Marty G Woldorff

Marty G Woldorff
Duke University | DU · Center for Cognitive Neuroscience

PhD

About

226
Publications
34,152
Reads
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22,844
Citations
Citations since 2017
33 Research Items
6584 Citations
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201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,000
201720182019202020212022202302004006008001,000

Publications

Publications (226)
Article
Full-text available
We investigated whether prestimulus alpha-band oscillatory activity and stimulus-elicited recurrent processing interact to facilitate conscious visual perception. Participants tried to perceive a visual stimulus that was perceptually masked through object substitution masking (OSM). We showed that attenuated prestimulus alpha power was associated w...
Article
Background A hallmark of the approximate number system (ANS) is ratio dependence. Previous work identified specific event-related potentials (ERPs) that are modulated by numerical ratio throughout the lifespan. In adults, ERP ratio dependence was correlated with the precision of the numerical judgments with individuals who make more precise judgmen...
Article
Attention can be directed externally toward sensory information or internally toward self-generated information. Using electroencephalography (EEG), we investigated the attentional processes underlying the formation and encoding of self-generated mental images into episodic memory. Participants viewed flickering words referring to common objects an...
Article
To adaptively interact with the uncertainties of daily life, we must match our level of cognitive flexibility to contextual demands—being more flexible when frequent shifting between different tasks is required and more stable when the current task requires a strong focus of attention. Such cognitive flexibility adjustments in response to changing...
Article
Full-text available
Physiologic signals such as the electroencephalogram (EEG) demonstrate irregular behaviors due to the interaction of multiple control processes operating over different time scales. The complexity of this behavior can be quantified using multi-scale entropy (MSE). High physiologic complexity denotes health, and a loss of complexity can predict adve...
Article
Full-text available
Prospective memory (PM) enables people to remember to complete important tasks in the future. Failing to do so can result in consequences of varying severity. Here, we investigated how PM error-consequence severity impacts the neural processing of relevant cues for triggering PM and the ramification of that processing on the associated prospective...
Article
Whether and how the brain encodes discrete numerical magnitude differently from continuous nonnumerical magnitude is hotly debated. In a previous set of studies, we orthogonally varied numerical (numerosity) and nonnumerical (size and spacing) dimensions of dot arrays and demonstrated a strong modulation of early visual evoked potentials (VEPs) by...
Article
Full-text available
Attention can be involuntarily biased toward reward-associated distractors (value-driven attentional capture, VDAC). Yet past work has primarily demonstrated this distraction phenomenon during a particular set of circumstances: transient attentional orienting to potentially relevant stimuli occurring in our visual environment. Consequently, it is n...
Article
Attention and working memory (WM) have classically been considered as two separate cognitive functions, but more recent theories have conceptualized them as operating on shared representations and being distinguished primarily by whether attention is directed internally (WM) or externally (attention, traditionally defined). Supporting this idea, a...
Article
Full-text available
In our daily lives, we continuously evaluate feedback information, update our knowledge, and adapt our behavior in order to reach desired goals. This ability to learn from feedback information, however, declines with age. Previous research has indicated that certain higher-level learning processes, such as feedback evaluation, integration of feedba...
Article
While it is broadly accepted that attention modulates memory, the contribution of specific rapid attentional processes to successful encoding is largely unknown. To investigate this issue, we leveraged the high temporal resolution of electroencephalographic recordings to directly link a cascade of visuo-attentional neural processes to successful en...
Article
The intake of caffeine and the prospect of reward have both been associated with increased arousal, enhanced attention, and improved behavioral performance on cognitive tasks, but how they interact to exert these effects is not well understood. To investigate this question, we had participants engage in a 2-session cued-reward cognitive task while...
Article
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Background: Perioperative neurocognitive disorders (PND) are common complications in older adults associated with increased 1-year mortality and long-term cognitive decline. One risk factor for worsened long-term postoperative cognitive trajectory is the Alzheimer's disease (AD) genetic risk factor APOE4. APOE4 is thought to elevate AD risk partly...
Poster
The ability to use and integrate feedback information over multiple encounters is key to our ability to learn and make decisions. Here, we sought to investigate the neural underpinnings of integrative feedback processes using a reward-magnitude learning task by inspecting feedback-evoked ERP components. We asked participants to learn which out of t...
Article
Full-text available
Addiction to nicotine is extremely challenging to overcome, and the intense craving for the next cigarette often leads to relapse in smokers who wish to quit. To dampen the urges of craving and inhibit unwanted behavior, smokers must harness cognitive control, which is itself impaired in addiction. It is likely that craving may interact with cognit...
Preprint
Full-text available
Both the intake of caffeine-containing substances and the prospect of reward for performing a cognitive task have been associated with improved behavioral performance. To investigate the possible common and interactive influences of caffeine and reward-prospect on preparatory attention, we tested 24 participants during a 2-session experiment in whi...
Article
The contents of working memory (WM) guide visual attention toward matching features, with visual search being faster when the target and a feature of an item held in WM spatially overlap (validly cued) than when they occur at different locations (invalidly cued). Recent behavioral studies have indicated that attentional capture by WM content can be...
Article
COVER ILLUSTRATION The cover is a hand carved linocut prints of the sagittal and coronal slices of the brain showing the intraparietal sulcus colored in green (top left) and purple in the (bottom right). In Bugden et al., we found that the bilateral intraparietal sulcus was similarly activated when adults performed double digit addition irrespectiv...
Article
Full-text available
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The objective of this project is to determine whether HRV, collected peri-operatively, is predictive of cognitive decline among older adults who undergo elective surgery/anesthesia. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: This project is a part of the ongoing INTUIT/PRIME study, which is collecting pre- and post-operative cognitive test...
Article
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Every year, up to 40% of the more than 16 million older Americans who undergo anesthesia/surgery develop postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) or delirium. Each of these distinct syndromes is associated with decreased quality of life, increased mortality, and a possible increased risk of Alzheimer's disease. One pathologi...
Article
Purpose Neuroimaging techniques are widely used to investigate the function of the human brain, but none are currently able to accurately localize neuronal activity with both high spatial and temporal specificity. Here, a new in vivo MRI acquisition and analysis technique based on the spin‐lock mechanism is developed to noninvasively image local ma...
Article
Successful adaptive behavior requires the learning of associations between stimulus-specific choices and rewarding outcomes. Most research on the mechanisms underlying such processes has focused on subcortical reward-processing regions, in conjunction with frontal circuits. Given the extensive stimulus-specific coding in the sensory cortices, we hy...
Article
Symbolic arithmetic is a complex, uniquely human ability that is acquired through direct instruction. In contrast, the capacity to mentally add and subtract nonsymbolic quantities such as dot arrays emerges without instruction and can be seen in human infants and nonhuman animals. One possibility is that the mental manipulation of nonsymbolic array...
Article
The ability to estimate the number in a visual array arose early in evolution, develops early in human development, and is correlated with mathematical ability. Previous work with visually presented arrays indicates that the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) represents number. However, it is not clear if the number signal originates in IPS or is propagate...
Article
The capture of attention by substance-related stimuli in dependent users is a major factor in the maintenance and/or cessation of substance use. The present study examined the automaticity of this process in smokers, as well as the effects of craving. Event-related potential (ERP) measures of spatial-attention allocation (N2pc) and extended target...
Article
Visual spatial attention has been studied in humans with both electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) individually. However, due to the intrinsic limitations of each of these methods used alone, our understanding of the systemslevel mechanisms underlying attentional control remains limited. Here, we examined tr...
Article
Adult neuroimaging studies have demonstrated dissociable neural activation patterns in the visual cortex in response to letters (Latin alphabet) and numbers (Arabic numerals), which suggest a strong experiential influence of reading and mathematics on the human visual system. Here, developmental trajectories in the event-related potential (ERP) pat...
Article
While parietal cortex is thought to be critical for representing numerical magnitudes, a recent event-related potential (ERP) study demonstrated selective neural sensitivity to numerosity over midline occipital sites very early in the time course, suggesting the involvement of early visual cortices in numerosity processing. However, which brain are...
Article
Full-text available
Each year over 16 million older Americans undergo general anesthesia for surgery, and up to 40% develop postoperative delirium and/or cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Delirium and POCD are each associated with decreased quality of life, early retirement, increased 1-year mortality, and long-term cognitive decline. Multiple investigators have thus sugg...
Chapter
Cognitive control can be considered as a set of functions that enable people to adapt to changing demands in their environment and to optimise the behaviour accordingly. The most commonly used reward manipulation in the cognitive neuroscience literature is the monetary incentive delay (MID) task, which was designed to parallel animal models of rewa...
Article
Full-text available
An individual’s performance on cognitive and perceptual tasks varies considerably across time and circumstances. We investigated neural mechanisms underlying such performance variability using regression-based analyses to examine trial-by-trial relationships between response times (RTs) and different facets of electrical brain activity. Thirteen pa...
Article
Full-text available
It has been suggested that over the course of an addiction, addiction-related stimuli become highly salient in the environment, thereby capturing an addict’s attention. To assess these effects neurally in smokers, and how they interact with craving, we recorded electroencephalography (EEG) in two sessions: one in which participants had just smoked...
Article
For many smokers, the motivational state of craving is a central feature of their dependence on nicotine, and is often at odds with a general desire to quit. How this desire to quit may influence the craving for a cigarette, however, is unclear. In the current study, we manipulated the level of craving in 24 regular smokers, and recorded EEG measur...
Article
Full-text available
Distraction can impede our ability to detect and effectively process task-relevant stimuli in our environment. Here we leveraged the high temporal resolution of event-related potentials (ERPs) to study the neural consequences of a global, continuous distractor on signal-detection processes. Healthy, young adults performed the dSAT task, a translati...
Article
Full-text available
Efficiently avoiding inappropriate actions in a changing environment is central to cognitive control. One mechanism contributing to this ability is the deliberate slowing down of responses in contexts where full response cancellation might occasionally be required, referred to as proactive response inhibition. The present electroencephalographic (E...
Article
Reward-associated visual features have been shown to capture visual attention, evidenced in faster and more accurate behavioral performance, as well as in neural responses reflecting lateralized shifts of visual attention to those features. Specifically, the contralateral N2pc event-related-potential (ERP) component that reflects attentional shifti...
Article
Full-text available
Human altruism is often expressed through charitable donation—supporting a cause that benefits others in society, at cost to oneself. The underlying mechanisms of this other-regarding behavior remain imperfectly understood. By recording event-related-potential (ERP) measures of brain activity from human participants during a social gambling task, w...
Article
Full-text available
Distracting stimuli in the environment can pull our attention away from our goal-directed tasks. fMRI studies have implicated regions in right frontal cortex as being particularly important for processing distractors [e.g., de Fockert, J. W., & Theeuwes, J. Role of frontal cortex in attentional capture by singleton distractors. Brain and Cognition,...
Article
Both stimulus and response conflict can disrupt behavior by slowing response times and decreasing accuracy. Although several neural activations have been associated with conflict processing, it is unclear how specific any of these are to the type of stimulus conflict or the amount of response conflict. Here, we recorded electrical brain activity, w...
Article
Full-text available
Given the information overload often imparted to human cognitive-processing systems, suppression of irrelevant and distracting information is essential for successful behavior. Using a hybrid block/event-related fMRI design,we characterized proactive and reactive brain mechanisms for filtering distracting stimuli. Participants performed a flanker t...
Article
When a stimulus is associated with a reward, it becomes prioritized, and the allocation of attention to that stimulus increases. For low-level features, such as color, this reward-based allocation of attention can manifest early in time and as a faster and stronger shift of attention to targets with that color, as reflected by the N2pc (a parieto-o...
Article
Full-text available
In unisensory contexts, spatially-focused attention tends to enhance perceptual processing. How attention influences the processing of multisensory stimuli, however, has been of much debate. In some cases, attention has been shown to be important for processes related to the integration of audio-visual stimuli, but in other cases such processes hav...
Article
To make sense of our dynamic and complex auditory environment, we must be able to parse the sensory input into usable parts and pick out relevant sounds from all the potentially distracting auditory information. Although it is unclear exactly how we accomplish this difficult task, Gamble and Woldorff [Gamble, M. L., & Woldorff, M. G. The temporal c...
Article
When attending for impending visual stimuli, cognitive systems prepare to identify relevant information while ignoring irrelevant, potentially distracting input. Recent work (Marini et al., 2013) showed that a supramodal distracter-filtering mechanism is invoked in blocked designs involving expectation of possible distracter stimuli, although this...
Article
Practice can improve performance on visual search tasks; the neural mechanisms underlying such improvements, however, are not clear. Response time typically shortens with practice, but which components of the stimulus-response processing chain facilitate this behavioral change? Improved search performance could result from enhancements in various c...
Article
Full-text available
Humans are endowed with an intuitive number sense that allows us to perceive and estimate numerosity without relying on language. It is controversial, however, as to whether there is a neural mechanism for direct perception of numerosity or whether numerosity is perceived indirectly via other perceptual properties. In this study, we used a novel re...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Distracting events can negatively impact task performance. Cognitive-brain systems are both proactively recruited to limit potential interference and reactively invoked when distraction is encountered. Recent behavioral evidence indicates that engaging a strategic, supramodal filtering mechanism can mitigate the effects of distraction, although thi...
Article
Full-text available
Adaptive choice behavior depends critically on identifying and learn-ing from outcome-predicting cues. We hypothesized that attention may be preferentially directed toward certain outcome-predicting cues. We studied this possibility by analyzing event-related potential (ERP) responses in humans during a probabilistic decision-making task. Participa...
Article
The prospect of gaining money is an incentive widely at play in the real world. Such monetary motivation might have particularly strong influence when the cognitive system is challenged, such as when needing to process conflicting stimulus inputs. Here, we employed manipulations of reward-prospect and attentional-preparation levels in a cued-Stroop...
Article
The posterior visual event-related potential (ERP) component, the N2pc, has been widely used to study lateralized shifts of attention within visual arrays. Recently, Gamble and Luck (2011) reported an auditory analog of this activity (the fronto-central “N2ac”), reflecting the lateralized focusing of attention toward a Target sound among 2 simultan...
Article
Full-text available
Little is known about the neural underpinnings of number word comprehension in young children. Here we investigated the neural processing of these words during the crucial devel-opmental window in which children learn their meanings and asked whether such processing relies on the Approximate Number System. ERPs were recorded as 3-to 5-year-old chil...
Article
Full-text available
Recent fMRI research has demonstrated that letters and numbers are preferentially processed in distinct regions and hemispheres in the visual cortex. In particular, the left visual cortex preferentially processes letters compared with numbers, whereas the right visual cortex preferentially processes numbers compared with letters. Because letters an...
Article
Efficiently disregarding inappropriate actions in a changing environment is central to cognitive control. In the present study electroencephalographic recordings were acquired to investigate the neuronal mechanisms involved in halting and strategically delaying motor responses. Subjects performed two blocks of a Stop-signal task, a standard (releva...
Article
In this study, we leveraged the high-temporal resolution of EEG to examine the neural mechanisms underlying the flexible regulation of cognitive control that unfolds over different timescales. We measured behavioral and neural effects of color-word incongruency, as different groups of human participants performed three different versions of color-w...
Article
Full-text available
When different perceptual signals arising from the same physical entity are integrated, they form a more reliable sensory estimate. When such repetitive sensory signals are pitted against other competing stimuli, such as in a Stroop Task, this redundancy may lead to stronger processing that biases behavior toward reporting the redundant stimuli. Th...
Article
Perceptual information represented in the brain, whether a viewer is aware of it or not, holds the potential to influence subsequent behavior. Here we tracked a well-established event-related-potential (ERP) measure of visual-object-category processing, the face-specific ventrolateral-occipital N170 response, across conditions of perceptual awarene...
Article
Any information represented in the brain holds the potential to influence behavior. It is therefore of broad interest to determine the extent and quality of neural processing of stimulus input that occurs with and without awareness. The attentional blink is a useful tool for dissociating neural and behavioral measures of perceptual visual processin...
Article
The extent of visual perceptual processing that occurs in the absence of awareness is as yet unclear. Here we examined event-related-potential (ERP) indices of visual and cognitive processes as awareness was manipulated through object-substitution masking (OSM), an awareness-disrupting effect that has been hypothesized to result from the disruption...
Article
Full-text available
It has become widely accepted that the direction of another individual's eye gaze induces rapid, automatic, attentional orienting, due to it being such a vital cue as to where in our environment we should attend. This automatic orienting has also been associated with the directional-arrow cues used in studies of spatial attention. Here, we present...
Article
Full-text available
Cross-modal processing depends strongly on the compatibility between different sensory inputs, the relative timing of their arrival to brain processing components, and on how attention is allocated. In this behavioral study, we employed a cross-modal audio-visual Stroop task in which we manipulated the within-trial stimulus-onset-asynchronies (SOAs...
Article
Full-text available
Success in many decision-making scenarios depends on the ability to maximize gains and minimize losses. Even if an agent knows which cues lead to gains and which lead to losses, that agent could still make choices yielding suboptimal rewards. Here, by analyzing event-related potentials (ERPs) recorded in humans during a probabilistic gambling task,...
Article
Full-text available
Associating stimuli with the prospect of reward typically facilitates responses to those stimuli due to an enhancement of attentional and cognitive-control processes. Such reward-induced facilitation might be especially helpful when cognitive-control mechanisms are challenged, as when one must overcome interference from irrelevant inputs. Here, we...
Article
Neuroimaging work on multisensory conflict suggests that the relevant modality receives enhanced processing in the face of incongruency. However, the degree of stimulus processing in the irrelevant modality and the temporal cascade of the attentional modulations in either the relevant or irrelevant modalities are unknown. Here, we employed an audio...
Article
Performance on visual search tasks can be improved with training; however, the neural mechanisms underlying such improvement are not clear. For example, although response times (RTs) typically shorten with training, it is unclear which components of the stimulus-response processing chain are facilitated and lead to the faster behavioral output. In...
Article
The fundamental cognitive-control function of inhibitory control over motor behavior has been extensively investigated using the Stop-signal task. The critical behavioral parameter describing stopping efficacy is the Stop-signal response time (SSRT), and correlations with estimates of this parameter are commonly used to establish that other variabl...
Data
Qualitative comparison between the major incongruency effects from the current auditory-Stroop study and those from a closely parallel visual-Stroop study (Liotti et al., 2000) after which the current one was modeled. In particular, the figure shows the early negative-polarity incongruency effect (termed Ninc in the current study, called N450 in Li...
Article
Humans are able to continuously monitor environmental situations and adjust their behavioral strategies to optimize performance. Here we investigate the behavioral and brain adjustments that occur when conflicting stimulus elements are, or are not, temporally predictable. ERPs were collected while manual response variants of the Stroop task were pe...
Article
The observation of cueing effects (faster responses for cued than uncued targets) rapidly following centrally-presented arrows has led to the suggestion that arrows trigger rapid automatic shifts of spatial attention. However, these effects have primarily been observed during easy target-detection tasks when both cue and target remain on the screen...
Article
The cochlear implant (CI) is one of the great success stories of modern medicine. A high level of function is provided for most patients. However, some patients still do not achieve excellent or even good results using the present-day devices. Accumulating evidence is pointing to differences in the processing abilities of the "auditory brain" among...