Marzena Smol

Marzena Smol
The Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences · Division of Biogenic Raw Materials

Doctor of Engineering
Green Deal Strategies - Circular Economy - Raw Materials - Nutrients - Roadmaps - Policy recommendations - LCA

About

131
Publications
45,232
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
1,721
Citations
Citations since 2017
87 Research Items
1609 Citations
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400
20172018201920202021202220230100200300400
Additional affiliations
May 2016 - October 2020
The Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences
Position
  • Professor (Assistant)
December 2014 - April 2016
June 2014 - July 2014
i-petrol
Position
  • Research Laboratory Technician - Science intern
Education
October 2011 - June 2013
Czestochowa University of Technology
Field of study
  • Management
January 2011 - June 2012
WSB University
Field of study
  • Pedagogical
October 2010 - September 2014
Czestochowa University of Technology
Field of study
  • Environmental engineering

Publications

Publications (131)
Article
Full-text available
The most important raw material needed for food production is phosphorus (P), which cannot be replaced by other elements. P is listed as a Critical Raw Material (CRM) for the European Union (EU). It is an element essential for human nutrition and is used for fertiliser production. The key importance of P for human life is evidenced by the fact that...
Article
Full-text available
The current enthusiasm for the circular economy (CE) offers a unique opportunity to advance the impact of research on sustainability transitions. Diverse interpretations of CE by scholars, however, produce partly opposing assessments of its potential benefits, which can hinder progress. Here, we synthesize policy-relevant lessons and research direc...
Article
Full-text available
Sewage sludge from municipal wastewater treatment installations was analyzed for the content of plant nutrients and heavy metals as well as for the presence of pathogenic microorganisms. The sediments showed a significant amt. of nutrients necessary for plants and the content of heavy metals did not exceed the permissible standards. The total P con...
Article
Full-text available
Adapting enterprises to a rapidly changing world pursuing the goal of sustainable development is accomplished through a strategic approach to corporate social responsibility (CSR). Due to its holistic nature, this concept can permeate business activities at every level of the supply chain, allowing for the perception of the company’s opportunities...
Article
Full-text available
The article presents an analysis of the current methods for phosphorus removal applied in municipal wastewater treatment plants in Poland. Within the study, 131 wastewater treatment plants were investigated, constituting 17 630 500 population equivalent, which is about 1/3 of the overall population equivalent (designed) in Poland. The research was...
Article
Full-text available
Climate crisis is obviously an international problem that requires concerted actions by all regions and countries in the world. In the recent years, many various national and international organisations launched specific initiatives for counteracting progress of climate change and environmental degradation, which are based on sustainability. Curren...
Chapter
Full-text available
Paper presents results of the MonGOS project – Monitoring of water and wastewater management in the context of implementing the assumptions of the circular economy, that was conducted by consortium of partners from Poland, Belgium, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia, in 2020–2022. Project aimed to develop comprehensive CE monitoring framework a...
Book
Full-text available
Dear Reader, It is my great pleasure to share a set of works on the implementation of circular economy (CE) in the water and sewage sector, which were widely discussed during the MonGOS International Conference: Water and Sewage in the Circular Economy Model, that took place in Cracow (Poland) on 30 June and 1 July 2022. This conference was dedicat...
Book
Full-text available
The Monograph “Strategies toward Green Deal Implementation – Water, Raw Materials & Energy” includes the selected papers that have been presented during the 2nd edition of International Conference on Strategies toward Green Deal Implementation – Water, Raw Materials & Energy.
Book
Full-text available
Monografia „Strategie Wdrażania Zielonego Ładu – Woda, Surowce i Energia” zawiera wybrane referaty, które zostały zaprezentowane podczas II edycji Międzynarodowej Konferencji Naukowej nt. Strategii Wdrażania Zielonego Ładu – Woda, Surowce i Energia w 2021r.
Book
Full-text available
Book of abstracts contains all papers that have been presented during the MonGOS International Conference - Water and Sewage in the Circular Economy Model (30 June-1 July 2022, Cracow, Poland). In nine sessions of the MonGOS International Conference, Practitioners and Theoreticians presented works related to the implementation of CE in the sector,...
Chapter
Full-text available
2,4 mld ton odpadów wyprodukowali mieszkańcy UE w 2018 r. Bez ambitnych działań ten wskaźnik będzie tylko wzrastał, dlatego w 2020 r. Komisja Europejska przedstawiła nowy plan gospodarki o obiegu zamkniętym, który stał się kluczowym blokiem zielonej transformacji. W pierwszej kolejności należy podejmować działania mające na celu zapobieganie powsta...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents the results of the evaluation of the possibility of using a selected sorbent of natural origin, mineral (opoka rock), for the removal of biogenic compounds from aqueous solutions. The analyzed opoka rock contains approximately 70% calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and from 26 to 27% silicon dioxide (SiO2) and has been classified as heav...
Preprint
Full-text available
The article presents an analysis of the current methods for phosphorus removal applied in municipal wastewater treatment plants in Poland. Within the study, 131 wastewater treatment plants were investigated, constituting 17 630 500 population equivalent, which is about 1/3 of the overall population equivalent (designed) in Poland. The research was...
Article
The European Union is currently in the process of transformation toward a circular economy model in which different areas of activity should be integrated for more efficient management of raw materials and waste. The wastewater sector has a great potential in this regard and therefore is an important element of the transformation process to the cir...
Article
Eighty percent of wastewater is left untreated or not reused, exacerbating the water quality challenge, especially in vulnerable communities. This Voices asks: how can we improve wastewater management and convert wastewater into a resource?
Article
Full-text available
POLISH: Wykorzystanie nawozów pochodzenia organicznego może w znaczący sposób przyczynić się do realizacji koncepcji gospodarki o obiegu zamkniętym (GOZ) i spełnienia założeń Europejskiego Zielonego Ładu. Komisja Europejska rekomenduje odzysk składników odżywczych z odpadów organicznych i ich wykorzystanie na gruntach, jednak istnieje wiele czynnik...
Book
Full-text available
This publication includes papers presented at the ICGreenDeal2021 that took place 8-10 December 2021, online and was organised by the Division of Biogenic Raw Materials of the Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences. I would like to thank all Participants – both Presenters and Listeners for sharing and listen...
Article
Full-text available
Poland is dynamically changing its energy mix. As a result of this process, solar energy is increasing its share in energy production. The development of the solar energy market is determined by numerous factors. This paper aims to develop a roadmap for further development of the photovoltaic (PV) energy market in Poland. The scope of the research...
Article
Full-text available
Protection and sustainable management of water was indicated as one of the strategic tasks in the process of transformation towards a circular economy (CE) in the European Union (EU), therefore, the water and wastewater sector plays an important role in this process. At the same time, the European Commission (EC) strongly underlined the importance...
Article
Full-text available
European Union (EU) is in the process of transformation toward a circular economy (CE), which is a regenerative growth model that gives back to the planet more than it takes. Member States are key players in this process; therefore, next to the EU Action Plan, they developed national strategies (roadmaps) toward the CE. The paper presents an invent...
Article
Full-text available
The circular economy (CE) has been a European Union (EU) priority since 2014, when first official document on the CE was published. Currently, the EU is on the road to the transformation from a linear economy model to the CE model. In 2019, a new strategy was announced – the European Green Deal, the main goal of which is to mobilize the industrial...
Chapter
Water management is an important element of an economy, due to many industries depending on water, and limited access to clean water resources can limit both production capacity and profits. Water issues are a significant part of a circular economy (CE), which assumes more sustainable management of raw materials (including water) and waste (includi...
Chapter
Full-text available
Streszczenie: Gospodarka o obiegu zamkniętym (GOZ) to model regeneracyjnego wzrostu opierający się na bardziej zrównoważonym gospodarowaniu zasobami ze źródeł pierwotnych i wtórnych. W kontekście gospodarki wodno-ściekowej, transformacja w kierunku modelu GOZ uwzględnia bardziej racjonalne metody gospodarowania wodą (jako surowcem pierwotnym) oraz...
Chapter
Full-text available
znaczenie biogospodarki w mapach drogowych gospodarki o obiegu zamkniętym (GOZ) w wybranych państwach europejskich Streszczenie: Model gospodarki o obiegu zamkniętym (GOZ) to jeden z priorytetów współczesnej polityki Komisji Europejskiej (KE). Od 2014 r., kiedy to KE wskazała konieczność transformacji w kierunku GOZ w Unii Europejskiej (UE), wiele...
Book
Full-text available
Monografia „Strategie Wdrażania Zielonego Ładu – Woda i Surowce” zawiera wybrane referaty, które zostały zaprezentowane podczas I edycji Międzynarodowej Konferencji nt. Strategii Wdrażania Zielonego Ładu – Woda i Surowce.
Book
Full-text available
The Monograph “Strategies toward Green Deal Implementation – Water and Raw Materials” includes the selected papers that have been presented during the 1st edition of International Conference on Strategies toward Green Deal Implementation – Water and Raw Materials.
Article
Full-text available
The European Green Deal highlights the need for anthropogenic pressure reduction according to the toxic-free environment ambition. Heavy metals are the largest threat to the food sector sustainability while they are easily bioaccumulated by living organisms, especially aquatic species. Cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg) introduced to the food chain were...
Article
Full-text available
This special issue presents selected high quality and peer-reviewed papers presented on the 1st International Conference “Strategies toward Green Deal Implementation — Water and Raw Materials” (ICGreenDeal2020) that was held on December 14–16, 2020 in Cracow, Poland.Due to the coronavirus pandemic the Conference was organised as the virtual event....
Article
Full-text available
The study investigates phosphorus (P) recovery potential from sewage sludge in the most prevalent activated sludge (AS) systems obtained with an Activated Sludge Model (ASM) simulation using BioWin software by EnviroSim Associates Ltd., (Hamilton, Ontario, Canada). The simulation study includes 10 various wastewater treatment systems. The analyzed...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents an analysis of a phosphorus (P) recovery potential from waste generated in one of the mono-incineration plants of municipal sewage sludge (SS) located in Poland. The amount of sewage sludge ash (SSA) generated in the analyzed plant varied from 35.0 Mg in 2019 to 419.0 Mg in 2016, which affects the amount of P potentially recover...
Article
Full-text available
Circular economy (CE) is an economic model, in which raw materials remain in circulation as long as possible and the generation of waste is minimized. In the fertilizer sector, waste rich in nutrients should be directed to agriculture purposes. This paper presents an analysis of recommended directions for the use of nutrient-rich waste in fertilize...
Preprint
Full-text available
The current enthusiasm for circular economy (CE) offers a unique opportunity to advance the impact of research on sustainability transitions. Diverse interpretations of CE by scholars, however, produce partly opposing assessments of its potential benefits, which can hinder progress. Here, we synthesize policy-relevant lessons and research direction...
Article
Full-text available
Mobilizing industry and transforming industrial sectors to a circular economy (CE) is one of the key areas of activities in the European Green Deal (EGD)—the newest strategy of economic growth in European Union (EU). In the CE, the raw materials that can be recovered from various waste streams play a key role, therefore, recommendations for their m...
Article
Full-text available
The intensification of the Baltic Sea eutrophication is associated with the increase of anthropogenic nutrients loads, mainly nitrogen and phosphorus introduced into surface waters from a diffuse, point and natural background sources. Despite the observed decreasing trends in nutrient concentrations in some parts of the Baltic Sea, eutrophication-r...
Book
Full-text available
This publication presents summaries of all papers presented at the ICGreenDeal2020. We would like to thank all Participants, including Scientists & Academics, Environmentalists, Nature Lovers and Green Innovators (entrepreneurs) for presentation of 150 papers in 14 thematic sessions during this 3-days online Conference. Together, we want to save th...
Article
Full-text available
Transformation toward a circular economy (CE) model is one of the main priorities of the European Commission (EC). In the previous years, most of the European countries prepared national documents presenting their possibilities and plans for implementing CE in the country. In Poland, in 2019, the CE roadmap was approved by the government. Bioeconom...
Chapter
Full-text available
Unia Europejska (UE), w której produkowane jest około 2,5 mld Mg odpadów rocznie, jest obecnie w procesie transformacji w kierunku gospodarki o obiegu zamkniętym (GOZ) zakładającej, że odpady powinny być postrzegane jako surowce wtórne, które można ponownie wykorzystać. Jedną z możliwości zagospodarowania odpadów jest wykorzystanie ich na cele nawo...
Article
Full-text available
Phosphorus (P) recovery from sewage sludge ash (SSA) is one of the most promising approaches of phosphate rock substitution in mineral fertilizers and might be a sustainable way to secure supply of this raw material in the future. In the current investigation, the process of thermochemical treatment of SSA was applied to SSA coming from selected mo...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents an inventory of sewage sludge ashes (SSA) generated in the mono-incineration plants for municipal sewage sludge in Poland. This research focused on the detailed study of mass flows, chemical composition, and phosphorus recovery potential. There are currently 11 sludge mono-incineration plants operated with a total capacity of 16...
Article
Full-text available
Ashes from thermal transformation of municipal sewage sludge were thermochem. modified at 1000°C in the presence of NaHCO3 and sewage sludge to obtain CaNaPO4 and reduce the content of heavy metals in the produced fertilizer. Its bioavailability was more than 99% higher than that of raw ashes (50%). The nutrient content was 13.56% Ca, 6.33% P, 4.36...
Article
Full-text available
A dynamic development of sewer networks and municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) leads to the formation a large amounts of municipal sewage sludges (MSSs) which have to be disposed. One of the MSS disposal practices is thermal conversion in mono-incineration plants. Nowadays, there are 11 such installations in Poland, with the total capaci...
Article
Full-text available
The paper presents an application of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method for the environmental evaluation of the technologies for the fertilizers production. LCA has been used because it enables the most comprehensive identifi cation, documentation and quantifi cation of the potential impacts on the environment and the evaluation and comparison of all...
Chapter
Full-text available
The water and sewage sector is currently facing many challenges arising from the implementation of a circular economy (CE), which is the newest European political priority (COM no. 98, 2020). Circular economy is defined by the European Commission (EC) as an economic model where the value of products, materials and resources is maintained in the eco...
Article
Full-text available
Municipal waste management has been an area of special interest for the European Commission (EC) for many years, especially in the transformation process towards a circular economy (CE), which is a priority of the European Union’s (EU’s) economic policy. This paper presents the overview of the Polish waste management system (WMS) and the CE-related...
Article
Full-text available
More sustainable waste management practices are an important element in the transformation towards a circular economy (CE). Activities in this area should be dedicated to all groups of waste, including those generated in the water and sewage sector. This paper presents the characteristics of sewage sludge ash (SSA) coming from Polish municipal wast...
Article
Full-text available
The European Green Deal is the new strategy for economic growth adopted by the European Commission (EC) in late 2019. One of the most important tasks in the realisation of this strategy is the mobilisation of the industry for a clean and circular economy (CE). Currently, the European Union (EU) is in the process of transformation towards a CE model...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the significant reduction of phosphorus (P) discharge in the Baltic Sea in the last decades, obtained through the implementation of some approaches within the Helsinki Convention, eutrophication is still considered the biggest problem for the Baltic Sea environment. Consequently, the reduction of P load is an urgent need to solve, but the c...
Article
Full-text available
One of the key elements in the transformation towards a circular economy (CE) is providing more sustainable practices for resources and waste management. Improvement actions focused on transformation towards a CE should be targeted at all groups of materials and waste. As water is essential for human survival and well-being and plays a significant...
Book
Full-text available
Book presents a training program for the hospitality industry to facilitate a transition towards increased circularity in the South Baltic Region.
Article
Full-text available
Attribution-ShareAlike International License (CC BY-SA 4.0, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/), which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the Article is properly cited. Energy efficiency of the phytoremediation process supported with the use of energy crops-P. arundinacea L. and Brassica napus L. Ab...
Conference Paper
The circular economy action plan of the European Commission and in the following, several Circular Economy Roadmaps in different European countries , as well as the documents of the Ellen MacArthur Foundation describe a vision of and the way to an economy, “where the value of products, materials and resources is maintained in the economy for as lon...
Chapter
Full-text available
Innowacyjne rozwiązania w remediacji gleb skażonych zanieczyszczeniami organicznymi 1. Stan środowiska glebowego w Polsce Prawidłowe funkcjonowanie ekosystemu glebowego jest jednym z ważniejszych wymogów istnienia życia na ziemi. Gleba bezpośrednio odpowiedzialna jest za tworzenie przestrzeni życiowej dla większości zwierząt i roślin lądowych. Ucze...
Chapter
Full-text available
Znaczenie zarządzania i monitorowania gospodarki surowcami mineralnymi w procesie transformacji w kierunku gospodarki o obiegu zamkniętym (GOZ) 1. Wprowadzenie Zarządzanie surowcami mineralnymi stanowi istotne zagadnienie współczesnej polityki rozwoju, zarówno na poziomie krajowym [1], jak i międzynarodowym [2]. Wiąże się to z faktem, iż nawet najs...
Article
Full-text available
The current study presents the importance of collaboration in the knowledge triangle – KT (business, higher education and research) because innovation networks and collaboration are identified in the European Innovation Scoreboard (EIS) as one of the determinants of innovation development in European countries. Moreover, the importance of KT coopera...
Article
The paper presents an application of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method to compare the environmental impacts of the various methods of the feed phosphates (FPs) production. The three Scenarios of the FPs production technologies were compared - modified thermal method (one installation) and low-temperature endothermic methods (two different inst...
Article
Full-text available
Gospodarka odpadami komunalnymi jest od wielu lat obszarem szczególnego zainteresowania Komisji Europejskiej (KE). W 2018 r. KE wskazała zagadnienia związane z gospodarką odpadami komunalnymi jako ważny element ram monitorowania procesu transformacji w kierunku gospodarki o obiegu zamkniętym (GOZ), stanowiącej obecnie priorytet polityki gospodarcze...
Article
The paper presents an evaluation of efficiency and economic potential of the phytoremediation technology, based on the use of energy crops (P. arundinacea L. and B. Napus L.), combined with the fertilization with compost, supported by the addition of nano SiO 2. The experiment was conducted in in-situ conditions, using two experimental blocks, divi...
Chapter
Full-text available
Phosphorus (P) so-called ‘life's bottleneck’ is an essential element for human nutrition, which cannot be replaced by any other element. Demand for P is expected to increase because of growing world population and so need for food, however the global high-grade phosphate rock reserves are dwindling. Phosphorus comes from primary (phosphate rock dep...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction. The existing state of the use of natural resources by recreational management subjects showed problems in the legislative framework regarding methodical explanations of the calculation of rental payments for extraction and use of recreation resources of the recreation management subjects have been identified. The directions of managem...
Article
Full-text available
In the transition to the circular economy (CE) model, the sustainable management of raw materials plays a key role in the whole value chain. One of the most important critical raw materials (CRM) for the European economy is Phosphorus (P), which cannot be replaced by any other element. This paper presents the current P management structure in Polan...
Chapter
Full-text available
PL: Zgodnie z Komunikatem Komisji Europejskiej (KE) w sprawie przeglądu wykazu surowców krytycznych dla Unii Europejskiej (UE) i wdrażania inicjatywy na rzecz surowców, w 2017 r. przedstawiony został nowy wykaz surowców krytycznych, wśród których znalazły się fosforyt i fosfor. Surowce fosforowe należą do jednych z najważniejszych surowców mineraln...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Within the frame of the EIT Raw Materials, STORM (Industrial Symbiosis for the Sustainable Management of Raw Materials) is a Network of Infrastructures project aiming at establishing an excellence network dedicated to provide services and tools to external customers for the implementation of innovative, sustainable business and cooperation models,...
Article
In the transition to the circular economy (CE) model in Europe, increasing public awareness is one of the major driving forces. This paper presents the results of an evaluation of public awareness and attitudes about CE in the Malopolska region of southern Poland. The data used in this study was collected by random distribution of questionnaires in...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, coke wastewater that had passed through biological and integrated membrane processes (filtration on sand bed—reverse osmosis) was chosen to assess the phytotoxicity of selected industrial wastewater with regard to the test plant—Vicia faba. An innovative research technique in vitro test was conducted in a large scale phytothrone cham...
Article
Full-text available
Celem przeprowadzonego eksperymentu było zbadanie możliwości zastosowania upraw roślin energetycznych, w postaci mozgi trzcinowatej (Phalaris arundinacea), w procesie fitoremediacji terenów zanieczyszczonych herbicydami z grupy fenoksykwasów (2,4-D, MCPA) oraz wybranymi WWA (suma 10 WWA zgodnie z Dz.U. 2016, 1395). Dodatkowo, w ramach doświadczenia...
Article
Full-text available
In the current work, an application of multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) to select the optimal variant of municipal leachate management is presented. The investigated leachate comes from a municipal, non-hazardous and neutral waste landfill located closely to the urban area in Southern Poland. Four different variants of leachate disposal were...
Article
Phosphorous (P) is one of the major nutrients (next to nitrogen) contributing in the increased eutrophication of natural waters, that is, rivers and lakes. One of the major inputs of anthropogenic P is caused by the discharge of municipal and industrial wastewater with high P concentration. Therefore, the control of P discharged from treatment plan...