Mary McFadden Cameron

Mary McFadden Cameron
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | LSHTM · Department of Disease Control

PhD

About

93
Publications
17,217
Reads
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1,699
Citations
Citations since 2017
33 Research Items
784 Citations
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2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
2017201820192020202120222023050100150
Introduction
Mary has strong collaborative networks on NTDs in multiple disease endemic countries. She is the Principal Investigator of SPEAK India (a consortium conducting operational research to sustain VL elimination in India – see https://speakindia.org.in/), and Co-PI of the BBSRC Gnatwork network (see https://www.gnatwork.ac.uk/about/the-gnatwork).
Additional affiliations
August 2016 - July 2026
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
Position
  • Professor
August 2016 - present
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
Position
  • Professor
August 2015 - present
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
Position
  • Reader in Medical Entomology

Publications

Publications (93)
Preprint
Full-text available
Background The kala-azar elimination programme has resulted in a significant reduction in visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases across the Indian Subcontinent. To detect any resurgence of transmission, a sensitive cost-effective surveillance system is required. Molecular xenomonitoring (MX), detection of pathogen DNA/RNA in vectors, provides a proxy of...
Article
Full-text available
International laws for commercial aviation have achieved an exceptional degree of harmonisation and greatly improved passenger safety. Yet, despite much international guidance, enforceable laws for public health protection in aviation are mainly the responsibility of national authorities. As a result, public health laws may be incoherent, in confli...
Article
Full-text available
Bluetongue virus (BTV) and African horse sickness virus (AHSV) cause economically important diseases that are currently exotic to the United Kingdom (UK), but have significant potential for introduction and onward transmission. Given the susceptibility of animals kept in zoo collections to vector-borne diseases, a qualitative risk assessment for th...
Article
Full-text available
Bluetongue virus (BTV) and African horse sickness virus (AHSV) cause economically important diseases that are currently exotic to the United Kingdom (UK), but have significant potential for introduction and onward transmission. Given the susceptibility of animals kept in zoo collections to vector-borne diseases, a qualitative risk assessment for th...
Article
The scientific community recognizes that molecular xenomonitoring (MX) can allow infected mosquitoes to serve as a proxy for human infection in vector-borne disease surveillance, but developing reliable MX systems for programmatic use has been challenging. The primary aim of this article is to examine the available evidence to recommend how MX can...
Article
Mosquito-borne diseases are an increasing global health challenge, threatening over 40% of the world's population. Despite major advances in malaria control since 2000, recent progress has stalled. Additionally, the risk of Aedes -borne arboviruses is rapidly growing, with the unprecedented spread of dengue and chikungunya viruses, outbreaks of yel...
Article
Full-text available
Significance Methods for analyzing individual-level geo-located disease data have existed for some time, but have rarely been used to analyze endemic human diseases. Here we apply such methods to nearly a decade’s worth of uniquely detailed epidemiological data on incidence of the deadly vector-borne disease visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and its seco...
Article
Full-text available
Background The elimination programme for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in India has seen great progress, with total cases decreasing by over 80% since 2010 and many blocks now reporting zero cases from year to year. Prompt diagnosis and treatment is critical to continue progress and avoid epidemics in the increasingly susceptible population. Short-te...
Article
Full-text available
Bed bugs are pests of public health importance due to their relentless biting habits that can lead to allergies, secondary infections and mental health issues. When not feeding on human blood bed bugs aggregate in refuges close to human hosts. This aggregation behaviour could be exploited to lure bed bugs into traps for surveillance, treatment effi...
Preprint
Full-text available
Understanding of spatiotemporal transmission of infectious diseases has improved significantly in recent years. Advances in Bayesian inference methods for individual-level geo-located epidemiological data have enabled reconstruction of transmission trees and quantification of disease spread in space and time, while accounting for uncertainty in mis...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: The elimination programme for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in India has seen great progress, with total cases decreasing by over 80% since 2010 and many blocks now reporting zero cases from year to year. Prompt diagnosis and treatment is critical to continue progress and avoid epidemics in the increasingly susceptible population. Short-t...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The Recife Metropolitan Region (RMR), north-eastern Brazil, was the epicentre of the 2015 Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic, which was followed by a 2016 chikungunya virus (CHIKV) epidemic. It historically has amongst the highest incidence of dengue virus (DENV) infections and is the only remaining focus of lymphatic filariasis (LF) in Brazil....
Article
Full-text available
Objective To assess the effectiveness of community-wide deployment of insecticide–impregnated collars for dogs- the reservoir of Leishmania infantum–to reduce infantile clinical visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Methods A pair matched–cluster randomised controlled trial involving 40 collared and 40 uncollared control villages (161 [95% C.L.s: 136, 187]...
Data
Post–intervention observed and expected case incidence of infantile VL by the end of the four year intervention period. (PDF)
Article
Full-text available
Background There are many different traps available for studying fly populations. The aim of this study was to find the most suitable trap to collect synanthropic fly populations to assess the impact of increased latrine coverage in the state of Odisha, India. Methods Different baits were assessed for use in sticky pot traps (60% sucrose solution,...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Molecular xenomonitoring (MX)—pathogen detection in the mosquito rather than human—is a promising tool for lymphatic filariasis (LF) surveillance. In the Recife Metropolitan Region (RMR), the last LF focus in Brazil, Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes have been implicated in transmitting Wuchereria bancrofti parasites. This paper presen...
Data
Screening of adult C. quinquefasciatus for W. bancrofti. (DOCX)
Data
Handheld aspirator, CDC light trap, and field deployment. Figure S1. [A] Handheld Aspirator Used in CMC and MMRR; [B] CDC Light Trap Used in CMC; [C] Field Deployment of Handheld Aspirator. (DOCX)
Data
Pre-field laboratory marking experiments. (DOCX)
Method
Full-text available
The Gnatwork is a global network which brings together researchers on blackflies, sandflies and biting midges to address technical issues that arise when working on small biting flies. This is the protocol booklet from our Gnatwork Bangladesh Workshop (3-6th September 2018), including protocols on morphological and molecular identification of vecto...
Article
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p>Epidemiology of traumatic myiasis in Indonesia was studied by the widespread collection of fly larvae from infested livestock in passive case detection surveys involving veterinary clinics. In addition, monthly data from Kediri regency in Eastern Java were analysed from 2006-2009 to explore the seasonality of myiasis. Larvae from a total of 260 c...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Malaria is spread by mosquitoes that are increasingly recognised to have diverse biting behaviours. How a mosquito in a specific environment responds to differing availability of blood-host species is largely unknown and yet critical to vector control efficacy. A parsimonious mathematical model is proposed that accounts for a diverse r...
Article
Full-text available
Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected vector-borne disease. In India, it is transmitted to humans by Leishmania donovani-infected Phlebotomus argentipes sand flies. In 2005, VL was targeted for elimination by the governments of India, Nepal and Bangladesh by 2015. The elimination strategy consists of rapid case detection, treatment of VL cases...
Article
Full-text available
Monitoring Wuchereria bancrofti infection in mosquitoes (xenomonitoring) can play an important role in determining when lymphatic filariasis has been eliminated, or in focusing control efforts. As mosquito infection rates can be low, a method for collecting large numbers of mosquitoes is necessary, for example, gravid traps collected large numbers...
Article
Exposure to animal livestock has been linked to zoonotic transmission, especially of gastrointestinal pathogens. Exposure to animals may contribute to chronic asymptomatic intestinal infection, environmental enteropathy and child under-nutrition in low-income settings. We conducted a cohort study to explore the effect of exposure to cows on growth...
Article
Full-text available
The typical attractant used in gravid trapping of Culex quinquefasciatus is an aged infusion of organic materials, which can change in attractiveness over time. A standardized chemical attractant dispenser derived from grass infusion, the AtrAedes™ lure, has been produced for the surveillance of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. A study using this l...
Article
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In Guatemala, the most widespread vector of Trypanosoma cruzi (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae), the causative agent of Chagas disease, is Triatoma dimidiata (Latreille) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae). T. dimidiata is native to Guatemala and is present in both domestic and sylvatic habitats. Consequently, control of T. dimidiata is difficult...
Article
Medical and Veterinary Entomology (MVE) represents a leading periodical in its field and covers many aspects of the biology and control of insects, ticks, mites and other arthropods of medical and veterinary importance. Since the first issue of the journal, researchers working in both developed and developing countries have published in MVE, with d...
Patent
The invention relates to a lure for attracting, and in some circumstances, killing dust mites, especially house dust mites. The lure comprises neryl formate and/or limonene and is usually arranged in powder form to allow it to be shaken over an area containing the mites. What about liquid that dries.
Article
To determine the capacity of black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) (Hermetia illucens) to convert fresh human faeces into larval biomass under different feeding regimes, and to determine how effective BSFL are as a means of human faecal waste management. Black soldier fly larvae were fed fresh human faeces. The frequency of feeding, number of larvae and...
Article
Full-text available
Gravid traps are important tools for disease monitoring and for research on mosquito ovipositional behavior. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate a 2% nonanal lure in gravid mosquito traps in Ifakara, Tanzania. The 1st experiment focused on whether water was needed in the pan below the trap for the nonanal lure to be effective. There was no s...
Article
Full-text available
Gravid traps are useful tools for monitoring vector-borne pathogens in mosquitoes, particularly for those pathogens transmitted by Culex quinquefasciatus Say. One of the primary challenges in the use of gravid traps is the necessity of the inclusion of an oviposition attractant, usually an infusion of organic material, which changes in attractivene...
Book
Covering the theory and practice of non-insecticidal control of insect vectors of human disease, this book provides an overview of methods including the use of botanical biocides and insect-derived semiochemicals, with an overall focus on integrated vector management strategies. While the mainstay of malaria control programmes relies on pesticides,...
Chapter
As described in the previous chapters, an arsenal of biological and environmental interventions exists to control a range of different vectors. However, in general, the consensus is that, although a single biological or environmental intervention may significantly reduce a vector’s population, more than one intervention is required to interrupt dis...
Chapter
For the majority of people, the most obvious example of using vector control for an infectious disease that immediately springs to mind is that of malaria control. Progress in the fight against malaria has been headline news since Bill Gates called for its eradication at the Gates Malaria Forum in 2007 (Roberts and Enserink, 2007, Tanner and de Sav...
Chapter
Many insects that vector pathogens, causing human or animal disease, sense their environment by detecting olfactory stimuli, heat, moisture and visual cues. These cues can provide information about the location and quality of conspecifics, hosts or breeding sites. It is generally considered that, of all the senses used by insects, olfaction plays t...
Article
Full-text available
In Guatemala prior to control initiatives, the main vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, were Rhodnius prolixus and Triatoma dimidiata. This study conducted in 2006 in the department of Chiquimula recorded a high level of T. dimidiata infestation and an absence of R. prolixus in all surveyed communities. In Guatemala...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Although several studies have suggested that gravid traps might be useful for collection of mosquitoes, particularly Culex quinquefasciatus, to monitor transmission of the nematode Wuchereria bancrofti (xenomonitoring), there has not been a study to see which of the currently available gravid traps is most effective in endemic areas. T...
Article
Full-text available
The common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, feeds on the blood of mammal and bird hosts, and is a pest of global importance. Semiochemicals are chemicals involved in animal communication that may affect behaviour and/or physiology. Attractive semiochemicals that play a role in mediating bed bug behaviour could be exploited for the development of a highl...
Article
Full-text available
Traps that selectively collect gravid mosquitoes have advantages over other collection methods for the purpose of disease surveillance: they trap mosquitoes with a higher probability of carrying disease as they have blood fed on at least one occasion. Gravid traps typically use infusions of organic material to attract gravid mosquitoes, particularl...
Article
Phylogenetic, genealogical and population relationships of Chrysomya bezziana, the Old World screwworm fly (OWSF), were inferred from DNA sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b), nuclear elongation factor-1α (EF-1α) and nuclear white eye colour (white), using sequences of Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya rufifacies as outgroups. Cyt b (7...
Article
Full-text available
The European and American house dust mites, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and D. farinae, have a huge impact upon human health worldwide due to being the most important indoor trigger of atopic diseases such as asthma, rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. Preceding studies have shown that the behavioural response of house dust mites towards volatile ch...
Article
Full-text available
Malaria control in remote, forested areas of the Mekong region relies on personal protection from mosquito bites. Uptake of these methods may be limited by knowledge of the link between mosquitoes and malaria as well as social and economic aspects. Understanding barriers to uptake will inform malaria control programmes on targets for improvement of...
Article
Full-text available
The common bed bug, Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), has recently re-emerged in increasing numbers, distribution and intensity of infestation in many countries. Current control relies on the application of residual pesticides; but, due to the development of insecticide resistance, there is a need for new tools and techniques. Semiochemical...
Article
The recent resurgence of the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., has driven an increase in research into the biology and behaviour of this pest. Current control is reliant on the application of insecticides, but, owing to the development of insecticide resistance, there is a need for new tools and techniques. Semiochemicals (behaviour- and physio...
Article
Full-text available
The American house dust mite, Dermatophagoidesfarinae Hughes, and European house dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus Trouessart, are major pests of medical importance throughout the developed world, causing atopic diseases such as asthma, rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis. Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that the behavioral respon...
Article
Full-text available
Anthroponotic visceral leishmaniasis, transmitted by Phlebotomus argentipes Annandale & Brunetti (Diptera: Psychodidae) sand flies, is regarded as a major problem of public health importance in the Indian subcontinent. Understanding the feeding behavior of the vector can be used to investigate changes in human-vector contact during intervention pro...
Article
The recent resurgence of the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., has driven an increase in research into the biology and behaviour of this pest. Current control is reliant on the application of insecticides, but, owing to the development of insecticide resistance, there is a need for new tools and techniques. Semiochemicals (behaviour- and physio...
Article
Full-text available
Observational studies in the Indian subcontinent have shown that untreated nets may be protective against visceral leishmaniasis (VL). In this study, we evaluated the effect of untreated nets on the blood feeding rates of Phlebotomus argentipes as well as the human blood index (HBI) in VL endemic villages in India and Nepal. The study had a 'before...
Article
Full-text available
Mosquitoes such as Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) are important vectors of organisms that cause disease in humans. Research into the development of effective standardized odour baits for blood-fed females (oviposition attractants), to enable entomological monitoring of vector populations, is hampered by complex protocols for extrac...
Article
Full-text available
Malaria control in remote, forested areas of the Mekong region relies on personal protection from mosquito bites. Uptake of these methods may be limited by knowledge of the link between mosquitoes and malaria as well as social and economic aspects. Understanding barriers to uptake will inform malaria control programmes on targets for improvement of...
Article
Indoor air pollution from the domestic use of biomass fuels by poor households in developing countries is known to be harmful to health, and efforts are being made to address this problem by changes in fuel type, stove technology, house design and fuel-use practices. However, anecdotal evidence suggests that smoke may play an important role by prov...
Article
Full-text available
Inexpensive insect repellents may be needed to supplement the use of impregnated bed-nets in the Amazon region, where the primary malaria vector, Anopheles darlingi (Root), is exophilic and feeds in the early evening. Three plants that are traditionally used to repel mosquitoes in Riberalta, Bolivian Amazon, were identified by focus group, and then...
Article
Outside sub-Saharan Africa, Anopheline mosquito exophagic and/or crepuscular behaviour patterns imply that insecticide-treated nets may provide incomplete protection from malaria-infective mosquito bites. Supplementary repellent treatment has been recommended in such circumstances, especially where vectors are exophilic and so are not susceptible t...
Article
Full-text available
Dermatophagoides farinae Hughes (Acari: Epidermoptidae), the American house dust mite, and Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) (Acari: Acaridae), the mold mite, are medically and economically important but controlling them has proved difficult, and recolonization is commonplace. Their behavioral responses to different sources of volatile chemicals a...