Marwan Khawaja

Marwan Khawaja
United Nations Organization · social statistics

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74
Publications
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Publications

Publications (74)
Article
Consanguinity is still common in the Middle East. This chapter uses the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) from Egypt (2005; N =5,240) and Jordan (2007; N=3,444) to examine the relationship between consanguinity and intimate partner violence (IPV). Binary logistic regression models used to assess the association revealed that IPV, namely physical...
Article
Published online January 20, 2014 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(13)62370-3 1 During a visit to Lebanon in July, 2011, Lancet Editor-in-Chief Richard Horton invited us to prepare the Lancet Series on Health in the Arab World: a View from Within. The invitation fell on receptive ears, and came at the right time. Earlier that year, four of us h...
Article
Discussions leading to the Rio+20 UN conference have emphasised the importance of sustainable development and the protection of the environment for future generations. The Arab world faces large-scale threats to its sustainable development and, most of all, to the viability and existence of the ecological systems for its human settlements. The dyna...
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Background: Symptoms such as medically unexplained vaginal discharge (MUVD) are common and bothersome, leading to potentially unnecessary use of resources. Methods: A community-based individually randomized controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of a relatively simple, culturally appropriate multi-component intervention on reducing reporte...
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We document the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of people living in the Gaza Strip 6 months after 27 December 2008 to 18 January 2009, Israeli attack. Cross-sectional survey 6 months after the Israeli attack. Households were selected by cluster sampling in two stages: a random sample of enumeration areas (EAs) and a random sample of househol...
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This study examines the acceptance of spousal abuse among women living in Iraq and tests whether attitudes condoning abuse are associated with low female empowerment. Of 15,875 married women surveyed, 63 % agreed that a husband is justified in beating his wife. Women lacking education were 2.3 times more likely to justify this violence than those w...
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PURPOSE Domestic violence is prevalent among women using primary health care services in Lebanon and has a negative effect on their health, yet physicians are not inquiring about it. In this study, we explored the attitudes of these women regarding involving the health care system in domestic violence management. METHODS We undertook a qualitative...
Article
This article assesses the association of women's HIV/AIDS knowledge of transmission and prevention with socioeconomic status (SES). Data from the 2004 Lebanese PAPFAM (Pan-Arab Project for Family Health) survey were used. The survey was based on a representative household sample (n = 5532 households; n = 3315 women) of ever-married women aged 15 to...
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This article examined sexual coercion within marriage in Egypt. Using cross-sectional survey data from a representative sample of married Egyptian women (N = 5,240), associations between forced intercourse and husband's control, as well as other relevant sociodemographic factors, were assessed through binary logistic regression models. The lifetime...
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Studies suggests a possible link between vaginal discharge and common mental distress, as well as highlight the implications of the subjective burden of disease and its link with mental health. This is a community-based intervention trial that aims to evaluate the impact of a psycho-social intervention on medically unexplained vaginal discharge (MU...
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Research on the links between violence and social capital has produced mixed results and is mainly limited to Western countries. To assess the relationship of social capital to physical fights among unmarried boys aged 13-19 years living in three disadvantaged neighbourhoods in the outskirts of Beirut, controlling for variables associated with yout...
Article
The July 2006 war in Lebanon was one of the country's shortest wars. Yet perhaps it was also the worst interstate war in the history of Lebanon. Over the course of 33 days, the war resulted in over 1000 deaths, thousands of injuries, large-scale destruction of infrastructure and properties, as well as massive population displacements. Approximately...
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For over 60 years, long-term Palestinian refugees have been largely excluded from participating in the Lebanese labour force, yet no study has examined the socio-economic consequences of such exclusion. Utilising data from a survey conducted in three low-income urban neighbourhoods in Beirut in 2002, this paper provides a descriptive analysis of th...
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Background Socio-economic inequalities in the incidence of heart disease exist in developed countries. No data are available on the relation between heart disease and socio-economic status in Arab countries. This study examined the relation between heart disease and socio-economic status (income and education) among adults in Lebanon.Methods The st...
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The aim of this study is to examine attitudes among married women toward wife beating and to investigate the hypothesis that female individual empowerment is associated with such attitudes within a broader context of societal patriarchy in Jordan. The study uses data from a cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of married women (n = 5,3...
Article
We sought to examine the associations between social capital, women's empowerment, and smoking behavior among married women in three low-income neighborhoods in Beirut, Lebanon. Data from currently married women aged 15 to 59 years in the 2003 Urban Health Study were used. The dependent variable was cigarette smoking. The main independent variables...
Conference Paper
This presentation describes recent fertility and childhood mortality trends in the occupied Palestinian territory (oPt), using data from four national-level household surveys conducted between 1995 and 2006. Historically among the highest in the world, Palestinian fertility rates in the oPt, began to slow, especially in the West Bank, but also st...
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To explore women’s attitudes toward intimate partner violence (IPV) and their determinants, as well as to document the prevalence of various types of violence among women attending public health centers in the Balka region, Jordan. A cross-sectional study among ever-married women aged 18–49 who visited the public health clinics in the governorate o...
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The aim of this study was to examine the association between symptoms of reproductive tract infections (RTIs) and mental distress among women residing in three low-income urban neighborhoods in Greater Beirut. A cross-sectional survey of currently married women aged 15-49 years (n = 1506) from the 2003 Urban Health Study was undertaken. The depende...
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Using recent data from three national-level surveys conducted in 1995, 2000, and 2004, we provide evidence that Palestinian fertility rates in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, historically among the highest in the world, began to slow especially in the West Bank, but stalled in Gaza during the recent Intifada. The TFR in the early 2000s was 4.6 per wo...
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Many studies have found that consanguinity poses a threat to child mortality and health and can also pose a threat to offspring survival before birth. However, there are conflicting findings with some studies having found no increased risk on offspring survival associated with consanguinity. Data from a population-based survey conducted in 2004 in...
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We describe the demographic characteristics, health status, and health services of the Palestinian population living in Israeli-occupied Palestinian territory, and the way they have been modified by 60 years of continuing war conditions and 40 years of Israeli military occupation. Although health, literacy, and education currently have a higher sta...
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To determine the factors associated with domestic violence against pregnant Palestinian refugee women residing in Lebanon and currently using the United Nation Relief and Work Agency's (UNRWA) primary healthcare services. This was a cross-sectional study conducted at a polyclinic of primary healthcare of the UNRWA in South Lebanon during the years...
Article
The Countdown to 2015 intervention coverage indicators in the occupied Palestinian territory are similar to those of other Arab countries, although there are gaps in continuity and quality of services across the continuum of the perinatal period. Since the mid 1990s, however, access to maternity facilities has become increasingly unpredictable. Mor...
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This article provides an overview of hospital-based rates of caesarean delivery in 18 Arab countries and the association between these rates and selected demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Data on caesarean section were based on 2 of the most recent national hospital-based surveys in each country and on published studies based on hospit...
Article
The Countdown to 2015 intervention coverage indicators in the occupied Palestinian territory are similar to those of other Arab countries, although there are gaps in continuity and quality of services across the continuum of the perinatal period. Since the mid 1990s, however, access to maternity facilities has become increasingly unpredictable. Mor...
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While Arab countries showed an impressive decline in child mortality rates during the past few decades, gaps in mortality by gender and socioeconomic status persisted. However, large socioeconomic disparities in child health were evident in almost every country in the region. Using available tabulations and reliable micro data from national househo...
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To examine the patterns of care-seeking behavior and provider choice of women with self-reported reproductive health problems from 3 urban communities in Beirut. The study was based on a sample of 1869 completed questionnaires from 2051 eligible women (married or had been married, and between 15 and 59 years) obtained during the Urban Health Survey...
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Data on the prevalence and predictors of breast-feeding remain scarce in Lebanon. Moreover, no study has previously addressed the effect of the paediatrician's sex on breast-feeding. The present study aimed to assess the prevalence and predictors of breast-feeding at 1 and 4 months of infant age while exploring the potential role of the sex of the...
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Secondary analysis of the trends and correlates of consanguinity in the Palestinian Territories was conducted using data from two separate surveys in 1995 and 2004. The analysis was conducted on ever-married women aged 15-54 who were asked about their relation to their husband in both surveys. A total of 16,197 women in 1995 and 4971 women in 2004...
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This study examines the prevalence of khat chewing among women during pregnancy and some of the risk factors for this habit in Yemen. Survey data on 7,343 ever-married women from the Yemen Demographic and Maternal and Health Survey (YDMHS), conducted in 1997 are used. Women who had a live birth during the 5 years preceding the survey were asked if...
Article
This study examines the correlates of forced sexual intercourse among pregnant refugee women attending an antenatal clinic in Sidon, Lebanon. A total of 349 pregnant women were interviewed during a clinic visit for a prenatal check-up during the months of June and July 2005. The Abuse Assessment Screen was used to identify cases of abuse. The outco...
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This paper explores recent levels and trends in the prevalence of Caesarean section (C-section) delivery in Jordan during the period 1990--2002 and examines the impact of socio-demographic, healthcare and spatial characteristics on C-sections there. The study used three national data sets from the Jordan Demographic and Health Survey (JDHS) program...
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The purpose of this brief article is to examine the prevalence of domestic violence during pregnancy using data from 349 women attending an antenatal clinic serving refugees in Saidon, Lebanon. The Abuse Assessment Screen was used to identify cases of abuse among the women attending the clinic during the months of June and July, 2005. A total of 24...
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This study aimed to develop fetal growth charts for the population of Greater Beirut, Lebanon, and compare them with previously established references. A survey of consecutive singleton livebirths admitted to normal nurseries and neonatal intensive care units of major hospitals, through the database project of the National Collaborative Perinatal N...
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We examined the association between husbands' involvement in housework and the psychosocial health of their wives using data on married couples living in poor neighborhoods in Beirut, Lebanon. Data were derived from a cross-sectional survey of 2797 households; 1652 married couples and their families were included in the analysis. An index of husban...
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Consanguinity, the marriage between relatives, has been associated with adverse child health outcomes because it increases homozygosity of recessive alleles. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of consanguinity on the birth weight of newborns in Greater Beirut, Lebanon. Cross-sectional data were collected on 10,289 consecutive live...
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The aim of this study is to investigate the factors associated with the acceptance of wife beating among currently married men and women living in disadvantaged Palestinian refugee camps in Jordan. The study uses data from a cross-sectional survey of 3,100 households from 12 refugee camps, conducted in 1999, with a sub-sample of 395 married women a...
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The negative effect of poverty on child health has been well established. However, rapid urbanization in developing countries prompts new research questions relating to socio-cultural practices and other related variables in these settings. To examine the association between maternal cultural participation and child health status in impoverished ne...
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In this paper we examined the relationship between internal displacement, social support and self reported health status of ever married women in three disadvantaged urban neighbourhoods in Lebanon. METHODS: This study was based on data from a cross sectional survey conducted in 2003 on 1869 ever married women residing in three urban disadvantaged...
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This study extends research on the social determinants of health by exploring the association between a new, potentially very significant dimension, cultural capital by type, and self-rated health among low-income women living in outer Beirut, Lebanon. Self-rated general health was assessed using household data from a cross-sectional survey of 1869...
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This study examined the association between place and components of social capital among adolescents living in three impoverished communities outside of Beirut, the capital city of Lebanon. We utilized a unique data set that includes a wide range of social capital items to assess the association between place, social capital and self rated health....
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This paper examines the association between cultural capital and self-rated psychosocial health among poor, ever-married Lebanese women living in an urban context. Both self-rated general and mental health status were assessed using data from a cross-sectional survey of 1,869 women conducted in 2003. Associations between self-rated general and ment...
Article
L'obiettivo è valutare l'effetto sulla fecondità del conflitto in atto in Palestina, confrontando il comportamento riproduttivo dei Palestinesi che vivono nei Territori (Gaza e la Riva Occidentale) con quello dei rifugiati in Giordania, che non sono stati direttamente toccati dalla prima Intifada (1987-1991). I dati utilizzati provengono dalla Inda...
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In the Middle East, patriarchal gender relations reinforced by traditional cultural, legal, and perhaps religious legacies may have directly or indirectly influenced the persistence of violence against women. In fact, intimate partner violence is not considered a criminal act in many Arab countries. Available studies provide only limited insight in...
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This glossary addresses the complex nature of poverty and raises some conceptual and measurement issues related to poverty in the public health literature, with a focus on poor countries.
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This paper examines the impact of near birth complications and socio-demographic, healthcare and spatial characteristics of caesarean section in Egypt, using data on 4032 births from the 2000 Egypt Demographic and Health Survey. The hospital caesarean section rate was 22% in Egypt. Fever/vaginal discharge around delivery, birth weight, mother's age...
Article
Domestic violence is a persistent global health problem affecting many aspects of women’s lives; it is a major cause of disability and death in many countries and has adverse consequences on the general well-being of women. This report examines the acceptance of wife-beating among married persons living in refugee camps in Jordan. We use data from...
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This paper compares husband and wife reports of wife beating using household survey data collected from poor Palestinian refugee communities in Lebanon. The analyses are based on a matched data file of 417 currently married couples, drawn from a unique multi-purpose living conditions sample survey of about 3600 Palestinian refugee households interv...
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In Arab society, plumpness was traditionally considered a trait of feminine perfection. Not now, and an increasing proportion of Lebanese adolescents considers thinness a marker of female beauty. Once a Western phenomenon, extreme thinness is now valued by young urban women almost everywhere, largely because of the propagation of thin models by the...
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Cesarean section rates have been increasing worldwide, but little research exists on trends of cesarean section delivery for any country in the Arab world. The purpose of this study was to document recent levels and trends of cesarean section rates in Egypt, and to estimate trends in cesarean section by type of hospital from three population-based...
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This study had a dual purpose of estimating population- and hospital-based caesarean section rates in 18 Arab countries and examining the association between these rates and important indicators of socioeconomic development. Data on caesarean section were based on the most recent population-based surveys undertaken in each country. Descriptive stat...
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This article documents the levels and patterns of infant and child mortality among Palestinian refugees in Jordan, Lebanon and the Palestinian areas based on comparable data from household sample surveys conducted since 1995. The findings show that Palestinian refugees have clear advantage in mortality levels as compared to their non-refugee counte...
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This survey investigation examines the association between religious identity and smoking behavior in a sample of older adolescents entering the university in Beirut, Lebanon. A culturally appropriate item of religiosity was developed for data collection. Results suggest that religious identity is inversely associated with regular smoking among mal...
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We analyze intra-family support among Palestinians living in Lebanon, using detailed household survey data from the refugee camps and Palestinian communities in Lebanon and latent class analysis technique. The study uncovers five latent classes of familial exchange. Two different theoretical models—the solidarity and reciprocal exchange—are used to...
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This study examines the link between poverty and migration into and out of camps, using 1999 household survey data on the refugee camp populations in Jordan and a binomial logistic regression. The findings show a clear clustering of poverty in the camps, where about one-third of households are poor. Results from several nested regression models sho...
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This article presents a largely descriptive account of reproduction among Palestinian populations in four settings: the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, Jordan and Lebanon. Trends and differentials in fertility and contraceptive use are described using high-quality household survey data. Comparisons are made between the refugee and non-refugee population...
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The purpose of this paper is to describe trends in fertility and fertility change in the West Bank and Gaza Strip during the years 1968-1992, with a particular focus on the recent rise in fertility. The paper is based primarily on vital registration data. The findings show that the fertility transition has been well underway in the West Bank since...
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Abstract We analyze the relationship between legitimation, resource mobilization, and political opportunity and the founding rate of national environmental organizations between 1895 and 1994. We address recent criticisms that organizational ecologists' reliance on the density dependence model—which treats legitimation as an unmeasured intervening...
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Though empirical support for resource mobilization explanations of collective action in the U.S. is strong, it is still uncertain whether the theory offers adequate explanations for collective action in nonaffluent or crisis-ridden settings. This article examines whether collective action increases as a function of increased hardship or improved po...
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This article examines the connection between state repression and the dynamics of popular collective action in the Palestinian West Bank from 1976 to 1985. Unlike traditional social movement research that focuses on structural causes, the analysis is confined here to the interaction between the state and its challengers. How shifts in the form and...
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This paper examines cause-specific labor force non-participation among women living in three impoverished communities on the outskirts of Beirut, Lebanon. It uses an expanded labor force utilization framework, separating the socially discouraged from other labor nonparticipants. This study is based on data from a sample survey of some 2699 househol...

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