Mary Ann Evans

Mary Ann Evans
University of Guelph | UOGuelph · Department of Psychology

PhD, C. Psych.

About

64
Publications
21,686
Reads
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2,865
Citations
Additional affiliations
September 1981 - September 2016
University of Guelph
Position
  • Managing Director

Publications

Publications (64)
Article
The overlapping waves model put forth by Robert Siegler emphasizes variability, adaptive choice, and gradual change in children’s problem solving. These concepts were applied to emergent reading of an alphabet book with pages of three difficulty levels. Ninety-one kindergartners completed tests of emergent literacy. Twice, about 12 weeks apart, the...
Article
University students with a learning disability (LD) represent a growing fraction of the student population within North America. Although past research has focused on cognitive aspects of living with an LD and/or attention‐deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), social–emotional factors have received less attention. Such factors may play an importan...
Chapter
In the last few years, alphabet e-books have appeared, ranging from simple static displays with a narrated voiceover to books with animated displays, music and sound effects, and hotspots. This chapter addresses the association between the design characteristics of alphabet e-books and how children use them. Eleven commercially available e-books, r...
Article
In this study 65 kindergarten children in southwestern Ontario, Canada were asked how they were learning to read at home and observed with their parents in shared book reading. How parents responded to their children's word reading difficulties in these interactions was coded. Children reported that learning to read was important and offered severa...
Chapter
This study investigated the association of children's shyness and their ability to read words with parent and child behaviours when children encounter difficult words during book reading. Grade one children and their parents were observed reading storybooks together that the child could read with assistance. Children’s shyness and their ability to...
Article
Preschoolers’ behavior was examined over repeated sessions when interacting with one of two types of alphabet books – traditional alphabet books in paper format or interactive alphabet books in an eBook format – to determine the extent to which each type of book elicited behavior relating to alphabet knowledge. Data are reported from 63 3 and 4-yea...
Article
Full-text available
Shared parent-child experiences while engaged with an iPad™ were examined to determine if and then how parents interact with their children when using mobile digital devices. In total, 104 parent-child dyads participated in an observation session where parent-child interactions using the touchscreen tablet device were video recorded in order to obs...
Article
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In a sample of 128 Canadian junior kindergarten children (66 boys), we examined sex differences in emergent literacy and behaviour when listening to and interacting with books of four types: alphabet books with simple text and illustrations, traditional alphabet books with complex text and illustrations, alphabet eBooks, and illustrated storybooks....
Article
Full-text available
The primary goal of this research was to extend our understanding of the strengths and weaknesses inherent in online and offline early literacy software programs designed for young learners. A taxonomy of reading skills was used to contrast online software with offline closed system (compact disc) based programs with respect to number of skills tau...
Article
When preschoolers listen to storybooks, are their eye movements related to their vocabulary acquisition in this context? This study addressed this question with 36 four-year-old French-speaking participants by assessing their general receptive vocabulary knowledge and knowledge of low-frequency words in 3 storybooks. These books were read verbatim...
Article
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The current study developed a taxonomy of reading skills and compared this taxonomy with skills being trained in 30 commercially available software programs designed to teach emergent literacy or literacy-specific skills for children in preschool, kindergarten, and Grade 1. Outcomes suggest that, although some skills are being trained in a developm...
Article
As computers become an increasingly ubiquitous part of young children's lives there is a need to examine how best to harness digital technologies to promote learning in early childhood education contexts. The development of emergent literacy skills is 1 domain for which numerous software programs are available for young learners. In this study, we...
Article
This study examined parents’ goals for reading ABC books with their children and their perceptions of page features. Factor analysis of a questionnaire answered by 225 parents of junior and senior kindergarten students revealed four goals for reading alphabet books. In order of importance as rated by parents the goals were: Learning to Read, Enjoym...
Article
In this longitudinal study, a group of school children with Down syndrome (DS) and reduced accommodation were prescribed bifocals and followed to investigate the impact of bifocal spectacles on early literacy and visual perceptual skills. The natural progression of early literacy skills in this population along with the changes with bifocals, descr...
Article
Full-text available
Two studies investigated discussions of the meaning of unusual vocabulary encountered during shared book reading. In Study 1 parent–child dyads were observed longitudinally in senior kindergarten through grade 2 reading short storybooks below, at and just above the child’s reading level. Here children did most of the reading. In Study 2 a second sa...
Article
Ten ‘informal’ and ten ‘comparison’ primary grade classrooms matched according to socio-economic neighbourhood, grade, and instructional organisation were observed using the Pupil Activity Scan, an observation instrument specifically designed for the present study to record pupil behaviour. Analysis of the observational data indicated that children...
Article
The authors examined parent–child interactions among three groups: selectively mute, anxious, and non-anxious children in different contexts. The relation between parental control (granting autonomy and high power remarks), child factors (i.e., age, anxiety, verbal participation), and parent anxiety was investigated. Parental control varied by cont...
Chapter
According to a simple view of reading, skilled reading is the product of decoding or the ability to turn the printed word into its spoken counterpart, and comprehension or the ability to understand the vocabulary, syntax, morphology, expression, and conventions of the spoken language in which the printed text is written. While an association betwee...
Article
We studied 52 parent–child dyads reading an alphabet book to examine the nature of children's miscues and parents' feedback, and whether miscues and feedback were related to each other and to preliteracy skills. Letter knowledge, phonological awareness, and expressive vocabulary were assessed in 5-year-old nonreaders who were also audiotaped readin...
Article
The study monitored the eye movements of twenty 5-year-old children while reading an alphabet book to examine the manner in which the letters, words, and pictures were fixated and the relation of attention to print to alphabetic knowledge. Children attended little to the print, took longer to first fixate print than illustrations, and labeled fewer...
Article
The present study assessed 89 children in a short-term longitudinal study from Junior Kindergarten (age 4–5 years) through Grade 1 (age 6–7 years) using a variety of tests of emergent literacy. Children were assessed for reading skill (a composite of word recognition, decoding, and letter-sound knowledge), phonological awareness, and oral language...
Article
We examined receptive language and academic abilities in children with selective mutism (SM; n = 30; M age = 8.8 years), anxiety disorders (n = 46; M age = 9.3 years), and community controls (n = 27; M age = 7.8 years). Receptive language and academic abilities were assessed using standardized tests completed in the laboratory. We found a significa...
Article
This study examined differences in performance between 20 shy and 20 matched nonshy children on a narrative task and in the way parents scaffolded their narrative performance when reading the wordless book Frog, Where Are You, by Mercer Mayer. Consistent with previous research, results demonstrated that shy children spoke less than their nonshy pee...
Article
Full-text available
Nineteen shy, twenty-three middle and twenty-five non-shy junior kindergarten children were assessed at school by an unfamiliar examiner, and at home where their parents administered a parallel form of the expressive and receptive vocabulary tests given at school. A speech sample between the child and parent was also collected at home. Shy children...
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This article provides an integrative review of key aspects of emergent literacy and specific home activities that empirical research has shown to support their development. Given the importance of word recognition in reading development, home contributions to word recognition as well as to four areas of emergent literacy that contribute to word rec...
Article
Two studies are reported. The first investigated goals for reading with their children held by 294 parents in a cross-sectional sample from junior kindergarten through Grade 3, how these goals are related to parent beliefs about the development of literacy skills, and how these goals may differ across the primary years. The second examined how goal...
Article
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Seventy-six children ages 3 to 5 were individually read two storybooks that had been specially formatted to contain salient printed words within the text, and illustrations and text on left or right-facing pages. The reader pointed to each word while reading to half of the children. After each book, children were asked to recognize elements of the...
Article
To compare emergent literacy skills in uncorrected hyperopic and emmetropic children. "Hyperopes" (>or=2.00 D sphere along the most hyperopic meridian; n=13; aged 67+/-13 mo) and "emmetropes" (<or=1.50 D sphere along the most hyperopic meridian; n=19; aged 58+/-12 mo) were tested for visual acuity (VA) and assessed for their emergent literacy skill...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies have revealed that preschool-age children who are not yet readers pay little attention to written text in a shared book reading situation (see Evans & Saint-Aubin, 2005). The current study was aimed at investigating the constancy of these results across reading development, by monitoring eye movements in shared book reading, for ch...
Article
Full-text available
In this study 149 kindergarten children were assessed for knowledge of letter names and letter sounds, phonological awareness, and cognitive abilities. Through this it examined child and letter characteristics influencing the acquisition of alphabetic knowledge in a naturalistic context, the relationship between letter-sound knowledge and letter-na...
Article
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This study explored the development of children's early understanding of visual and orthographic aspects of print and how this is related to early reading acquisition. A total of 474 children, ages 48 to 83 months, completed standardized measures of phonological awareness and early reading skills. They also completed experimental tasks that tapped...
Article
Two studies were conducted to determine the extent to which young children fixate on the print of storybooks during shared book reading. Children's books varying in the layout of the print and the richness of the illustrations were displayed on a computer monitor. Each child's mother or preschool teacher read the books while the child sat on the ad...
Article
THIS LONGITUDINAL study across the primary grades examined whether there were patterns in feedback strategies parents provided to children's miscues during shared book reading, and whether parents changed their use of those strategies over time as their children's reading skills increased. Parents of normally developing beginning readers were audio...
Article
Full-text available
Differences between children's self-ratings of shyness and ratings made by their teachers and primary caregivers were investigated in a sample of 90 self-reported shy schoolchildren between 10 and 12 years of age. Analyses revealed that correlations between children's own shyness ratings and those made by parents or teachers were low to moderate, s...
Article
The authors examined the views of parents and teachers regarding beginning reading instruction using the questionnaire Approaches to Beginning Reading and Reading Instruction (ABRRI). Parents also rated the importance of 9 developmental areas, including literacy, and the extent to which home and school were responsible for each. Two components emer...
Article
Parent coaching strategies during shared book reading were analysed according to the principles of scaffolding in a sample of 46 parent-child dyads during the latter half of grade one. The ways that parents responded to each of a child's oral reading errors or miscues were coded into levels of assistance that reflected increasing support at each su...
Article
This study examined how parents' beliefs about skilled reading and shared book reading related to the ways they coached their children in learning to read in kindergarten through grade 2 and whether these beliefs and behaviors contributed to their children's reading skill. The focus of the study was on the ways parents responded to children's miscu...
Article
Begins with a consideration of the stability of shyness and then considers verbal behavior. The next sections consider academic achievement and how to work with shy children in the classroom. A summary of research concerning the health status of shy children follows. The chapter closes with a consideration of shyness on the homefront and parenting...
Article
The relationship between the home environments of 66 children and their language and literacy development was examined. After accounting for child age, parent education, and child ability as indexed by scores on a rapid automatized naming task and Block Design of the WPPSI-R, shared book reading at home made no contribution to the prediction of the...
Article
Investigated the association between shyness and symptoms of illness in young children and the types of symptoms differentiating shy and nonshy children. 16 shy children and 16 nonshy children (mean age 7 yrs 3 mo) were matched on sex, parental education, familial stress, and height-weight ratio. For 4 wks, parents recorded their children's health...
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine the ways that parents respond to their children's oral reading errors when reading books together. Twenty-three middle-class parents were audiotaped in their homes listening to their grade one children read. Parental behaviors following all reading miscues were coded. Data analyses revealed that parents igno...
Article
This study examined mothers' accuracy in predicting the responses their children gave and the scores they achieved on two standardized vocabulary tests. Three groups of 16 mothers and their preschool children (specific language-impaired; age-matched, language-normal; and younger, language-matched, language-normal) completed the Peabody Picture Voca...
Article
This report describes research with 128 kindergarten children, the purpose of which was to assess the stability of verbal behavior and the relationship of verbal and nonverbal abilities and self-concept to talkativeness in the classroom. The children were divided into verbal and quiet groups on the basis of teacher rankings in the fall of kindergar...
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Full-text available
[Correction Notice: An erratum for this article was reported in Vol 25(4) of Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science Revue canadienne des Sciences du comportement (see record 2007-10732-001). The name of the second author, Helen Bienert, was inadvertently left off of the original manuscript.] Examined the effect of reducing conversational control...
Article
The nature of mother-child interactions when repeatedly reading the same book was examined in two dyads, one having a language- impaired child (age 3;9), and the other a language-normal child (age 2;2) matched on mean length of utterance and expressive vocabulary. Each mother tape-recorded nine sessions reading the same picture book in her home wit...
Article
The present investigation examined the relationship between attribute saliency and metaphor interpretation in school children. Ortony's theory that metaphors entail salience imbalance prompted the generation of two types of metaphors, PREDICATE-PROMOTING (PP) and PREDICATE-INTRODUCING (PI) metaphors. An adult sample was used to select metaphors of...
Article
Responds to the questioning of E. R. Shapiro (see record 1986-22979-001) regarding the present authors' (see record 1985-23733-001) comparison of 2 approaches to reading instruction (language-oriented and routinized-performance) by stating that the relevant conditions of learning include both the content and the style of instruction. One value of...
Article
This study contrasted the interactions of less talkative children and their teacher with those of their peers during classroom “Sharing Time.” Seven reticent children and seven normal peers were observed and audiotape-recorded during 15 sessions across the school year. In addition to speaking less, reticent children engaged in less complex speech t...
Chapter
The visible world provides a rich and wondrous tapestry for observation and speculation. Where it cannot be directly experienced, it can be pictured in varying degrees of fidelity or abstractness. On the simplest of intuitive grounds, illustrations should thus serve as valuable teaching tools, bringing to the eye what otherwise can only be imagined...
Article
Full-text available
Two groups of primary-grade classrooms differing in their instructional approach to beginning reading were compared to assess the relationship between learning activities, cognitive abilities, and reading skill. Students' activities in 20 classrooms were observed, confirming that half of the classrooms followed an individualized language-experience...
Article
Rarely do we appreciate the variety of grade 1 programs and the real possibility that different reading curricula have different effects on learning and the organization of cognitive abilities.
Article
Demonstrated the frequent occurrence of self-initiated repairs in the speech of 18 kindergartners and 18 2nd graders. Ss' speech during 15 sessions of "show and tell," a classroom sharing time, was scored for the spontaneous occurrence of repetitions; corrections of word choice, reference, and syntax; postponements; and abandonments. Second-graders...
Article
Relatively few investigations of oral communication skill in school-age children require lengthy spoken responses. To examine children's extended speech in natural discourse, the present study adopted a standardized interview format in which children in kindergarten and grades 1, 4, and 8 were asked to explain common childhood games and then were e...
Article
Relatively few investigations of oral communication skill in school-age children require lengthy spoken responses. To examine children's extended speech in natural discourse, the present study adopted a standardized inter­ view format in which children in kindergarten and grade., 1, 4, and 8 were asked to explain common childhood games and then wer...
Article
review and integrate a variety of studies in the literature that comments on the communicative behavior of these groups of children [those who appear awkward, uncomfortable, and inhibited in social interaction] / provide a more detailed description of the language and discourse skills of children identified by their teachers as untalkative / consid...
Article
argued that it is worthwhile to take a systems approach to the cognitive analysis of individual differences in reading ability and its development [in children] / component skills analysis represents an attempt to do this described our own stab at this type of research, including the model, the battery of measures, the manner in which we used the...