Martyn Barrett

Martyn Barrett
University of Surrey · School of Psychology

MA (Cantab.), DPhil (Sussex), CPsychol, FBPsS, FRSA, FAcSS
Expert and consultant for the Council of Europe's Education Department and for OECD PISA

About

157
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Introduction
Martyn Barrett is Emeritus Professor of Psychology at the University of Surrey, UK. He is a developmental and social psychologist but has a strong commitment to multidisciplinary research. He works on the development of intercultural, democratic and global competence; young people’s political and civic engagement, active participation and global citizenship; the development of national and ethnic identifications, prejudice, stereotyping and intergroup attitudes; and young people’s ethnic, national and political enculturation. In the past, he also worked on the development of language, the development of children's drawings, and various aspects of children's cognitive development.

Publications

Publications (157)
Article
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This paper outlines how human dignity, respect, human rights and cultural diversity are interlinked. It is argued that all human beings have intrinsic dignity, and are deserving of respect and respectful behaviour which acknowledges, affirms and protects their autonomy and right to live a life which they choose for themselves, while simultaneously...
Article
Full-text available
Over the past 25 years, the intercultural communicative competence model developed by Michael Byram (1997) has proved to be one of the most influential models, especially in the field of foreign language educa¬tion. This model describes the elements of intercultural communicative competence that Byram judges to be teachable and assessable in the la...
Presentation
The Positive Youth Development (PYD) model suggests that when individual resources are aligned with growth-promoting ecological resources (i.e., developmental assets), positive development can be observed in youth. Considering this model within the perspective of ecological development systems, this process could be even more relevant when the refe...
Chapter
Full-text available
Over the past 25 years, the intercultural communicative competence model developed by Michael Byram (1997) has proved to be one of the most influential models, especially in the field of foreign language education. This model describes the elements of intercultural communicative competence that Byram judges to be teachable and assessable in the lan...
Book
Full-text available
This book presents an updated and revised edition of the Council of Europe’s Autobiography of Intercultural Encounters through Visual Media (AIEVM). The AIEVM is an educational tool that has been designed to support learners to think about and to learn from intercultural encounters that they have experienced through visual media such as television,...
Book
Full-text available
This book presents an updated and revised edition of the Council of Europe’s Autobiography of Intercultural Encounters through the Internet (AIETI). The AIETI is an educational tool that has been designed to support learners to think about and to learn from intercultural encounters that they have experienced through the Internet. It is intended to...
Book
Full-text available
This book presents an updated and revised edition of the Council of Europe’s Autobiography of Intercultural Encounters (AIE). The AIE is an educational tool that has been designed to support learners to think about and to learn from face-to-face intercultural encounters that they have experienced. It is intended to support and encourage the develop...
Book
Full-text available
The Council of Europe’s Autobiography of Intercultural Encounters is a set of resources designed to encourage people to think about and learn from intercultural encounters they have had either face-to-face, through visual media such as television, magazines, photographs, films, or through the Internet. There are three separate but parallel tools: (...
Article
This study investigated the relations of emerging adults' personal (civic competence and interdependent self‐construal) and community‐based (sense of community and civic engagement) resources as predictors of appraisal of COVID‐19 Public Health Emergency Management (PHEM) and attitudes toward preventing contagion in Italy. Participants were 2873 It...
Book
Full-text available
The Council of Europe’s Reference Framework of Competences for Democratic Culture offers a systematic approach to designing the teaching, learning and assessment of competences for democratic culture. It specifies a set of 20 competences which learners need to acquire in order to function effectively as democratic citizens in culturally diverse soc...
Article
Full-text available
The promotion of citizen's democratic and intercultural competence is one of the main actions that European societies may take against some of the most significant challenges they are facing nowadays. The paper is aimed at briefly describing the Council of Europe's Reference Framework of Competences for Democratic Culture, some actions that can be...
Book
Full-text available
The Council of Europe’s Reference Framework of Competences for Democratic Culture offers a systematic approach to designing the teaching, learning and assessment of competences for democratic culture. It specifies a set of 20 competences which learners need to acquire in order to function effectively as democratic citizens in culturally diverse soc...
Article
Full-text available
This paper summarises some of the main findings in the PISA 2018 Global Competence Report that are relevant to intercultural education. It is argued that the international comparisons contained in the report are largely uninterpretable. Instead, it is recommended that readers pay most attention to the patterns of associations between variables whic...
Article
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This paper provides an overview of the 20 citizenship competences that are specified by the Council of Europe’s Reference Framework of Competences for Democratic Culture (Barrett et al., 2018a, 2018b, 2018c). The procedure that was used to identify these 20 competences is described, and some of the notable characteristics of the set of 20 competenc...
Book
Full-text available
This portfolio is intended for use in conjunction with the Council of Europe’s Reference Framework of Competences for Democratic Culture (RFCDC). It requires learners to compile documents – such as recordings, texts and images – which demonstrate how they are using their competences for democratic culture in diverse situations within and beyond sch...
Book
Full-text available
This portfolio is intended for use in conjunction with the Council of Europe’s Reference Framework of Competences for Democratic Culture (RFCDC). It requires learners to compile documents – such as recordings, texts and images – which demonstrate how they are using their competences for democratic culture in diverse situations within and beyond sch...
Article
Full-text available
This paper provides an overview of the OECD PISA Global Competence conceptual framework, the assessments that were made of global competence in the 2018 round of PISA, and some key findings that were obtained concerning the global competence of 15-year-old students in 66 countries. It was found that merely including global and intercultural issues...
Article
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In a recent paper, Simpson and Dervin (2019a) offer a radical critique of the Council of Europe’s Reference Framework of Competences for Democratic Culture (RFCDC). However, Simpson and Dervin’s paper contains numerous factual errors, interpretative errors and category errors in its description of the RFCDC. We identify 12 such errors which invalid...
Article
Full-text available
The Council of Europe's Reference Framework of Competences for Democratic Culture (RFCDC) was published in April 2018, and is currently being implemented in a number of Council of Europe member states. The RFCDC consists of three main components: a conceptual model of the competences that learners need to acquire in order to respond appropriately a...
Chapter
Full-text available
This book provides a comprehensive overview of the research that has been conducted into youth civic and political engagement. It draws on findings that have been obtained across a range of social science disciplines, including Psychology, Sociology, Political Science and Education. The book describes the numerous forms that youth engagement can ta...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter focuses on the social and demographic factors that are linked to young people’s civic and political engagement. The chapter begins by discussing the social factors that are the closest to the developing individual, including both the family and the peer group, then moves outwards towards intermediate level social factors such as the ne...
Chapter
Full-text available
Many psychological factors are related to young people’s civic and political engagement. These psychological factors are often better predictors of different types of civic and political activity than either social or demographic factors. They have also been found to mediate the relationship between macro, demographic and social factors and civic a...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter explores the macro factors that are linked to youth civic and political engagement. By macro factors, we mean the large-scale factors that together define the broader societal and institutional context within which an individual lives. These factors include historical, cultural, economic, political, legal, policy and technological fact...
Chapter
Full-text available
This book provides an introduction to youth civic and political engagement. It describes the forms that such engagement takes, how it develops, the factors that facilitate or inhibit its development, and the actions that can be taken to promote and encourage the civic and political engagement of youth and empower them as active democratic citizens....
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter explores the psychological factors that are linked to young people’s civic and political engagement. These psychological factors are often better predictors of different types of civic and political activity than either social or demographic factors. They have also been found to mediate the relationship between macro, demographic and s...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter explores the social and demographic factors that are linked to young people’s civic and political engagement. The chapter begins by discussing the social factors that are the closest to the developing individual, including both the family and the peer group, then moves outwards towards intermediate level social factors such as the neig...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter explores the macro factors that are linked to young people’s civic and political engagement. These include: the broad patterns of political and civic engagement that occur among adults within a country; the historical, cultural, economic, institutional and legal characteristics of a country; public policies on young people’s active cit...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter provides a guide to many of the concepts that are used in the study of youth civic and political engagement. It also outlines the various forms that youth civic and political engagement can take, summarises the principal findings that have emerged from recent studies into youth engagement, and discusses the numerous psychological, soci...
Book
Full-text available
The Council of Europe promotes and protects human rights, democracy and the rule of law. These principles have been cornerstones of European societies and political systems for decades, yet they need to be maintained and fostered, not least in times of economic and political crisis. Most people would agree that democracy means a form of governance...
Book
Full-text available
The Council of Europe promotes and protects human rights, democracy and the rule of law. These principles have been cornerstones of European societies and political systems for decades, yet they need to be maintained and fostered, not least in times of economic and political crisis. Most people would agree that democracy means a form of governance...
Book
Full-text available
The Council of Europe promotes and protects human rights, democracy and the rule of law. These principles have been cornerstones of European societies and political systems for decades, yet they need to be maintained and fostered, not least in times of economic and political crisis. Most people would agree that democracy means a form of governance...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reviews existing evidence on how the intercultural competence of young people can be promoted by schools. It begins by examining the concept of intercultural competence, and the values, attitudes, skills, knowledge, and understanding that together comprise this competence. The various actions that can be taken by schools to promote the i...
Book
Full-text available
Global competence is the capacity to examine local, global and intercultural issues, to understand and appreciate the perspectives and world views of others, to engage in open, appropriate and effective interactions with people from different cultures, and to act for collective well-being and sustainable development. This paper presents the concept...
Chapter
Full-text available
This article presents an overview of current understandings in the study of political and civic engagement and participation, drawing in particular on innovations which have emerged from the Processes Influencing Democratic Ownership and Participation (PIDOP) project. For the purposes of the article, ‘engagement’ is defined as having an interest in...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated whether demographic variables, efficacy beliefs, visions, and worries are associated with four different forms of (dis)engagement with the European Union (EU): intended voting in the 2019 EU elections, nonconventional political engagement, psychological engagement, and the wish that one’s own country should leave the EU. The...
Article
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This paper reviews the research that has been conducted into youth civic and political engagement since 2010. We begin by noting the claim that youth are not sufficiently engaged either civically or politically. We argue that this claim is probably incorrect: rather than using conventional forms of political participation, youth today are often eng...
Book
Full-text available
This document is a product of a Council of Europe project which is taking place in four phases from 2014-17. The first phase has been devoted to the development of a conceptual model of the competences which citizens require to participate effectively in a culture of democracy. This document describes the model and the methods that were used to dev...
Chapter
Full-text available
Immigration has been undoubtedly one of the most important phenomena of the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. However, despite its significance for both the host countries and the countries of origin, the interest of psychology and, more specifically, of social psychology in immigration is relatively recent, and it has primarily focused o...
Article
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This paper discusses issues which are central to the lives of ethnic minority children and youth who are growing up in culturally diverse settings today. Within the discipline of psychology, the dominant theoretical approach that has been used to address these issues is the fourfold model of acculturation as developed by Berry and his colleagues (e...
Article
Full-text available
This article presents an overview of current understandings in the study of political and civic engagement and participation, drawing in particular on innovations which have emerged from the Processes Influencing Democratic Ownership and Participation (PIDOP) project. For the purposes of the article, ‘engagement’ is defined as having an interest in...
Article
Full-text available
This article provides a brief overview of Ed Cairns’ (1945–2012) personal and professional life. Born, raised, and educated in Belfast, Ed’s career at the University of Ulster spanned the years of Northern Ireland’s contemporary political violence—from the riots of the early 1970s, through the Good Friday Agreement of 1998, and into the present pos...
Article
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En este artículo, se revisa la investigación llevada a cabo en el campo de la psicología evolutiva en el desarrollo del sentido subjetivo de la identidad nacional en niñoslas y adolescentes. A lo largo del artículo se ilustra cómo recientes estudios han cuestionado el tradicional enfoque piagetiano según el cual las actitudes hacia los otros grupos...
Book
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This text argues for the full integration of intercultural competence as a core element within the education system. It offers an educational rationale and conceptual framework for the development of intercultural competence, a clear description of its constitutive elements to be developed in and through education, and an overview of a variety of p...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter focuses on civic and political participation among youth, primarily in Europe although the review also draws on evidence from non-European countries in areas where European research is limited. Political science and political sociology only started to show an interest in youth participation in the post-Cold War era due to the emergence...
Book
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This book examines the relationship between two policy approaches for managing the cultural diversity of contemporary societies: interculturalism and multiculturalism. The relationship between these two approaches has been a matter of intense debate in recent years. Some commentators argue that they represent two very different approaches, while ot...
Article
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In this paper, I review research which has been conducted within the field of developmental psychology into the development of subjective sense of national identity in childhood and adolescence. As we will see in the course of the paper, the traditional Piagetian picture, which depicts children's intergroup attitudes as developing through a sequenc...
Article
Full-text available
The existing literature on political and civic participation has tended to neglect individuals’ judgements about the effectiveness of specific forms of participation, focusing instead on the role of internal, external and collective efficacy in driving levels of participation. The present study examined young people’s judgements of the effectivenes...
Article
Full-text available
Following Turiel's (1983) proposal of two distinct conceptual domains of social thinking, the moral and the social-conventional, research has revealed that children acquire competent rule-differentiation abilities at a very early age within the family context (Smetana & Braeges, 1990; Smetana, Schlagman & Adams, 1993). This study investigated child...
Article
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Children tend to use certain drawing strategies differentially when asked to draw topics with positive and negative emotional characterisations. These effects have however only been established when children are asked to use standard drawing materials. The present study was designed to investigate whether the above pattern of children’s response wh...
Article
Full-text available
Various distinctions which have been applied to the development of children's drawings are considered critically, and a distinction between symbolism and intellectual realism is suggested. Drawings made by 42 5- to 7-year-old children of familiar objects with distinctive characteristics were examined. Results provided support for the suggested symb...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports a study which examined children's understanding of the primary school as a microscopic society, investigating their acquisition of system concepts such as rules, community, self/system interaction and power, and their comprehension of the interrelationships. A sample of 144 children, aged 5–11 years old, from four schools, respon...
Chapter
Full-text available
A state-of-the-art review of the research in this area, this collection covers children's understanding of family, school, economics, race, politics and gender roles. Recent changes and trends in research are summarised. This is explained in terms of a progression from the Piagetian stages model of development to the current emphasis on socially-me...
Article
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This study investigated national identifications and national attitudes among White English children aged 6–7 and 10–11 years old. Eighty children were interviewed using a scale to measure their strength of national identification, and using a trait attribution task and affect questions to measure their attitudes towards four target groups: English...
Article
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In this short introduction, the background, rationale, and hypotheses are presented for the studies that are reported in the special issue, as well as the order in which the studies are presented.
Article
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This paper reviews some of the relevant background findings against which the empirical studies reported in this special issue were designed. Particular attention is given to previous findings on the development of children's national knowledge, national attitudes and national identifications. The paper also reviews five existing theories, which ha...
Article
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This paper discusses national and ethnic identities and differences as they currently exist in the world today. The perspective adopted is that of the social sciences in general and psychology in particular. The main focus is on how social and psychological processes shape people’s identities and perceptions of difference, and how people’s national...
Article
This study assessed children's graphic flexibility and their ability to report on their use of drawing strategies when drawing characterized figures. 253 children (129 boys, 124 girls) aged between 4 years 3 months and 11 year 10 months formed three groups, either drawing a man, a dog or a tree. Each group was asked to draw three emotionally contra...
Article
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This paper reports two studies that investigated children's conceptions of mental illness using a naïve theory approach, drawing upon a conceptual framework for analysing illness representations which distinguishes between the identity, causes, consequences, curability, and timeline of an illness. The studies utilized semi-structured interviewing a...
Article
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The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
Article
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This study explored what it means to be British from the perspective of young British Indian and Pakistani adults. Fifteen respondents were interviewed using a semi-structured schedule in order to explore their self-descriptions and self-categorizations, how different contexts influence their identifications as British and as Indian/Pakistani, thei...
Article
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This study aimed to investigate children's thinking about mental illness by employing a well-established framework of adult illness understanding. The study adopted a semistructured interview technique and a card selection task to assess children's responses to causes, consequences, timeline and curability of the different types of mental illness....
Article
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An increasing amount of research explores how children distinguish different aspects of ethnic group attitudes. However, little work has focused on how these aspects tie in with other social and psychological processes. In the present study, 112 black and white children aged 5-, 7- and 9-years completed tests of implicit and explicit ethnic group a...
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Chapter
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This is a very impressive monograph bearing every prospect of becoming a landmark in its field. It combines an exceptionally scholarly review of the historical and current literature on children and national identity with an account of the findings of a unique and ambitious series of multi-context, international studies. The results are fascinating...
Article
This book provides a state-of-the-art account of how people's understanding of, and attitudes towards, nations and national groups develop through the course of childhood and adolescence. It offers a comprehensive review of the research which has been conducted into: (1) children's understanding of nations and states as geographical territories and...
Article
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This report examines possible causes of gender segregation and its link to skills shortages in the UK labour market, by investigating young people’s perceptions about work and their preferences for jobs. In particular, the aim is to identify ways of ensuring that young people’s occupational choices are not determined by their gender or stereotypica...
Article
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Research into children's awareness of group differences has been an active area of research for some time, with work focusing on areas such as nationality, ethnicity, gender and religion. The majority of the work in these areas has taken the cognitive-constructivist framework as a background, offering a domain-general approach to all social cogniti...
Article
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In this chapter, we review the research literature on children's geographical knowledge about countries. During the course of their development, children acquire a large body of knowledge about countries: they learn about the existence, location, size and shape of many different countries, they learn about the natural and man-made features (e. g. m...
Article
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As learning is identified as a main motive for family travel, this study explores the link between children's demographic characteristics, travel experience and their geographical knowledge. Interviews were conducted with 261 children, aged 6 to 13, in nineteen schools in England. To validate the children's reports of travel experience, a questionn...
Article
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Abstract Previous research has shown that children systematically alter the size and colour of their drawings in response to the emotional character of the figures which they draw. However, these findings have been demonstrated only with children receiving mainstream Western education. This experiment was designed to investigate whether children re...
Article
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Using children's naïve theory of biology as a framework, this study investigated children's developing understanding of illness by examining their generalisation of illness to biological and non-biological categories. In addition to differences associated with age, the children's health status was investigated for any possible links with their unde...
Article
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The psychological adjustment of ethnic minority children has received little research attention, particularly in Britain. The present study set out to investigate the adjustment of Indian children living in Britain as well as the adjustment of their English peers. The sample consisted of 125 children (66 Indian and 59 English) between the ages of 7...
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Previous studies have revealed that children increase the size of drawings of topics about which they feel positively and use their most preferred colours for colouring in these drawings, and decrease the size of drawings of topics about which they feel negatively and use their least preferred colours for colouring in these drawings. However, these...
Article
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This study investigated the development of national identification in children growing up in the Basque Country. The sample consisted of 246 children aged 6, 9, 12 and 15 years old who belonged to three linguistic subgroups: children who spoke only Basque with their parents in their home, children who spoke only Spanish in their home, and children...