Marvin Zuckerman

Marvin Zuckerman
University of Delaware | UDel UD · Department of Psychology

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248
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Publications

Publications (248)
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The Zuckerman-Kuhlman-Aluja Personality Questionnaire provides scores for the five dimensions of the Alternative 5, namely Extraversion, Neuroticism, Sensation Seeking, Aggressiveness, and Activity. What is the degree of interdependence among these five traits (dimensions) of the ZKA-PQ? What do we know about the internal structure of th...
Article
Fifty years ago, in their first meeting, Hans Eysenck and Marvin Zuckerman agreed that research was needed to clarify the relationships between Eysenck's Big Three (E = Extraversion, N = Neuroticism, and P = Psychoticism) and both impulsivity and sensation seeking. In later years, both Eysenck and Zuckerman agreed in their various publications, tha...
Chapter
In this chapter the more important psychometric measures of the sensation seeking construct are described. The sensation seeking personality trait was proposed by Marvin Zuckerman at the beginning of the 1960s and, since then, several measures have been developed by this author and other different authors. This trait is involved in many human behav...
Article
The development of questionnaire scales to measure sensation seeking, first as a general trait and then as one with two or four facets, is described. Behavioral correlates of the trait include: volunteering for unusual or risky experiences, exceptional dangerous sports, fast and reckless driving, variety of sexual partners and activities, smoking,...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Zuckerman-Kuhlman-Aluja Personality Questionnaire (ZKA-PQ) is an instrument used to measure the Alternative Five Factor Model (AFFM) composed of the core personality traits of Activity, Aggression, Extraversion, Neuroticism, and Sensation Seeking (Aluja, Kuhlman, & Zuckerman, 2010). Each of the 5 factors is composed of 4 lower level facets desi...
Presentation
Full-text available
The Zuckerman-Kuhlman-Aluja Personality Questionnaire (ZKA-PQ) is an instrument used to measure the Alternative Five Factor Model (AFFM) composed of the core personality traits of Activity, Aggression, Extraversion, Neuroticism, and Sensation Seeking (Aluja, Kuhlman, & Zuckerman, 2010). Each of the 5 factors is composed of 4 lower level facets desi...
Article
Impulsivity and sensation-seeking questionnaire measures are correlated and in one form of the SSS (in the ZKPQ) Imp and SS items form a reliable major factor named Impulsive Sensation-seeking (ImpSS). The correlations between impulsivity (low control) and sensation-seeking are almost entirely mediated by shared genetic factors. Biological markers...
Article
The aim of this study was to explore the relationships of the dimensions and facets of the Zuckerman–Kuhlman–Aluja Personality Questionnaire (ZKA-PQ) with other psychobiological personality measures: the EPQ-RS (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised, shortened version), I7 (Impulsiveness Questionnaire) and SPSRQ-20 (Sensitivity to Punishment an...
Book
The latest volume from respected scholar and researcher Marvin Zuckerman is a masterful examination of three contemporary scientific approaches to the study of personalitythe psychodynamic, the trait-psychobiological, and the cognitive. The book also focuses on corresponding theoretical frameworks that continue to guide much of the research on pers...
Article
Full-text available
The development of a new 200-item questionnaire based on the theoretical constructs of the alternative Five-factor model of personality is described. We developed the Zuckerman–Kuhlman–Aluja Personality Questionnaire (ZKA–PQ) from an initial pool of 537 items. Its final version includes 5 factors with 4 facets per factor and 10 items per facet. Int...
Chapter
Sensation seeking is a personality trait expressed in the generalized tendency to seek varied, novel, complex, and intense sensations and experiences and the willingness to take risks for the sake of such experiences (Zuckerman, 1979, 1994, 2007). Others have used different terms to describe what is essentially the same trait (e.g. novelty seeking,...
Article
This study examined the relationships between personality disturbance, sensation seeking and drug choice. The subjects were 80 males from three residential drug programs. The proportion of total drug history spent using either depressants, amphetamines, or hallucinogens was correlated with the subjects' Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS) and MMPI scores...
Article
This is a response to Roth, Hammelstein, and Brähler’s (2007) article: “Beyond a youthful behavior style—Age and sex differences in sensation seeking based on need theory”. The authors developed a new scale for sensation seeking because they claim that the behavioral type of items in Zuckerman (1979, 1994, 2007) sensation seeking scale (SSS) do not...
Article
Research on the relationship between personality and specialty interest is important because of its implications in student career counseling and in forecasting future specialty distribution. This study was designed to test the following hypotheses: 1. Students interested in 'surgical' specialties would obtain higher scores on a measure of 'impulsi...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to analyze the cross-cultural generalizability of the Alternative five-factor model (AFFM; Zuckerman, Kuhlman, & Camac, 198832. Zuckerman , M. , Kuhlman , D. M. and Camac , C. 1988. What lies beyond E and N? Factor analyses of scales believed to measure basic dimensions of personality. Journal of Personality and Social...
Article
This is a response to Gray and Wilson’s (2007) article: “A detailed analysis of the reliability and validity of the sensation seeking scale in a UK sample”. Gray and Wilson analysed the items in the four subscales of the SSS-V, using a Likert type response format and deconstructing the forced choice format of the original. However they used some an...
Article
This study was designed to check for the equivalence of the ZKPQ-50-CC (Spanish and French versions) through Internet on-line (OL) and paper and pencil (PP) answer format. Differences in means and devia-tions were significant in some scales, but effect sizes are minimal except for Sociability in the Spanish sam-ple. Alpha reliabilities are also ver...
Article
The three areas of risk in this chapter are related to physical risk either to oneself or others, but other types of risk are also involved. For instance, in the case of driving there are legal and financial risks in addition to the risk of physical harm in accidents. Engaging in extreme, risky sports is not common, but driving is something done on...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the present study was to develop a version of the (ZKPQ) with a robust structure and acceptable psychometric properties in four languages: English (United States), French (Switzerland), German (Germany), and Spanish (Spain). The total sample (N = 4621) was randomly divided into calibration and validation samples. An exploratory factor an...
Article
Full-text available
This study was designed to examine relationships between empathy, specialty interest, personality and perceptions of mother and father. Participants were 422 first-year medical students who completed the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE), and the Zuckerman–Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ, short form). They also reported their spec...
Article
This is a response to a critique of the role of sensation seeking in pathological gambling (PG) by Hammelstein (2004). In studies comparing pathological gamblers in treatment programs with controls most studies have shown no difference with control groups or even lower SSS scores in the pathological gamblers. However in most studies of gamblers in...
Article
depue & morrone-strupinsky (d&m-s) have elaborated a detailed description of the motivational system for affiliation and its neurological basis. this “bottom-up” approach, based almost entirely on studies of nonhuman species, fails to connect with personality differences at the human level. a “top-down” approach looks for common biological markers...
Article
Personality is now understood to be a function of both biological and environmental influences. This revised and updated edition of Psychobiology of Personality describes what is currently known about the biological basis of the primary personality traits, including genetic, neurological, biochemical, physiological, and behavioral influences. Empha...
Chapter
I was originally asked to write this chapter on the “Neurobiology of Personality,” but on reflection realized that this was too broad a topic to be covered in a short chapter. I therefore decided to focus on a specific personality trait which I have studied for about 40 years. Those interested in the broader field of the “Psychobiology of Personali...
Article
I started my career as a clinical psychologist with an interest in personality assessment. But a loss of faith in psychoanalytic theory, projective tests, and clinical case studies in general led to a shift in my interests to personality research. Subsequent jobs at research institutes and universities allowed me to indulge in science. I developed...
Article
Full-text available
An important question in trait theory is how many major traits are necessary to describe personality and exactly what traits these are. Several investigators have made attempts to answer these questions with solutions of 3, 5, and even 16 primary factors. The Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ) is a questionnaire aimed at the evaluat...
Article
Full-text available
A growing number of studies have examined the relationship between the presonality trait of sensation seeking and gambling. However, many of the studies focused on student populations, pathological gamblers and/or collected data in laboratory or classroom settings. The current study adds to the literature on sensation seeking and gambling by using...
Article
Lynn's claim that certain races or ethnic groups have a higher incidence of psychopathic personality is not substantiated by large scale community studies in America that show no differences between these groups in the diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder. No consistent racial differences are found in traits closely associated with psychopa...
Chapter
This chapter describes the biological pathway from the genetic to the neurological to the biochemical to the physiological and finally to their interaction with the environment in the learning of behavioral traits. Four basic personality traits are discussed in terms of the evidence of their biosocial bases: extraversion/sociability, neuroticism/an...
Article
Evolutionary psychologists might regard the psychopathic personality as the preservation of an adaptive type in the evolutionary history of our species. The “selfish gene” (Dawkins, 1989) may characterize the narcissistic, egocentric psychopath. When the psychopath in the novel “One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest” (Kesey, 1964) is asked by a psychiatr...
Article
Full-text available
The first part of this article describes a study of the relationships between personality and risk-taking in six areas: smoking, drinking, drugs, sex, driving, and gambling. The participants, 260 college students, were given self-report measures of risky behaviors in each of the six areas and the Zuckerman-Kuhlman five-factor personality questionna...
Chapter
All situational factors being equal, individuals still differ in their risk-taking behavior. Some are more inclined to engage in risks, others less so. Some engage in risks quite thoughtlessly no matter what the consequences might be, while others accept the risk but attempt to minimize it while indulging in rewarding but risky activities. Personal...
Article
Full-text available
The first part of this article describes a study of the relationships between personality and risk-taking in six areas: smoking, drinking, drugs, sex, driving, and gambling. The participants, 260 college students, were given self-report measures of risky behaviors in each of the six areas and the Zuckerman- Kuhlman five-factor personality questionn...
Article
What causes people to take risks? Do you drink and drive, gamble, or sleep with strangers? It's not just a behavior. It's a personality. Rita lives for excitement. She dies of boredom when life becomes too predictable. She has a wide circle of friends but no tolerance for dullards. She likes meeting exciting new people, even if she knows that they...
Article
The phenomenon of `chasing' has been identified as one of the central characteristics of the behavior of pathological gamblers [American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., DSM IV). Washington, DC: APA]. It consists of more frequent involvement, increased persistence and elevated monetary...
Article
This is a review of the book, "Temperament: A Psychological Perspective" (see record 1998-06662-000 ). The author of this book, Jan Strelau, is a major leader in the modern field of temperament. His present book is an encyclopedic survey of the many approaches to the subject of temperament. The book consists of seven chapters that discuss topics su...
Article
This study compares the perceptions of mothers and fathers by their children in intact families and stepparent families and the relationships between these descriptions of parenting and personality traits of the children. Subjects were college students: 133 from intact families, 87 from families with a stepfather and 19 from stepmother families. De...
Article
Is a generalized positive incentive motivation a construct appropriate to the human level of behavior or would sensation or novelty seeking be a more appropriate one? Is positive incentive motivation, or susceptibility to signals of reward, a mechanism related only to extraversion traits including sociability, activation, social potency, and p...
Article
The purpose of the study was to determine the location of emotional and motivational traits within three major dimensions of personality. Subjects were 396 undergraduates. Generalized expectancies and sensitivities to signals of reward and punishment were measured by questionnaires. An exploratory factor analysis was followed by a Procrustes-rotati...
Article
A study of 185 psychiatric patients with anxiety, mood, and schizophrenic disorders and 185 matched nonpatient controls investigated the effectiveness of the affect trait scales of the revised Multiple Affect Adjective Check List (MAACL-R) in differentiating the three disorders. Univariate and multivariate analyses supported the usefulness of the a...
Article
This book proposes that psychopathology is best understood as the interaction between 3 factors: biology–genetics, personality, and stressful events. These, in combination with social and familial factors, create vulnerability in the individual. Using this framework, the author synthesizes for his readers the most current research available on each...
Article
Males members of two college teams, baseball and football, and female members of two teams, field hockey and lacrosse (combined) and equestrians, were compared on the five scales of the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ). All teams were significantly higher on the Activity and lower on the Neuroticism-Anxiety scales than the general...
Article
Begins with a discussion of the connection between modern psychobiological theories of personality and older theories of temperament. This historical background provides a useful foundation for the subsequent description of the current state of the psychobiological approaches to personality theory. For example, the author draws connections between...
Article
Thirty-two female prostitutes and 32 controls were compared on the five scales of the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ) and responses to a semi-structured interview. It was predicted that prostitutes would score higher on the Impulsive Sensation Seeking (ImpSS) and Aggression-Hostility (Agg-Host) scales. Differences between the gro...
Article
Compared the direct equivalence of C. R. Cloninger's (see record 1988-01507-001) 7-factor and M. Zuckerman's (1991) 5-factor and H. J. Eysenck's (1967) 3-factor psychobiological models of personality. 207 college students were administered the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire—Revised (EPQ-R), the Personality Questionnaire (PQ), and the 125 item T...
Article
Jackson and Maraun claim that the Sensation Seeking Scales (forms II, IV, and V) do not measure sensation seeking because the scales were developed using factor analyses of items rather than rationally using the original construct. The constructs were changed after the factor analyses revealed a different structure than anticipated and the new cons...
Article
Several items of the Sensation Seeking Scale which had become dated or irrelevant to current generations were modified, but some investigators are apparently unaware of these modifications. This note describes the item-changes and a new scale, ‘Impulsive Sensation Seeking’ which has no description of specific activities.
Article
Personality and its disorders may be studied at many levels, from the broad trait to the basic genetic level This article addresses primarily two of these levels, the trait and the biochemical, and the relations between them, with some treatment of the genetic and neuropsychological levels Five current trait models are described Neurotransmitter sy...
Article
This study examined the relations between basic dimensions of personality and passive-avoidance learning (PAL) deficit in psychopathic and nonpsychopathic criminals. Subjects were 79 male, medium-security federal prison inmates. PAL was measured using a computer game, and degree of psychopathy was assessed by the Psychopathy Checklist. Each subject...
Article
Psychopathy has as its central traits socialization, sensation seeking, and impulsivity. These are combined in a supertrait: Impulsive Unsocialized Sensation Seeking (ImpUSS). Secondary types are defined by combinations of ImpUSS and neuroticism or sociability. All broad personality traits have both genetic and environmental determination, and ther...
Article
considers traits that reflect the disinhibition dimension of impulsive unsocialized sensation seeking / summarizes the extensive literature on the behavioral, demographic, psychopathological, and conditioning correlates of impulsive sensation seeking, thereby demonstrating the conceptual coherence of the dimension / reviews the extensive evidence o...
Article
Full-text available
Two studies were done comparing the preferences of high and low sensation seekers for nature paintings representing different styles. The paintings had been previously rated for qualities of complexity and tension. Factor analyses established five stylistic categories among the paintings. In both studies high sensation seekers had a relatively grea...
Article
Full-text available
Compared major factors from 3 models of personality: H. J. Eysenck's Three Factor model, P. T. Costa and R. R. McCrae's (see record 1992-39186-001) version of the Big Five, and M. Zuckerman and D. M. Kuhlman's Alternative Five. The 1st study describes the development of a questionnaire measure for the Alternative Five and the reliability assessmen...
Article
Impulsive unsocialized sensation seeking (ImpUSS) is a major factor discovered in factor analyses of scales used in psychobiological research. It is strongly convergent with Eysenck's P dimension and conscientiousness in the 'big five'. The components of the dimension and the P scale, have been validated as correlates of various kinds of disinhibit...
Article
This study evaluated the relationships between sensation seeking and impulsivity, appraisal of risk in several areas including crime, financial, social violations, sports, and risk of AIDS from sexual activity, and risky behavior in the same areas. Subjects were 447 undergraduates who were given personality tests, and risk appraisal and risky behav...
Article
The Alternative Five Factor model was developed from factor analyses of questionnaire scales believed to measure basic personality factors and it includes the following trait factors: Sociability, Neuroticism-Anxiety, Impulsive Unsocialized Sensation Seeking, Aggression-Hostility, and Activity. Associated with each trait are characteristic desired...
Article
Differences in selective attention as a function of sensation seeking, extraversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism were examined in 108 undergraduates using a dichotic listening task. Dependent measures included shadowing performance, reaction times to a secondary light task, target detection, and recall. The results suggested that high sensation s...
Article
Criteria for a “basic factor” of personality include: (1) reliable identification of the dimension factor across methods, genders, ages; (2) at least moderate heritability; (3) identification of similar kinds of behavioral traits in non-human species; and (4) association of the trait biological trait markers. The conventional five factor model has...
Article
Sensation seeking is a stable trait which is reflected in certain behavioral characteristics, such as risk-taking activities of many kinds. Several lines of research have suggested a relationship between sensation seeking and bipolar affective disorder. The Hypomania scale of the MMPI correlates with the Sensation Seeking Scale. Additionally, both...
Article
This study compared characteristics of subjects who had a parental history of hypertension (FH + group, n = 51) with those who did not (FH - group, n = 49). Subjects took personality questionnaires and self-ratings of alcohol use. State effects were measured just before the experiment. Baseline blood pressure (BP) and BP changes in response to a me...
Article
Full-text available
Thirty-three personality scales, which were good markers for personality factors in a previous study, were analyzed in a new study involving 525 subjects in four samples: men and women in Fall and Spring terms. Two techniques for the computation of factors were employed: (a) traditional factor analysis via the SPSSX Factor procedure, and (b) Simult...
Article
This study examined the relationships between sensation seeking or sensation seeking similarity and relationship satisfaction in college couples. Fifty-eight couples were tested with the Sensation Seeking Scale form V and the Loving and Liking Scales, and each couple was observed for eye gaze behavior. Eye gaze was found to be unrelated to the ques...
Article
Responds to the points made by J. P. Rushton (see record 1992-05220-001) in his comment on M. Zuckerman's article (see record 1991-12414-001) and to H. H. Kendler's criticism of Zuckerman's article (see record 1992-05216-001). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The scientific premises for looking for statistical differences between groups designated as races (on somewhat arbitrary grounds) are questionable. The explanation of such differences in strictly biological-evolutionary terms is even more dubious. Studies of temperament, basic personality traits, disorders (such as antisocial personality), and spe...
Article
Preface 1. Temperament and personality: trait structure and persistence 2. Psychobiological methods 3. Extraversion/sociability 4. Neuroticism 5. Psychoticism (psychopathy), impulsivity, sensation and/or novelty seeking, conscientiousness 6. Aggression-hostility/agreeableness 7. Consilience References.
Chapter
The nineteenth-century “science” of phrenology proposed that each personality trait had a particular locus in the brain that shaped the skull above it. Today, we view this kind of brain localization as fallacious. But in the search for simplicity we may be creating a new kind of phrenology, one more in accord with real brain entities and modern neu...
Article
The relationship between the SSS and EPQ personality dimensions and reinforcement sensitivity was examined in 140 undergraduates using a non-reversal shift concept formation task. Differences in reinforcement sensitivity related to sensation seeking (SS) were not found, although this trait and the EPQ scales were correlated with the Reward and Puni...
Article
The study by Stemmler and Meinhardt is criticized for its use of multivariate statistics with a small sample size, the use of subjects of one gender, the interpretation of questionably significant results, the failure to counterbalance conditions thus confounding order effects and conditions, and the question of whether the procedures attenuated ar...
Article
The scientific premises for looking for statistical differences between groups designated as races (on somewhat arbitrary grounds) are questionable. The explanation of such differences in strictly biological-evolutionary terms is even more dubious. Studies of temperament, basic personality traits, disorders (such as antisocial personality), and spe...
Article
This article summarizes studies relating the trait of sensation seeking to electrodermal and heart-rate responses and cortical evoked potential arousal. Stimulus factors of novelty, intensity, and stimulus significance are important. High sensation seekers tend to give stronger physiological orienting responses than lows to novel stimuli of moderat...
Article
Hunsley''s paper constitutes the second independent replication of four of the five factors in the Multiple Affect Adjective Check List-Revised (MAACL-R), even though he used the trait instead of the state form used to construct the scales and a more stringent factor loading criterion than Zuckerman and Lubin. Hunsley also did a two-factor analysis...
Article
The study evaluated the current relationship between the trait of sensation seeking and smoking as possibly mediated by gender, cognitive risk appraisal and situational-relevant motivation. Subject were 1071 male and female undergraduates of whom 279 indicated they were past or current smokers and completed a Smoking Questionnaire (SQ). All subject...
Article
An attempt is made to define the P dimension of personality in terms of its constituent traits, biological correlates, genetic bases, and relation to forms of psychopathology. Factor analyses revealed a coherent P supertrait incorporating the narrower traits of impulsivity, sensation seeking, lack of socialization and responsibility, autonomy, and...
Article
Previous studies have related the trait of sensation seeking to augmenting of the evoked potential (EP) in both visual and auditory modalities and to electrodermal and heart rate (HR) orienting and defensive reactions. The present study examined all of these phenomena in the same sample of subjects in order to replicate previous findings, and inves...
Article
Rushton's article is criticized for its logic, the credibility of some of its sources, selectivity from the literature and from data within studies, failing to consider diversity in subgroups within races that may exceed differences between races, lack of analysis of racial differences in socioeconomic status and how this might influence group diff...
Article
The present study is a replication of an earlier one. There were 30 dysfunctional couples and 30 control couples matched with the clinic couples on age and education. Both partners independently took the Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS) and the Locke Marital Adjustment Questionnaire (MAQ). Control couples were significantly higher on the MAQ (better m...

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