Masanori Takezawa

Masanori Takezawa
Hokkaido University | Hokudai · Department of Behavioral Science

Ph. D. in Behavioural Science

About

61
Publications
9,022
Reads
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1,327
Citations
Citations since 2017
15 Research Items
556 Citations
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100
2017201820192020202120222023020406080100
Additional affiliations
November 2012 - present
Hokkaido University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
April 2010 - October 2012
Sophia University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
August 2006 - March 2010
Tilburg University
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
Education
April 1997 - March 2011
Hokkaido University
Field of study
  • Behavioural Science

Publications

Publications (61)
Preprint
The principle of majority rule is a major decision-making strategy widely used in human and animal society. While majority rule yields highly accurate performance compared to individuals in the same situation, its performance is strongly undermined by a small correlation among individual judgments. We focus on the alternative, the selected majority...
Article
In the last decade, psychology faced a serious crisis, called the reproducibility problem. To solve the problem, several methodological and institutional changes have been proposed and implemented such as the promotion of replication studies and publication of negative results, the introduction of a preregistration system in academic journals, and...
Preprint
It has long been argued that people use their own mental states to infer those of others who they perceive as similar to themselves. Tamir and Mitchell (2013) examined this hypothesis through the reaction time paradigm and demonstrated a positive relationship between the reaction time of other’s mental state judgments and the distance of judgments...
Article
Full-text available
The severity of the environment has been found to have played a selective pressure in the development of human behavior and psychology, and the historical prevalence of pathogens relate to cultural differences in group-oriented psychological mechanisms, such as collectivism and conformity to the in-group. However, previous studies have also propose...
Article
Full-text available
Theories of trust distinguish general trust in situations of social uncertainty from assurance-based trust in committed, long-term relationships. This study investigates European-Japanese differences using the Centipede game, in which two players choose between cooperation and defection. The game models repeated reciprocal interactions, necessitati...
Article
Full-text available
Most human relationships are characterized by reciprocal patterns of give-and-take that can be studied using a decision making task called the Centipede game. The game involves two players alternating in choosing between cooperation and defection, with their choices affecting payoffs to themselves and the co-player. We compared trust and cooperatio...
Article
Full-text available
In social dilemma games, human participants often show conditional cooperation (CC) behavior or its variant called moody conditional cooperation (MCC), with which they basically tend to cooperate when many other peers have previously cooperated. Recent computational studies showed that CC and MCC behavioral patterns could be explained by reinforcem...
Article
Full-text available
Direct reciprocity, or repeated interaction, is a main mechanism to sustain cooperation under social dilemmas involving two individuals. For larger groups and networks, which are probably more relevant to understanding and engineering our society, experiments employing repeated multiplayer social dilemma games have suggested that humans often show...
Data
Supporting Information for: Reinforcement Learning Explains Conditional Cooperation and Its Moody Cousin. (PDF)
Article
Full-text available
Humans often forward kindness received from others to strangers, a phenomenon called the upstream or pay-it-forward indirect reciprocity. Some field observations and laboratory experiments found evidence of pay-it-forward reciprocity in which chains of cooperative acts persist in social dilemma situations. Theoretically, however, cooperation based...
Article
Full-text available
It has been argued that people selectively use two strategies, projection and stereotyping, to infer the mental state of others. Through a series of studies, Ames (2004) confirmed the hypothesis that people project their own mental state to the other when the target person is perceived to be similar to oneself, while the stereotype of a group or ca...
Article
Full-text available
Significance Humans help strangers even if the strangers will not directly help them in the future. The so-called indirect reciprocity seems to support large-scale cooperation in human society. We revealed functional and anatomical neural bases of two types of indirect reciprocity by combining group and neuroimaging experiments. Reputation-based in...
Article
The evolution of punishment toward norm-violators has been discussed for understanding a large-scale human cooperation. Recent studies showed that the presence of cues of surveillance makes people concern about their reputation and increase altruistic behavior. Recent study also suggests that explicit cues of observation affect punitive behavior. W...
Article
Inferences are often based on uncertain cues, and the accuracy of such inferences depends on the order in which the cues are searched. Previous experimental and theoretical research has shown that individuals progress only slowly in learning of cue orderings through feedback. A clue to how people (as opposed to computers) solve this problem is soci...
Chapter
The chapter reports a series of studies comparing sharing behavior, moral judgment, and the negotiation of sharing in the dictator game, a nonstrategic fairness task in behavioral economics. Participants of five age groups of 9-, 12-, 14-, 17-year-olds and adults first made (hypothetical) individual decisions and then negotiated in groups of three...
Article
Many studies showed that a concern to maintaining good reputation induces cooperation. Haley & Fessler (2005) found that an illustration of a human face makes people cooperative in the dictator game. We demonstrate that this effect is moderated by a particular contextual variable – darkness. We found that the illustration of a human face did not in...
Article
Social contexts are notoriously complex, yet decisions are nevertheless made by using simple strategies. We argue that the concept of fast and frugal heuristics provides a promising framework for understanding how we gather social information to make decisions in social environments. That is, we assume that under limitations of time, energy, and co...
Article
For many years in evolutionary science, the consensus view has been that while reciprocal altruism can evolve in dyadic interactions, it is unlikely to evolve in sizable groups. This view had been based on studies which have assumed cooperation to be discrete rather than continuous (i.e., individuals can either fully cooperate or else fully defect,...
Article
Frecuentemente, basamos nuestras decisiones en diversas claves con distinto poder predictivo. Para obtener una precisión elevada en dichas decisiones, es crucial el orden en que exploramos las claves. La investigación previa ha puesto de manifiesto que las personas mostramos severos problemas a la hora de aprender a discriminar qué claves son predi...
Article
Our decisions about the world are often based on a sequential analysis of various uncertain cues. To achieve high accuracy, the order in which these cues are searched is crucial. Previous research, however, has shown that people demonstrate slow progress in learning cue ordering by validity when they could update such cue ordering through feedback....
Article
The present study investigated the underlying mechanism yielding a positive correlation between dyad members' mutual liking and meta-accuracy (i.e., dyad members who like each other tend to be accurate in judging how their partner sees them). Two pilot studies were first conducted to confirm the presence of the positive correlation. The main study...
Article
Full-text available
Evolutionary theories of altruism have suggested that reciprocal exchanges and ingroup favoritism have been important strategies leading to the evolution of altruistic behavior among strangers. This study investigates whether minimal information about an interaction partner's membership in a trivial social group affects the allocations of adults an...
Article
Full-text available
Inferences are often based on uncertain cues, and the accuracy of such inferences depends on the order in which the cues are searched. Previous research has shown that people and computers progress only slowly in individual learning of cue orderings through feedback. A clue to how people (as opposed to computers) solve this problem is social learni...
Article
In daily life, people frequently make inferences about current and future states of the world. Most of these inferences are not made individually, but by exchanging information about which strategies could be used with other people. In an experiment, we analyzed whether exchanging information socially increased the probability of selecting the most...
Article
Two hundred and ninety-four participants aged between 7 and 17 years of age were asked to share out money between themselves and another, imaginary group. Individual responses were recorded as well as responses after discussion in a group with two other participants. The distribution task took place in two different experimental conditions that eit...
Article
This study interconnects developmental psychology of fair and moral behavior with economic game theory. One hundred eighty-nine 9- to 17-year-old students shared a sum of money as individuals and groups with another anonymous group (dictator game). Individual allocations did not differ by age but did by gender and were predicted by participants' pr...
Article
En nuestro entorno, frecuentemente hacemos inferencias sobre los acontecimientos. Muchas de estas inferencias no se realizan individualmente: En ocasiones, tomamos decisiones colectivas o intercambiamos información sobre las estrategias que podemos emplear para realizarlas con otras personas. En un experimento, hemos estudiado si los procesos de co...
Article
Full-text available
We present a new method for quantitatively documenting concerns for economic fairness. In particular we focus on the method’s potential for identifying variation in prosociality within and across societies. Specifically, we conducted multiple dictator games per player in two small-scale societies. Each game presented the decision maker with a choic...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research on childrens understanding of social contracts has shown that children are able to identify violations of social contracts from an early age, that they attribute negative feelings including anger to victims of contract violations, and that attributions of negative (moral) feelings to violators increase with age. This study examine...
Article
Corruption in the public sector erodes tax compliance and leads to higher tax evasion. Moreover, corrupt public officials abuse their public power to extort bribes from the private agents. In both types of interaction with the public sector, the private agents are bound to face uncertainty with respect to their disposable incomes. To analyse effect...
Article
Take The Best (TTB) is a simple one-reason decision- making strategy that searches through cues in the order of cue validities. Interestingly, this heuristic performs comparably to, or even better than, more complex information-demanding strategies such as multiple regression. The question of how a cue ordering is learned, however, has been only re...
Article
Full-text available
Where do social norms come from? Part of the answer must surely lie in such norms' ability to support individual adaptive success in local ecologies. This theme is dominant in analyses of social behavior by economic game theorists and behavioral-ecology researchers, but it has been neglected by psychologists. An illustration of the methods and adva...
Article
Where do social norms come from? Part of the answer must surely lie in such norms' ability to support individual adaptive success in local ecologies. This theme is dominant in analyses of social behavior by economic game theorists and behavioral-ecology researchers, but it has been neglected by psychologists. An illustration of the methods and adva...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Asan,attempt ,to fill ,the gap between ,psychological ,studies on negotiations ,and game-theoretical studies on bargaining, I provide a new conception, that of the concession- making,strategy. This type of strategy is formally defined as a pattern of consecutive concessions,in bargaining. Because such a pattern is a product of decision mak...
Article
Full-text available
Although norms can potentially serve useful constructs to understand human minds, being fundamentally social in evolutionary as well as cultural senses, there are as yet no useful psychological theories of adaptive norm development. This article provides an illustrative model about how a norm emerges in a society. We focus on the "communal-sharing...
Chapter
Full-text available
The trees for classification and for decision that are introduced in this chapter are naïve, fast, and frugal. Why they are "naïve," that is, why they ignore conditional dependencies between cues, is extensively illustrated. Why they are "frugal," in the sense that they tend to use much fewer cues than those provided by the environment, is also exp...
Article
Sharing important resources widely beyond direct kin group members is one of the core features characterizing human societies. Moreover, generalized exchange involving many community members (e.g., meat sharing in bands) seems to be a uniquely human practice. This paper explores a computational algorithm for the psychology of social sharing that ma...
Article
The social dilemma problem has been noticed to be involved in collective action. In this paper I explained a process through which the social dilemma problem involved in collective action is resolved when participants share the heightened sense of unfairness. The heightened sense of being unfairly treated motivates people to take actions aimed at r...
Article
Full-text available
Social influence in consensus formation was examined using a notion of sociocognitive network. Given the robustness of shared information in determining group decisions, the authors propose the concept of a sociocognitive network that captures the degree of members' knowledge-sharing prior to group interaction. A link connecting a given pair of me...

Network

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