Marvin Goldfried

Marvin Goldfried
Stony Brook University | Stony Brook · Department of Psychology

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184
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Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (184)
Book
Full-text available
Hailed by one reviewer as "the bible of the integration movement," the inaugural edition of Handbook of Psychotherapy Integration was the first compilation of the early integrative approaches to therapy. Since its publication psychotherapy integration has grown into a mature, empirically supported, and international movement, and the current editio...
Article
The authors, friends, colleagues, and collaborators for almost 60 years engage in an informal discussion concerning the gap between science and practice. They identify some sources of the problem, some manifestations of it, and point the way to some possible solutions. The articles in this special section, because of their use of data collected in...
Article
Objective: The alliance been recognized as an essential common factor and robust predictor of outcome. The present study sought to further our knowledge of the alliance and to promote the integration of research and practice by assessing consensus among peer-nominated expert therapists of varying theoretical orientations on the effectiveness of cl...
Article
The current article discusses assertiveness training, a once highly popular area of investigation that has been neglected in recent years by the field of psychotherapy. A substantial body of research indicates that assertiveness is a relevant factor associated with a variety of clinical problems, populations, and contexts, and that assertiveness tr...
Article
Previous evidence for the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) 75-90has been derived principally from randomized controlled trials. As such, evidence about the treatment of OCD has unilaterally flowed from researchers to clinicians. Despite often having decades of experience treating OCD, clinicians' feedback on their clinical observati...
Article
In response to the request to write about those changes that have occurred in my professional outlook and practice that have come with age, I have recounted some of the experiences I have had that seem to have contributed to these changes. There are a couple of important themes that have run through my professional experiences as a therapist, super...
Article
Integration has become an important and influential movement within psychotherapy practice, reflected by the fact that many treatment providers now identify as integrative. However, integration has not had as great an influence on psychotherapy research. The goal of this paper is to highlight the growing body of research on psychotherapy integratio...
Article
The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) has changed its funding priorities for psychotherapyrelated research. With the introduction of Research Domain Criteria (RDoC), the focus has moved away from supporting randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to an emphasis on gathering primarily neurobiological data that are associated with observable and...
Article
This article consists of a commentary on Hoffart and Hoffart's (2014) recent critique of my 1980 American Psychologist article, which suggested that common principles of change could provide a useful starting point for both clinicians and therapy researchers in better understanding what different approaches to therapy shared. The thesis was that su...
Article
The field of psychotherapy is at an important juncture. Recent changes in the field include (1) the skeptical reception of the Fifth Edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual and (2) the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)’s prioritization of an alternative classification system to guide translational and intervention research. Moreov...
Article
This study examined the extent to which parental acceptance of one's sexual orientation and more general family support moderated the associations between 3 dimensions of minority stress (internalized homonegativity, rejection sensitivity, and discrimination) and depressive symptoms in a sample of 414 self-identified lesbians and gay men who partic...
Article
This article addresses the long-standing gap that has existed between psychotherapy research and practice and the efforts that have been made to bridge it. It also introduces one such effort, which has consisted of 3 clinical surveys on the experiences of practitioners in using empirically supported treatments for panic disorder, social anxiety, an...
Article
Knowledge of the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) predominantly derives from randomized controlled trials (RCTs). However, there may be unique or complex issues encountered in practice, but not necessarily in the context of a controlled clinical trial. Therefore, launching a systematic dialogue b...
Article
Several authors have identified a disconnect between psychotherapy research, including research on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and real-world psychotherapy practice. This disconnect has several negative consequences, potentially including less-than-optimal practice standards as well as a lack of input from practicing psychotherapists on how...
Article
Although there is a growing body of research to support the use of psychological treatments for specific disorders, there has been no way for practitioners to provide feedback to researchers on the barriers they encounter in implementing these treatments in their day-to-day clinical work. In order to provide practitioners a means to give researcher...
Article
In conceptualizing CBT as an approach to treatment that is closely linked to basic empirical principles of human behavior, it is possible to incorporate evidence-based contributions from different theoretical orientations. This is illustrated by how CBT can be open to a variety of interventions that are not typically associated with CBT, but which...
Article
In addressing the very general question of what we should expect from psychotherapy, this article begins by discussing what constitutes relevant evidence on which to base the efficacy and effectiveness of psychotherapy. In this context, an important distinction is made between empirically supported treatments and evidence-based practice. Although t...
Article
Although there is a growing body of research to support the use of psychological treatments for specific disorders, there has been no way for practitioners to provide feedback to researchers on the barriers they encounter in implementing these treatments in their day-to-day clinical work. In order to provide practitioners a means to give researcher...
Article
Objective: The current study used path analysis to examine potential mechanisms through which experiences of discrimination influence depressive and social anxiety symptoms. Method: The sample included 218 lesbians and 249 gay men (total N = 467) who participated in an online survey about minority stress and mental health. The proposed model inc...
Article
This Special Section, developed by the American Psychology Association's Division 12 (Clinical) 2011 Committee on Science and Practice, highlights different ideas to help bridge the gap between clinical research and clinical practice, and notes recent innovations that help make research-practice integration feasible. The articles consider how to br...
Article
We propose a four-level, recursive Research-Practice Integration framework as a heuristic to (a) integrate and reflect on the articles in this Special Section as contributing to a bidirectional bridge between research and practice, and (b) consider additional opportunities to address the research-practice gap. Level 1 addresses Treatment Validation...
Article
Schauman and Mansell (2012) propose the use of perceptual control theory to help us understand why individuals may be reluctant to enter into therapy and, if they do, why they may terminate prematurely. Although there exists an extensive theoretical and research literature that documents the benefits of having control over oneself and situations, I...
Article
This final chapter of the volume samples contemporary views on acceptance and mindfulness in cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). To provide a context for the contributions to this volume, the chapter begins with a brief history of CBT, which is followed by another contextual framework based on relevant observations coming from the sociology of scienc...
Book
Therapists are vulnerable to a wide range of uncomfortable emotions during the practice of psychotherapy. How a therapist manages these reactions has important consequences for the process and outcome of treatment. Spearheaded by three renowned scholars on psychotherapeutic practice, this edited volume will help therapists—established and novice—un...
Chapter
Full-text available
After 5 years of conceptualizing, investigating, and writing about corrective experiences (CEs), we (the authors of this chapter) met to talk about what we learned. In this chapter, we summarize our joint understanding of (a) the definition of CEs; (b) the contexts in which CEs occur; (c) client, therapist, and external factors that facilitate CEs;...
Article
Over the past several decades, the field of psychotherapy has become more receptive to the idea of integration. For the most part, efforts have been made to find commonalities and complementarities across different theoretical orientations. When the Society for the Exploration of Psychotherapy Integration (SEPI) was formed in 1983, its stated goals...
Article
Full-text available
Research that identifies areas of agreement among expert therapists can complement findings from clinical trials by highlighting common practices as well as innovations. The present study accessed consensus among expert therapists on the effectiveness of clinical strategies for treating young adults experiencing interpersonal problems with their pa...
Article
Full-text available
In this article, each author gives a brief comment on similarities he or she sees throughout the case formulations captured in the articles by Watson (2010a), Silberschatz (2010), Goldfried (2010), and Caspar (2010). A systematic comparison is added. Overall, the impression is confirmed and maintained that if authors are ready to renounce the use o...
Article
A cognitive–behavioral conceptualization of depression is presented, identifying distorted perceptions, ineffective actions, and/or an unresponsive environment as possible causative factors. Acknowledging that information about a patient’s early history can inform the cognitive–behavior therapist about possible areas of vulnerability that are trigg...
Article
Full-text available
This study tested the effectiveness of an expressive writing intervention for gay men on outcomes related to psychosocial functioning. Seventy-seven gay male college students (mean age = 20.19 years, SD = 1.99) were randomly assigned to write for 20 min a day for 3 consecutive days about either (a) the most stressful or traumatic gay-related event...
Chapter
Although a substantial number of psychotherapists identify themselves as eclectic or integrative (Norcross & Goldfried, 2005), the acceptance of psychotherapy integration was a process that evolved over several decades. A seed for psychotherapy integration was first planted by French in his address of the 1932 meeting of the American Psychiatric As...
Chapter
Full-text available
The theoretical, clinical, and empirical foundations of psychotherapy come from five primary movements that still exist today, continue to evolve, and remain scientifically productive: psychodynamic, cognitive-behavioral, humanistic, systemic, and integrative. The goal of this chapter is to examine the philosophical, clinical, and scientific underp...
Article
Full-text available
The goal of this article is to delineate training implications regarding harmful effects associated with psychotherapy. The authors strongly recommend that trainees be made aware of (and encouraged to examine carefully) the potentially harmful treatments that have been recently identified (Lilienfeld, 2007). Consistent with a broad perspective on e...
Article
Over the past 30 years, the topic of psychotherapy integration has moved from a latent theme to a clear movement, and the commentaries made in this issue of Applied and Preventive Psychology document these changes. More than ever before, the field of psychotherapy has become increasingly interested in achieving a consensus. The question is becoming...
Article
One of the benefits of being the discussant is that it allows me to be somewhat unconstrained and freewheeling in commenting on the other chapters. I have fully taken advantage of this benefit, and my comments are personal, empirical, professional, and political. After describing how I came to be interested in LGB issues, I go on to discuss the het...
Article
In answer to the need for a comprehensive, systematic, yet flexible case formulation method, the present article describes the Causal Analysis and Synthesis of Events (CASE) system, a transtheoretical case formulation method. This method of functional case formulation is useful in terms of explicating the problem and identifying potential areas for...
Article
Full-text available
On the basis of recent evidence suggesting that gay men are particularly likely to fear interpersonal rejection, the authors set out to extend the rejection sensitivity construct to the mental health concerns of gay men. After establishing a reliable and valid measure of the gay-related rejection sensitivity construct, the authors use this to test...
Article
Despite ongoing discussion over how best to define and operationalize emotions, therapists increasingly agree on emotions’ centrality to psychological health and change. Research suggests that accurately recognizing emotions is critical to psychological health, and most major therapeutic approaches aim to address deficits in emotional awareness. In...
Article
Wachtel's article is as relevant today as it was over a quarter century ago, especially as public support for higher education has declined, and increased pressure to obtain external research funding is needed in order to support universities. Although Wachtel's observation that research and grant funding are more likely to be reinforced then theor...
Article
Rogers' classic article (see record 2007-14639-002) on the necessary and sufficient conditions for therapeutic change--now 50 years old--has made an indelible impact on the field. In his brief article, Rogers broke with the past, making a compelling case for the importance of subjecting our hypotheses about how therapy works to empirical test. More...
Article
This set of articles offers examples of innovative and exciting trends in psychotherapy process research. We briefly review the state-of-the-art of psychotherapy research, highlighting some limitations of current approaches in the field and the pressing need to move beyond the current state of affairs. We note that the methods advocated and put to...
Article
Psychotherapy research concerning lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals has focused on matching clients on gender and sexual orientation, yet has not considered how factors such as therapeutic skill, presenting problem, and cohort membership may influence preference for therapists. This study was designed to identify those therapist qualitie...
Article
Concerns have been raised that individuals who are having difficulty coming out as gay or bisexual may be misdiagnosed with borderline personality disorder. In this analogue study, 141 psychologists evaluated a hypothetical client with problems that resembled borderline symptoms but were also consistent with a sexual identity crisis. Client descrip...
Article
With increasing public acceptance of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LCB) individuals, therapists can expect to encounter more opportunities to work with LCB clients. As therapists, we need to be certain that we can provide competent care to this population, which has been poorly served in the past by practitioners taught to view homosexuality as patho...
Article
In this article, we suggest that the long-term effectiveness of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) may be enhanced by going beyond symptoms at the cognitive level (i.e., intellectual meanings) and expanding therapeutic focus to the underlying, implicit emotional meanings. Following a discussion of the state-of-the-art view on emotion in CBT, we prese...
Article
With the growing pressures from managed care and biological psychiatry to demonstrate the clinical effectiveness of psychosocial interventions, the field has attempted to arrive at a consensus about which treatments work for whom. Although it is essential for the practice of psychotherapy to have an empirical base, the issue is complicated by exist...
Article
Full-text available
Based on the assumption that sexual minority individuals are particularly sensitive to the possible rejection of others, the present study examined the occurrence and correlates of social anxiety symptomatology in gay and heterosexual men. Eighty-seven heterosexual and 87 gay undergraduate men between the ages of 18 and 24 completed common measures...
Article
This article discusses varying perspectives on the role of technique and the relationship in therapeutic change. The theoretical assumptions underlying the debate are briefly described, as are the positions of humanistic, behavioral, psychodynamic, and experiential orientations. Theory and research that consider the integration of relationship and...
Article
This article provides a compilation of forecasts on the future of psychotherapy integration from 22 prominent figures in the integration movement. Contributors succinctly addressed questions on desirable practice, research, theoretical, and training directions for the movement. Contributors also responded to the question, What would you like the fi...
Article
Full-text available
This article discusses some of the key clinical issues for therapists to consider when working with lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) clients. After a discussion of the biases that can influence psychotherapy, guidelines are given for conducting LGB-affirmative therapy that avoids these biases. Issues that therapists need to be familiar with in work...
Article
Basic, process, and outcome research have the potential to inform clinical practice. However, as D. Westen, C. M. Novotny, and H. Thompson-Brenner observed in their timely analysis, the current dominant paradigm for psychotherapy outcome research--the randomized clinical trial--is not fulfilling this potential. The field's reliance on the medical m...
Article
The author comments on 4 different conceptual models reflecting integratively oriented brief psychotherapies. Although J. P. McCullough (2003), J. J. Magnavita and T. M. Carlson (2003), H. Levenson (2003), and J. C. Anchin (2003a) have each described a different integrative approach to time limited therapy, it nonetheless is possible to discern com...
Article
The mainstream psychology literature has historically failed to include individuals with nonheterosexual sexual orientations in its study of many areas, including adolescent development, sexual development, psychotherapy, couple relationships, aging, suicide, and substance abuse. The articles contained in this issue make clear that knowledge of hum...
Article
Although cognitive-behavior therapy emphasizes between-session change, therapist self-disclosure within the session can be an effective tool for strengthening the therapeutic bond and facilitating client change. After noting the use of self-disclosure in other theoretical orientations, we place self-disclosure in the context of cognitive-behavioral...
Chapter
In sharp contrast to the acrimonious debates that prevailed for a long time in psychotherapy, a movement of rapprochement and integration has emerged among major theoretical orientations (psychodynamic, cognitive-behavioral, and humanistic). The first section of this chapter presents a number of empirical, conceptual, and clinical factors that have...
Article
This article presents an account of the evolution of cognitive–behavior therapy over the past 35 years, which began with the introduction of cognition into behavior therapy in the mid-1960s. As cognitive–behavior therapists became more experienced clinically and recognized that clients did not always engage in clearly reportable internal dialogues,...
Article
This article attempts to revitalize the scientist-practitioner model of psychotherapy by focusing on the research component of the model. Specifically, it takes a realistic look at the types of research that can be conducted by clinicians in an effort to motivate them to engage regularly in clinical research. Towards this end, five experienced scie...
Article
The issue of termination as viewed from a cognitive-behavioral orientation is considered within the context of the duration of treatment, the goals of therapy, and the underlying coping skills model that characterizes this orientation. These factors make a cognitive-behavioral approach to therapy both similar to and different from other orientation...
Article
Full-text available
The convergent validity of the Agnew Relationship Measure (ARM) and the Working Alliance Inventory (WAI) was assessed in samples drawn from 2 comparative clinical trials of time-limited psychotherapies for depression. In 1 sample, clients (n = 18) and therapists (n = 4) completed self-report versions of both measures after every session (n = 198)....
Article
Full-text available
Whereas cognitive-behavioral (CB) therapy sessions aim to be instructive and encouraging, psychodynamic-interpersonal (PI) sessions aim to be exploratory and may be emotionally painful. Raters rated degree of pleasure and arousal in each sentence of client speech in CB and PI sessions ( N=18) that therapists had identified as particularly helpful....
Article
Despite the growing clinical and research literature dealing with gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) issues, mainstream psychology has tended to ignore much of the work that has been done in this area. This article illustrates how clinical and research writings on GLB issues continue to remain invisible to mainstream psychology in such areas as life...
Article
The approach that mental health professionals have taken in working with gay, lesbian, and bisexual (GLB) clients has changed dramatically over the past 25 years. Once viewed as being pathological in nature-either a sociopathic personality disorder or a sexual deviation-homosexuality is no long conceptualized as a "disorder" and instead is viewed w...
Article
This article underscores the very important role that parental acceptance and support plays in furthering the psychological well-being of gay, lesbian, and bisexual individuals. Parents, Families, and Friends of Lesbians and Gays (PFLAG), an organization dedicated to this goal, has as its mission the support for family members, education of the pub...
Article
Full-text available
Discusses the conclusions and reccomendations of the Division 29 Task Force regarding emperical evidence supporting therapy relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The case of Katrina, a 25-year-old, married woman with a history of multiple psychiatric hospitalizations due to recurrent, impulsive suicide attempts, pervasive suicidal ideation, depression, and intrusive memories of sexual abuse, was presented to several experienced clinicians of various theoretical backgrounds. Regardless of the diagnostic labe...
Article
This study (a) used an established comprehensive process measure to uncover a latent pattern of therapeutic focus in cognitive-behavioral and psychodynamic-interpersonal sessions; (b) used these results to develop the coding system of Therapeutic Focus on Action and Insight, which makes it possible to evaluate therapists' relative emphasis on the C...
Article
The field of clinical psychology has been characterized over the past five decades as shaped by social, economic, and political forces outside of it. Even before the Boulder Conference, meetings and writings evidenced the underpinnings of the scientist-practitioner model that was to be developed in a welcoming climate (Dosier, 1947; Kubie, 1949; Lu...
Article
This article examines the issue of why the field of psychotherapy, now approximately 100 years old, has had difficulty in accumulating an agreed-upon body of clinical and research findings. Among the reasons discussed are the gap that exists between research and practice; the different theoretical approaches that have been taken in the attempt to u...
Article
The field of clinical psychology has been characterized over the past five decades as shaped by social, economic, and political forces outside of it. Even before the Boulder Conference. meetings and writings evidenced the underpinnings of the scientist-practitioner model that was to be developed in a welcoming climate (Dosier, 1947; Kubie. 1949; Lu...
Article
Considering the role of theory in child psychosocial treatment, it is important to acknowledge some of its associated problems. Among the shortcomings of theory discussed in this article are its potential for biasing what we see and do clinically, the arbitrary nature of some theoretical explanations, and the way that theory-based jargon can interf...
Article
The controversial move toward the development of a consensus on evidence-based or empirically supported therapies may be seen as an international crisis facing psychotherapists. Researchers long have complained that practicing therapists all too often continue to guide what they do therapeutically on the basis of their clinical experience and not t...
Article
The controversial move toward the development of a consensus on evidence-based or empirically supported therapies may be seen as an international crisis facing psychotherapists. Researchers long have complained that practicing therapists all too often continue to guide what they do therapeutically on the basis of their clinical experience and not t...
Article
Jacobson has raised a number of issues about the usefulness of psychotherapy integration. Some of his concerns stem from his doubt that people are capable of change, and some that appear to be the result of a misinterpretation of what constitutes psychotherapy integration. This article attempts to clarify some of these misunderstandings, which seem...
Article
Full-text available
Using the Coding System of Therapeutic Focus, this exploratory study was a comparative process analysis of clinically significant sessions obtained from 22 master cognitive-behavior and 14 master psychodynamic-interpersonal therapists. Therapists were nominated by experts in each of these orientations, and clients were seen in a naturalistic settin...
Article
Using the Coding System of Therapeutic Focus, this exploratory study was a comparative process analysis of clinically significant sessions obtained from 22 master cognitive-behavior and 14 master psychodynamic-interpersonal therapists. Therapists were nominated by experts in each of these orientations, and clients were seen in a naturalistic settin...
Article
Eighteen sessions of cognitive-behavioral (CB) and 13 sessions of psychodynamic-interpersonal therapy obtained from experienced clinicians in a naturalistic setting were investigated to determine the various therapeutic interventions associated with high and low emotional experiencing (EXP). Clients receiving reflections and acknowledgments, affili...
Article
Interest in psychotherapy integration, which has developed into an ongoing movement in the past decade or two, now appears to be capturing the interest among therapists and researchers in the clinical child area. The articles in this section deal specifically with the integration of basic research on language and cognition into the clinical arena,...
Article
Despite the advances in psychotherapy outcome research, findings are limited because they do not fully generalize to the way therapy is conducted in the real world. Research's clinical validity has been compromised by the medicalization of outcome research, use of random assignment of clients without regard to appropriateness of treatment, fixed nu...
Article
Full-text available
This study compared therapeutic foci in a sampling of 30 cognitive-behavioral and 27 psychodynamic-interpersonal manual-driven treatments for depression. High- and low-impact sessions were coded for each client, with the Coding System of Therapeutic Focus. Results indicated that psychodynamic-interpersonal sessions focused more on such variables as...
Article
Full-text available
The quality of the therapeutic alliance was compared in sessions of psychodynamic-interpersonal and cognitive-behavioral therapy, and the alliance's relationship to various session impacts was investigated. As part of the Sheffield Psychotherapy Project 2 (D. A. Shapiro, M. Barkham, A. Rees, G. E. Hardy, S. Reynolds, & M. Startup, 1994), 57 clients...
Article
The interventions used by 13 psychodynamic-interpersonal (PI) and 18 cognitive-behavioral (CB) therapists in sessions representing client change were explored. The most frequently used verbal interventions by both orientations were Questions, Reflections, and Interpretations (defined broadly as the therapists providing their own perspective on the...
Article
Full-text available
W.B. Stiles and D.A. Shapiro (1994) present a provocative argument that the yield of process research has been minimal because of researchers' overreliance on the drug metaphor and its corollary, the correlational design. Although Stiles and Shapiro raise excellent points regarding the possible misinterpretations of correlational research, their co...
Article
Although the gap between psychotherapy practice and research has been present for some time, recent pressures for accountability from outside the system-managed health care and biological psychiatry-necessitate that we take steps to close this gap. One such step has been for psychotherapy researchers to specify a list of empirically validated thera...
Article
Although the gap between psychotherapy practice and research has been present for some time, recent pressures for accountability from outside the system-managed health care and biological psychiatry-necessitate that we take steps to close this gap. One such step has been for psychotherapy researchers to specify a list of empirically validated thera...

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