text available
Japanese dialects are largely classified into two types in terms of prosodic systems, one having a lexical pitch contrast and the other having no such contrast. Dialects of the latter type are called 'accentless' dialects. Many previous studies reported that, in areas where an accentless dialect had been originally spoken, younger speakers acquired...

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First language acquisition Second language acquisition Nature and Nurture