Mary L Marazita

Mary L Marazita
University of Pittsburgh | Pitt · Center for Craniofacial and Dental Genetics, Oral Biology

B.S., Ph.D., FACMG

About

737
Publications
73,273
Reads
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23,955
Citations
Citations since 2017
260 Research Items
10957 Citations
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201720182019202020212022202305001,0001,5002,000

Publications

Publications (737)
Article
Objectives: To describe the association between household food insecurity and intake of cariogenic foods that increase risk of dental caries. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of 842 mothers in Appalachia and their children participating in the Center for Oral Health Research Cohort 2 between 2011 and 2017 when their children were ~ 24 months of a...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: By age five approximately one-fifth of children have early childhood caries (ECC). Both the oral microbiome and host genetics are thought to influence susceptibility. Whether the oral microbiome modifies genetic susceptibility to ECC has not been tested. We test whether the salivary bacteriome modifies the association of a polygenic sco...
Article
Full-text available
Background Early childhood caries (ECC)—dental caries (cavities) occurring in primary teeth up to age 6 years—is a prevalent childhood oral disease with a microbial etiology. Streptococcus mutans was previously considered a primary cause, but recent research promotes the ecologic hypothesis, in which a dysbiosis in the oral microbial community lead...
Article
Full-text available
Although genetics affects early childhood caries (ECC) risk, few studies have focused on finding its specific genetic determinants. Here, we performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in five cohorts of children (aged up to 5 years, total N = 2974, cohorts: Center for Oral Health Research in Appalachia cohorts one and two [COHRA1, COHRA2], Io...
Chapter
This chapter reviews the epidemiology, etiology, and genetic risk factors for syndromic and non‐syndromic orofacial clefting (OFC), as well as genetic counseling for affected families. Maternal smoking during pregnancy is the most replicated risk factor for OFC. OFCs show strong familial aggregation, which suggests a strong genetic component to the...
Preprint
Full-text available
The cranial vault - the portion of the skull surrounding the brain and cerebellum - is highly variable, clinically relevant, and heritable, yet its genetic architecture remains poorly understood. Here, we conducted a joint multi-ancestry and admixed multivariate GWAS on 3D cranial vault shape extracted from magnetic resonance images of 6,772 childr...
Article
Novel or rare damaging mutations have been implicated in the developmental pathogenesis of nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (nsCL ± P). Thus, we investigated the human genome for high-impact mutations that could explain the risk of nsCL ± P in our cohorts. We conducted next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis of 130 nsCL ± P ca...
Chapter
This chapter reviews the evidence of gene × environment interactions (G × E) in the etiology of orofacial cleft birth defects (OFCs), specifically cleft lip (CL), cleft palate (CP), and cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P). We summarize the current state of our understanding of the genetic architecture of nonsyndromic OFCs and the evidence...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Examine whether mothers perceived that child oral health was a source of conflict in family relationships. Methods This cross-sectional qualitative study consisted of 126 semi-structured interviews with mothers of 3–5 year-old children from West Virginia and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Interviews consisted of open-ended questions on the m...
Article
Background Added sugar in children’s diets puts them at higher risk of developing caries. Researchers have reported that grandparents frequently give their grandchildren cariogenic foods and beverages (for example, those with added sugars) and disagreements between grandparents and parents can ensue over this issue. This study's objective was to ex...
Article
Objective: To evaluate the associations between time-varying factors (mother's oral health, oral hygiene, smoking habits, diet, food insecurity and stress) socioeconomic factors (mother's employment, marital status, household income, insurance status, household size) and medical history on children's risk of developing a carious lesion in the firs...
Article
Objective Describe associations between dental caries and dental plaque microbiome, by dentition and family membership. Methods This cross-sectional analysis included 584 participants in the Center for Oral Health Research in Appalachia Cohort 1 (COHRA1). We sequenced the 16S ribosomal RNA gene (V4 region) of frozen supragingival plaque, collected...
Article
Full-text available
Genetic risk factors play important roles in the etiology of oral, dental, and craniofacial diseases. Identifying the relevant risk loci and understanding their molecular biology could highlight new prevention and management avenues. Our current understanding of oral health genomics suggests that dental caries and periodontitis are polygenic diseas...
Preprint
Full-text available
Orofacial clefts (OFCs) are common craniofacial birth defects including cleft lip (CL), cleft lip with cleft palate (CLP), and cleft palate (CP). The etiological heterogeneity of OFCs complicates clinical diagnostics as it is not always readily apparent if the cause is Mendelian, environmental, or multifactorial. Although sequencing could aid diagn...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study was to evaluate whether dietary habits at age 2 associate with sleep duration trajectories through age 5 in children from north and central Appalachia. A total of 559 children from the Center for Oral Health Research in Appalachia (COHRA) cohort 2 were followed via caregiver phone interviews up to six times between ages...
Article
Full-text available
Mild curvature of the fifth finger (or clinodactyly) is a relatively common trait. While severe forms can cause functional impairment and are a feature of certain congenital syndromes, mild clinodactyly is considered a minor morphological variant. Despite exhibiting continuous variation, clinodactyly is rarely treated as a quantitative trait. Conse...
Article
Full-text available
The majority (85%) of nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (nsCL/P) cases occur sporadically, suggesting a role for de novo mutations (DNMs) in the etiology of nsCL/P. To identify high impact protein-altering DNMs that contribute to the risk of nsCL/P, we conducted whole-genome sequencing (WGS) analyses in 130 African case-parent tri...
Article
Full-text available
Children with orofacial clefting (OFC) present with a wide range of dental anomalies. Identifying these anomalies is vital to understand their etiology and to discern the complex phenotypic spectrum of OFC. Such anomalies are currently identified using intra-oral exams by dentists, a costly and time-consuming process. We claim that automating the p...
Article
Full-text available
Individuals with orofacial clefting (OFC) have a higher prevalence of tooth agenesis (TA) overall. Neither the precise etiology of TA, nor whether TA occurs in patterns that differ by gender or cleft type is yet known. This meta-analysis aims to identify the spectrum of tooth agenesis patterns in subjects with non-syndromic OFC and controls using t...
Article
Importance: Fluoride delivered either topically (eg, fluoride varnish) or systemically (eg, water fluoridation, prescription fluoride supplements) is widely used as a caries preventive agent in children. The widespread existence of misinformation, including inaccurate information that attaches negative values or suspicion to fluoride treatments, r...
Article
Background Dental caries is the most common chronic childhood disease. Past studies reveal that grandparents provide their grandchildren with cariogenic foods and beverages (e.g., those with free sugars and/or modified starches). Qualitative research can help identify what drives this phenomenon. Objectives To examine mothers’ explanations for why...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To explore the association of racism in oral healthcare settings and dental care-related fear/anxiety with dental utilization among Black/African American women in Appalachia. Methods: We analyzed self-report measures of racism in oral healthcare settings, dental care-related anxiety and fear, recency of a dental visit, and demographi...
Article
Enamel hypoplasia causes reduction in the thickness of affected enamel and is one of the most common dental anomalies. This defect is caused by environmental and/or genetic factors that interfere with tooth formation, emphasizing the importance of investigating enamel hypoplasia on an epidemiological and genetic level. A genome-wide association of...
Article
Full-text available
Non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P) is a common birth defect, affecting approximately 1 in 700 births. NSCL/P has complex etiology including several known genes and environmental factors; however, known genetic risk variants only account for a small fraction of the heritability of NSCL/P. It is commonly suggested that gene...
Article
Nonsyndromic orofacial clefts (OFCs) are among the most common craniofacial birth defects worldwide, and known to exhibit phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity. Cleft lip plus cleft palate (CLP) and cleft lip only (CL) are commonly combined together as one phenotype (CL/P), separately from cleft palate alone. In comparison, our study analyzes CL and...
Article
Objectives To examine whether information that mothers received from dentists in their social network was consistent with professional recommendations for the first dental visit at age 1 y. Methods We performed a cross-sectional qualitative study on mothers in Pennsylvania and West Virginia from 2018 to 2020 to explore how their social networks in...
Preprint
Full-text available
The majority (85%) of nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (nsCL/P) cases occur sporadically, suggesting a role for de novo mutations (DNMs) in the etiology of nsCL/P. To identify high impact DNMs that contribute to the risk of nsCL/P, we conducted whole genome sequencing (WGS) analyses in 130 African case-parent trios (affected prob...
Preprint
Full-text available
Children with orofacial clefting (OFC) present with a wide range of dental anomalies. Identifying these anomalies is vital to understand their etiology and to discern the complex phenotypic spectrum of OFC. Such anomalies are currently identified using intra-oral exams by dentists, a costly and time-consuming process. We claim that automating the p...
Article
Full-text available
Risk loci identified through genome-wide association studies have explained about 25% of the phenotypic variations in nonsyndromic orofacial clefts (nsOFCs) on the liability scale. Despite the notable sex differences in the incidences of the different cleft types, investigation of loci for sex-specific effects has been understudied. To explore the...
Article
Dental caries (cavities), one of the most common infectious diseases, is caused by a number of factors. Oral microbes, dietary practices, sociodemographic factors, and dental hygiene all inform caries risk. Assessing the impact of diet is complicated as individuals eat foods in combinations, and the interactions among the foods may alter caries ris...
Preprint
Full-text available
Orofacial clefts (OFCs) are among the most common craniofacial birth defects and constitute a high public health burden around the world. OFCs are phenotypically heterogeneous, affecting only the lip, only the palate, or involving both the lip and palate. Cleft palate alone is demonstrably a genetically distinct abnormality from OFCs that involve t...
Article
The PhenX Toolkit (https://www.phenxtoolkit.org/) is an online catalog of recommended measurement protocols to facilitate cross‐study analyses for biomedical research. An expert review panel (ERP) reviewed and updated the PhenX Toolkit Speech and Hearing domain to improve the precision and consistency of speech, language, and hearing disorder pheno...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Early childhood caries (ECC) – dental caries (cavities) occurring in primary teeth up to age 6-years - is a prevalent childhood oral disease that includes a microbial etiology. Streptococcus mutans was previously considered a primary cause, but recent research promotes the ecologic hypothesis, in which a dysbiosis in the oral microbial c...
Article
Full-text available
Facial morphology is highly variable, both within and among human populations, and a sizable portion of this variation is attributable to genetics. Previous genome scans have revealed more than 100 genetic loci associated with different aspects of normal-range facial variation. Most of these loci have been detected in Europeans, with few studies fo...
Article
Objective: Nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or cleft palate (NSCL/P) have multifactorial etiology where genetic factors, gene-environment interactions, stochastic factors, gene-gene interactions, and parent-of-origin effects (POEs) play cardinal roles. POEs arise when the parental origin of alleles differentially impacts the phenotype of the offspring....
Article
Full-text available
The human face is a highly complex and variable structure resulting from the intricate coordination of numerous genetic and non-genetic factors. Hundreds of genomic loci impacting quantitative facial features have been identified. While these associations have been shown to influence morphology by altering the mean size and shape of facial measures...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Dental caries is one of the most common chronic diseases and is influenced by a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Most previous genetic studies of caries have focused on identifying genes that contribute to dental caries in specific ethnic groups, usually of European descent. Methods: The aim of this study is to...
Article
Objectives: Palatal shape contains a lot of information that is of clinical interest. Moreover, palatal shape analysis can be used to guide or evaluate orthodontic treatments. A statistical shape model (SSM) is a tool that, by means of dimensionality reduction, aims at compactly modeling the variance of complex shapes for efficient analysis. In th...
Article
Full-text available
Use of dental services in childhood, especially preventive care, is associated with many important oral health outcomes throughout life. The Andersen behavioral model of healthcare utilization posits that predisposing characteristics, enabling resources, and need factors predict utilization in oral and other healthcare domains. Inequities that prod...
Article
This study aimed to determine the normative facial anthropometry measurement among Nigerians using three-dimensional stereophotogrammetry analysis. This study was carried out in Lagos, Nigeria over a period of 3 years. The sample population was Nigerians of diverse ethnic groups, age 16 and above with no history of congenital or acquired craniofac...
Article
Full-text available
Based on epidemiologic and embryologic patterns, nonsyndromic orofacial clefts- the most common craniofacial birth defects in humans- are commonly categorized into cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) and cleft palate alone (CP), which are traditionally considered to be etiologically distinct. However, some evidence of shared genetic risk...
Article
Modern human palate shape has been reported to vary by sex and ancestry, but limitations in the methods used to quantify shape and in population coverage have led to inconsistent findings. In the present study, the authors aim to characterize the effects of sex and ancestry on normal-range three-dimensional palate shape through landmark-based morph...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: The aim of the study is to highlight variations in facial anthropometric measurements among the major ethnic groups in Nigeria using 3D photogrammetry. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in Lagos, Nigeria. Acquisition of 3D facial photographs was done using a Vectra H1 portable 3D photogrammetry imaging system. Descriptive...
Article
Background The bacteriome is associated with susceptibility to some eukaryotic viruses, but no study has examined associations between the salivary bacteriome and human herpesviruses (HHVs). We provide new prevalence and incidence estimates for salivary herpesviruses detection and estimate associations with bacteriome diversity in young children....
Article
Orofacial clefts (OFCs) are common (1 in 700 births) congenital malformations that include a cleft lip (CL) and cleft lip and palate (CLP). These OFC subtypes are also heterogeneous themselves, with the CL occurring on the left, right, or both sides of the upper lip. Unilateral CL and CLP have a 2:1 bias towards left-sided clefts, suggesting a nonr...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Cleft lip with/without cleft palate and cleft palate only are congenital birth defects where the upper lip and/or palate fail to fuse properly during embryonic facial development. Affecting ~1.2/1000 live births world-wide, these orofacial clefts impose significant social and financial burdens on affected individuals and their families....
Article
Full-text available
Non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (nsCL/P) is a common congenital facial malformation with a multifactorial etiology. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple genetic risk loci. However, functional interpretation of these loci is hampered by the underrepresentation in public resources of systematic function...
Article
Objectives To develop and evaluate a geometric deep-learning network to automatically place seven palatal landmarks on digitized maxillary dental casts. Settings and Sample population The sample comprised individuals with permanent dentition of various ethnicities. The network was trained from manual landmark annotations on 732 dental casts and ev...
Article
Full-text available
Background Early childhood caries (ECC) is a rapidly progressing form of dental infection and a significant public health problem, especially among socially and economically disadvantaged populations. This study aimed to assess the risk factors for ECC among a cohort of Sub-Saharan African children and to determine the role of genetics in the etiol...
Article
Full-text available
The goals of PhenX (consensus measures for Phenotypes and eXposures) are to promote the use of standard measurement protocols and to help investigators identify opportunities for collaborative research and cross‐study analysis, thus increasing the impact of individual studies. The PhenX Toolkit (https://www.phenxtoolkit.org/) offers high‐quality, w...
Article
Full-text available
Orofacial clefts (OFCs) are among the most prevalent craniofacial birth defects worldwide and create a significant public health burden. The majority of OFCs are non-syndromic and vary in prevalence by ethnicity. Africans have the lowest prevalence of OFCs (~ 1/2,500), Asians have the highest prevalence (~1/500), Europeans and Latin Americans lie s...
Article
Full-text available
Two large studies of case–parent trios ascertained through a proband with a non-syndromic orofacial cleft (OFC, which includes cleft lip and palate, cleft lip alone, or cleft palate alone) were used to test for possible gene–environment (G × E) interaction between genome-wide markers (both observed and imputed) and self-reported maternal exposure t...
Article
Introduction Malnutrition in children is one of the most prevalent global health challenges, and malnourished children have a higher risk of death from childhood diseases. Early childhood caries (ECC) is the most common chronic disease of childhood. Complications from ECC such as pain, loss of tooth/teeth, and infection can undermine a child’s nutr...
Preprint
Full-text available
Orofacial clefts (OFCs) are common (1 in 700 births) congenital malformations that include cleft lip (CL) and cleft lip and palate (CLP). These OFC subtypes are also heterogeneous themselves, with the cleft lip occurring on the left, right, or both sides of the upper lip. Unilateral CL and CLP have a 2:1 bias towards left-sided clefts, suggesting a...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Studies suggest that high levels of masculinity in men can be a signal of ‘better genes’ as well as low parental investment. It is the trade-off between these two qualities that has led to the hypothesis that women’s preferences for male masculinity are condition-dependent, yet, not all studies support this hypothesis. In addition, there...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Fluctuating asymmetry is often used as an indicator of developmental instability, and is proposed as a signal of genetic quality. The display of prominent masculine phenotypic features, which are a direct result of high androgen levels, is also believed to be a sign of genetic quality, as these hormones may act as immunosuppressants. F...
Article
Full-text available
Unaffected relatives of individuals with non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P) show distinctive facial features. The presence of this facial endophenotype is potentially an expression of underlying genetic susceptibility to NSCL/P in the larger unselected population. To explore this hypothesis, we first partitioned the face...
Article
Full-text available
Nonsyndromic orofacial clefts (OFCs) are a common birth defect and are phenotypically heterogenous in the structure affected by the cleft - cleft lip (CL) and cleft lip and palate (CLP) – as well as other features, such as the severity of the cleft. Here, we focus on bilateral and unilateral clefts as one dimension of OFC severity, because the gene...
Article
Full-text available
The contribution of low-frequency variants to the genetic architecture of normal-range facial traits is unknown. We studied the influence of low-frequency coding variants (MAF < 1%) in 8091 genes on multi-dimensional facial shape phenotypes in a European cohort of 2329 healthy individuals. Using three-dimensional images, we partitioned the full fac...
Article
Full-text available
The human face is complex and multipartite, and characterization of its genetic architecture remains challenging. Using a multivariate genome-wide association study meta-analysis of 8,246 European individuals, we identified 203 genome-wide-significant signals (120 also study-wide significant) associated with normal-range facial variation. Follow-up...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: This cross-sectional study assessed differences in oral health and related behaviours and risk indicators by rurality in a north-central Appalachian population using the Andersen behavioural model as a conceptual framework. Methods: Participants were residents aged 18-59 years (n = 1311) from the Center for Oral Health Research in Appal...
Preprint
Full-text available
Nonsyndromic orofacial clefts (OFCs) are the most common craniofacial birth defect in humans and, like many complex traits, OFCs are phenotypically and etiologically heterogenous. The phenotypic heterogeneity of OFCs extends beyond the structures affected by the cleft (e.g., cleft lip (CL) and cleft lip and palate (CLP) to other features, such as t...
Preprint
Full-text available
Based on epidemiologic and embryologic patterns, nonsyndromic orofacial clefts are commonly categorized into cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) and cleft palate alone (CP). While nearly forty risk genes have been identified for CL/P, few risk genes are known for CP. We used a new statistical method, PLACO, to identify genetic variants in...
Article
Objectives: Torus Palatinus (TP) is a bony projection located on the oral surface of the hard palate. The trait is typically benign, has an unknown etiology, and varies widely in phenotypic expression. Prior studies suggest differences in TP prevalence by sex and ancestry, but the reported rates vary, even within a single ancestral group. We assess...
Article
Full-text available
Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality. Genetic variation contributes to initiation, regular smoking, nicotine dependence, and cessation. We present a Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND)-based genome-wide association study in 58,000 European or African ancestry smokers. We observe five genome-wide s...
Article
Objective: The unaffected relatives of individuals with nonsyndromic orofacial clefts have been shown to exhibit subtle craniofacial differences compared with the general population. Here, we investigate whether these morphological differences extend to the shape of the palate. Design: We conducted a geometric morphometric analysis to compare pala...
Preprint
Full-text available
Orofacial clefts (OFCs) are among the most prevalent craniofacial birth defects worldwide and create a significant public health burden. The majority of OFCs are non-syndromic and vary in prevalence by ethnicity. Africans have the lowest prevalence of OFCs (∼ 1/2,500), Asians have the highest prevalence (∼1/500), European and Latin Americans lie so...