Mary Frank Fox

Mary Frank Fox
Georgia Institute of Technology | GT · School of Public Policy

Ph.D., Sociology, The University of Michigan

About

90
Publications
60,638
Reads
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4,531
Citations
Citations since 2016
13 Research Items
1798 Citations
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2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250300
2016201720182019202020212022050100150200250300
Introduction
My research focuses on women and men in academic and scientific occupations and organizations: dimensions of education, knowledge, workplaces, and careers. Website: https://sites.gatech.edu/mffox/
Additional affiliations
August 1993 - September 2021
Georgia Institute of Technology
Position
  • Head of Faculty

Publications

Publications (90)
Article
Full-text available
This article addresses a telling issue in academic science: the clarity of criteria for tenure and promotion reported by women and men faculty in scientific fields. Data from faculty surveyed in nine US research universities point to ways that formal and informal organizational indicators predict the clarity of evaluation reported by women and men....
Article
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In the social study of science, gender is a critical research site because relations of gender are hierarchical and inequality is a central feature of science. The focus here is on a key dimension of gender and scientific careers: academic rank, particularly that of full professor. This paper concentrates on quantitative and qualitative approaches...
Article
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The prolific (exceptionally high producers of scholarly publications) are strategic to the study of academic science. The highly prolific have been drivers of research activity and impact and are a window into the stratification that exists. For these reasons, we address key characteristics associated with being highly prolific. Doing this, we take...
Article
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This article focuses on key features of the use of sex and gender in titles of articles about women, science, and engineering over an important forty-six-year period (1965–2010). The focus is theoretically and empirically consequential. Theoretically, the paper addresses science as a critical case that connects femininity/masculinity to social stra...
Article
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Family and caregiving leave are increasingly important dimensions for careers in academic science, and for vital, sustainable institutional structures. These forms of leave are intended to support equity, and particularly gender equity. A key question is how the actual use of leave affects critical milestones of advancement for women—compared to me...
Chapter
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Academia is a revealing, organizational case for the study of gender and work- family overload and conflict. This is because of 1) high normative expectations for the academic pursuit, 2) the salience of the role to identities, 3) organizational standards of evaluation and rewards, and 4) experiences and conditions that are not gender neutral. Firs...
Book
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In scholarship, publication is the chief means of communicating research and a primary criterion for advancement, recognition, and reward in academic institutions. Yet, most scholars learn the skills of writing and the strategies of publishing in a capricious and sporadic manner. As the data on scholarly productivity show, failures abound. The aim...
Article
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International research collaboration is on the rise—and at the same time, women face potential barriers. Based on responses to surveys conducted among groups of women engineers, this article addresses (1) women’s frequency of international research collaboration; (2) the barriers to collaboration reported for both self and for other women; and (3)...
Chapter
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This chapter 1) identifies the nature and extent of gender disparities in the participation, performance, and rewards of scientists, pointing to key issues that merit explanation, while taking a critical perspective on metrics of productivity and performance; 2) characterizes and appraises prevailing debates about explanations of gender disparities...
Data
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Research productivity and publication productivity are not strictly equivalent, but the one is an indicator of the other. Productivity does not exist in a social vacuum. Fundamentally, it is difficult to separate the performance of an individual scientist from his or her social and organizational environment -- the workplace as well as the larger c...
Article
This paper addresses the patterns of gender and temporary international research visits among researchers, using data from a population of 10,349 Spanish doctorate holders in nine research fields. It analyzes rates of international mobility, and the frequency, duration, and destinations of temporary visits, by gender, with implications for scientif...
Chapter
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First, this chapter provides a nuanced profile of the proportions of women, compared to men, faculty, by rank, in computing fields. Second, it illustrates the challenges and opportunities for women's advancement to higher ranks. Third, it depicts how institutional practices and policies to enhance women's rank- and condition-as faculty members woul...
Article
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This article addresses the patterns of gender and temporary international research visits among researchers, using data from a population of 10,349 Spanish doctorate holders in nine research fields. It analyzes rates of international mobility, and the frequency, duration, and destinations of temporary visits, by gender, with implications for scient...
Article
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This article expands understanding of gender and advancement in academic science by going into a new dimension of inquiry: Focusing on women associate professors in computing, it assesses the relationship between perceived chances for promotion to full professor and indicators of entrepreneurship, as part of key sets of individual and departmental...
Article
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Using longitudinal and multi-institutional data, this article takes an innovative approach in its analyses of gender differences in grade point averages (GPA) among undergraduate students in biology, the physical sciences, and engineering over a 16-year period. Assessed are hypotheses about (a) the gender ecology of science/engineering and (b) the...
Article
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This article addresses work-family conflict as reported among women and men academic scientists in data systematically collected across fields of study in nine US research universities. Arguing that academic science is a particularly revealing case for studying work-family conflict, the article addresses: (1) the bi-directional conflict of work wit...
Article
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We analyze programs for undergraduate women in science and engineering as strategic research sites in the study of disparities between women and men in scientific fields within higher education. Based on responses to a survey of the directors of the universe of these programs in the United States, the findings reveal key patterns in the programs’ (...
Article
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Engineers with doctoral degrees, in particular, are an important focal group for two reasons: first, because they deal directly with issues of technological research and its impact, and second, because they train university students, who, in turn, are critical for the future of science and society. For these reasons, it is important to look at the...
Article
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Drawing on recent survey data of women and men faculty in doctoral-granting dep-artments in computer science, engineering, and science fields in nine highly ranked research universities, this article depicts four key social-organizational features of work, as reported by women and men respondents: frequency of speaking with faculty about research i...
Article
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This article focuses upon programs for undergraduate women in science and engineering, which are a strategic research site in the study of gender, science, and higher education. The design involves both quantitative and qualitative approaches, linking theory, method, questions, and analyses in ways not undertaken previously. Using a comprehensive,...
Article
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This article analyzes the issues, challenges, and opportunities of research and programmatic collaborations between science and social science.
Article
Purpose – This chapter analyzes the issues, challenges, and opportunities of research and programmatic collaborations between science and social science. Approach – Analyzed are the features of fields and the consequences of these features for partnership among scientists and social scientists. Findings – The issues and challenges of collaboration...
Chapter
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The participation, status, and advancement of women in academic science and engineering have been pressing social concerns in the United States, particularly over the past 25 years. The concern is rooted in two basic sets of issues: the provision of human resources for the science and engineering workforce, and social equity in access to and reward...
Chapter
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This paper analyzes sources of women's depressed status in academic science and proposes solutions for women's advancement. It does so by analyzing the role of individual characteristics and the role of organizational features of doctoral education and academic work, in explaining the career attainments of women in science, as well as the role of t...
Article
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Objective. Taking an institutional approach to the determinants of outcomes for women in science and engineering, we examine the effects on women's percentages among undergraduate majors and among degree recipients of four basic factors: (1) the percentage of faculty who are women in the students' major science/engineering area; (2) the students' d...
Article
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This article advances understandings of the ways in which key elements of the social-organizational characteristics of work and publication productivity operate among academic scientists in doctoral-granting departments. Findings point to new formulations about the importance of a particular team composition and of collaboration, work practices, an...
Article
Using multi-staged methods developed in this research for coding/analysis of interview data, this article portrays women’s reported experiences of participation, performance, and advancement in academic science and engineering in a major technological institution. The methods and findings have implications for understanding the complexity underlyin...
Article
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The study significantly advances understanding of faculty's mentoring of other faculty, by gender, in science and engineering. The empirical analyses are grounded in a conceptual framework about the importance of individual and organisational characteristics in explaining faculty performance, including mentoring. The models investigate factors that...
Chapter
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My aims are to analyze the hierarchical gendered relations operating in: 1) attainments within and constraints upon participation and rewards in scientific careers; and 2) arguments about the construction of scientific knowledge. We see that science both exemplifies and expands hierarchical relations of gender.
Chapter
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Chapter
This paper addresses sources of women's depressed status in academic science, and proposes solutions for women's advancement. It does so by analyzing the role of individual characteristics, and the role of organizational features of doctoral education and of academic work, in explaining the career attainments of women in science; as well as the rol...
Article
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This paper concentrates upon the relationship between marriage, parental status, and publication productivity for women in academic science, with comparisons to men. Findings indicate that gender, family characteristics, and productivity are complex considerations that go beyond being married or not married, and the presence or absence of children....
Article
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In this article, “Life time of influence” refers to Robert K. Merton's impact broadly, and emblematically, to his influence upon my work. The article discusses 1) the scope and influence of Merton's ideas about social structure and explanations of social processes; 2) his vast scholarship establishing the study of science as a social institution, w...
Chapter
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Bekräftigt die Wissenschaftsforschung vor allem die Binnendynamik der Wissenschaft und blendet dabei häufig die Wirksamkeit des Geschlechterunterschieds aus, so verkennt die Geschlechterforschung oftmals den Eigensinn des wissenschaftlichen Kontextes, wenn für sie nur der Geschlechterunterschied zählt. Die Beiträge dieses Bandes schlagen einen ande...
Article
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Science is an institution with immense inequality in career attainments. Women and most minorities, as groups, have lower levels of participation, position, productivity, and recognition than do white men. Research in the sociology of science has focused on the degree to which different outcomes have resulted from universalistic and from particular...
Chapter
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Initiatives to increase the numbers of women faculty derive in part from understandings that the representation of women faculty is crucial for the culture and climate of the university and for the development of students’ capacities and potential. Faculty are consequential for students through what they convey, demonstrate, and exemplify. This is...
Article
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In the study of gender and society, science is a strategic analytic research site—because of the hierarchical nature of gendered relations, generally, and the hierarchy of science, particularly. Academic science, especially, is crucial to, and revealing of, status in science and society. This article focuses on three questions: What is the status o...
Article
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With data from a national survey of 3800 doctoral students in departments of chemistry, computer science, electrical engineering, microbiology and physics, and data from the Survey of Doctoral Recipients/National Science Foundation, we analyze the career-preferences and prospects of young scientists. We analyze patterns by field and gender of stude...
Article
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With data collected in site visits to (22) departments of chemistry, computer science, electrical engineering, and physics that were (1) consistently low, (2) consistently high, and (3) most improved in the rates of doctoral degrees awarded to women over a seventeen-year period, this paper addresses the following questions: What are the characteris...
Article
Paper analyses the profiles of doctoral-level women compared to men engineers in the US, revealing notable gender differences in participation, sector of employment, field and rank; and variation among women (as well as men). Addresses the challenges for improving the status of women in engineering, and the steps for progress - what needs to be don...
Article
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This study's focus on definitions, perspectives, solutions, and contexts 1) contributes a comprehensive analysis of graduate-level programs for women in science and engineering;2) helps provide an understanding of graduate-level science and engineering women in real life settings; and 3) illustrates theory, practice, and policy in organizational ac...
Article
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In Handbook of Science and Technology Studies, edited by S. Jasanoff, G. Markle, J. Petersen, and T. Pinch. Sage Publications, 1995, pages 205-223.
Article
Full-text available
Science is an institution with immense inequality in career attainments. Women and most minorities, as groups, have lower levels of participation, position, productivity, and recognition than do white men. Research in the sociology of science has focused on the degree to which different outcomes have resulted from universalistic and from particular...
Article
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This article analyzes the roles of segments of the trans-scientific community in exercising social control of misconduct, the limitations on control, and implications for policy on misconduct and its control.
Article
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This article analyzes the roles of editors and peer reviewers in detecting and sanctioning scientific misconduct, the structural problems inherent in the process, and the best means of enabling peer and editorial roles in correction of misconduct. It argues that the review process can play a part in response to misconduct but that its corrective ro...
Article
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This article assesses two theoretical views about which there has been considerable, unresolved speculation: the mutuality versus the competition of research and teaching in academia. Going beyond previous restrictions in aims and methods of analysis, it analyzes the influence of research and teaching interests, time commitments, and orientations o...
Article
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In such a visibly hierarchical and success-oriented arena as academe, attributions for success are highly salient. These attributions represent explanations of, and often justifications for, social inequality. We employ data from a national survey of academics in four major fields to analyze the explanations by academics to account for the succe...
Article
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Analyzed the relationship between confidence in science and gender, using data from 14 administrations of the General Social Survey (1973–1978, 1980, 1982–1984, 1986–1989). Responses by 17,806 individuals that answered a question pertaining to confidence in science indicate that women are significantly less confident in science than are men. There...
Chapter
Full-text available
Research productivity and publication productivity are not strictly equivalent, but the one is an indicator of the other. Productivity does not exist in a social vacuum. Fundamentally, it is difficult to separate the performance of an individual scientist from his or her social and organizational environment -- the workplace as well as the larger c...
Article
Full-text available
In The Outer Circle: Women in the Scientific Community, edited by H. Zuckerman, J. Cole, and J. Bruer, New York: W. W. Norton, 1991.
Article
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This article argues that the disciplinary context is the locus of illegitimate—fraudulent and deviant—as well as legitimate activity in science and scholarship. It discusses the structural features of disciplines that condition variation in rates and types of malpractice. These features include levels of: research activity, replication and replicab...
Article
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Article
The recent growth of applied research creates a new context for studying the correlates of publication productivity among academic social scientists. This paper reports a study of the individual and structural characteristics related to publication productivity among academics in one applied field: social work. In a national sample of social work e...
Article
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This article analyzes how three sets of characteristics—(1) individual attitudes, practices, and academic position; (2) location and professional connections; and (3) marital/family statuses—operate in explaining the publication productivity of men and women in a national sample of social work academics. We find that: (1) together, the variables ex...
Article
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This study focuses upon the effect of intra-university location as it influences the salaries of academics, as it differs for men and women, and as it relates to sex-typing of university locations. The findings indicate the greater importance of intra-university location in determining the salaries of academic men compared to women. However, certai...
Article
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The motivations and costs of collaboration in research reflect tensions between scientists' individualistic dispositions and the communal norms of science. The advantages and disadvantages of collaboration compared with individual research vary with the field and type of research as well as with institutional location of researchers and degree of c...
Article
The exact nature of the link between social work education and job equity for the sexes has been heretofore unspecified. Drawing upon empirical evidence, this article analyzes the effects of structural conditions and the educational process on the occupational aspirations and outcomes of female students. This analysis then points to specific struct...
Article
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This article is a critical assessment of research productivity through publication among scientists. The article scrutinizes the literature on correlates and determinants of publication productivity; provides an overview and organization of that knowledge; indicates gaps and shortcomings in the research; and hence makes clear the questions and issu...
Article
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In contrast to previous work, our study considers both meaning and mediation factors in the achievement-aspiration relationship. In a sample of graduate students ("academic-career aspirants"), we examine sex differences in the achievement- aspiration relationship as they vary with type of academic achievement and professional aspirations, and as it...
Article
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This article reports an analysis of salary in academia as it is determined by achieved, ascribed, and university location characteristics-for men compared to women. Regarding achievements as "legitimate" determinants of salary, the study analyzes the extent, form, and locus of sex variation in wages within academia. Hence, the study provides an...
Article
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This article reports a study of aggregate unit salary levels, within a major research university. We analyze these salary levels, as they are influenced by unit sex composition, and modified by unit attainment levels—where unit refers to the departments, colleges and schools, and other academic divisions of the university. We investigate three cent...
Article
Typescript. Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Michigan, 1978. Bibliography: leaves 237-246. Microfilm.

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