Marty Sapp

Marty Sapp
University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee | UWM · Department of Educational Psychology

About

117
Publications
27,242
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531
Citations

Publications

Publications (117)
Poster
Full-text available
Method/Design Similar to clinicians practicing hypnosis, therapists now regularly employ guided mindfulness meditation (GMM) to teach clients self-regulation strategies, such as how to use their breath and guided imagery to shift attention, (Yapko, 2012) gradually relax and enter into a state of deep relaxation. However, the exact nature of the rel...
Article
Recent studies have suggested that mindfulness meditation and hypnosis are similar, but there is a lack of empirical data to support this claim. In this current study, college students were randomly assigned to a hypnosis or mindfulness meditation condition, and they were tested on the Waterloo Stanford Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form...
Poster
Full-text available
This poster is a primer on effect sizes for hypnosis research, and it provides psychologist with the conceptual framework of effect sizes. Effect sizes allow a clinician or researcher to determine the effect of hypnosis. For example, a zero effect size would indicate that the hypnosis had not effect, but generally effect sizes allow researchers to...
Poster
Full-text available
Previous research suggests that there are many similarities between mindfulness meditation and hypnosis. According to Yapko (2011), “ Mindfulness methods have come to assume a more prominent role in mainstream clinical practice, the common mechanisms that underlie the efficacy of both mindfulness meditation and hypnosis have become more apparent. T...
Article
Full-text available
Submit Manuscript | http://medcraveonline.com behavioral and cognitive therapies [1]. In addition, she stated that Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT), Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), and Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) are the most popular of the third wave therapies. This paper will briefly discuss hypnosis and mindfulness medi...
Article
This study investigated group hypnotizability in 167 adolescents (ages 13-17) in an inpatient behavioral healthcare setting through use of the Waterloo-Stanford Group Scale, Form C. It also investigated the influence of hypnotic inductions on group hypnotizability. Adolescents were randomly assigned to either a group session of hypnosis (n = 84) wi...
Book
Full-text available
A Primer on Effect Sizes, Simple Research Designs, and Confidence Intervals was designed to help individuals learn to calculate effect sizes for their research designs. Effect sizes allow a clinician or researcher to determine the effect of a treatment. For example, an effect size of zero would indicate that the treatment had not effect, but gener...
Article
Background: The brief, easily administered screen, the Injured Trauma Survivor Screen (ITSS) was created to identify trauma survivors at risk for development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Methods: An item pool of PTSD risk factors was created and given, along with a previously created screen, to patients admitted to two...
Presentation
Full-text available
Culture and Hypnosis
Article
Full-text available
This article described the connection between hypnosis and postmodernism. Sapp (2015a) defined hypnosis as having features of dissociation and absorption. Also, Sapp provided applications of hypnosis to various cultural groups. Postmodernism generally includes solution-focused brief therapy, narrative therapy, feminist psychotherapy, positive psych...
Book
Hypnosis, dissociation, and absorption: Theories, assessment, and treatment (2nd ed.). Authors: Sapp, Marty, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Department of Educational Psychology, Milwaukee, WI, US Source: Springfield, IL, US: Charles C Thomas Publisher; 2015. xii, 225 pp. Page Count: 225 ISBN: 978-0-398-08132-4 (Paperback) 978-0-398-08133-1 (Dig...
Article
This paper discusses how Adlerian counseling and hypnosis can be used with African American adolescents. In addition, applications are alluded to for Latino adolescents. Moreover, counseling African American adolescents is discussed within the context of African American culture. Due to the strength-based nature of Adlerian counseling and hypnosis,...
Article
Full-text available
Not all children and youth will respond the same way to scripted interventions. Children and youth require intervention strategies that are designed to meet their wide-ranging needs in order to be successful during and after school years. Yet, educators and counselors apply behavior strategies to promote prosocial behavior without exploring whether...
Book
Test Anxiety Applied Research, Assessment, and Treatment Interventions, 3rd Edition Marty Sapp Paperback eBook This book is designed to give students and researchers the confidence to understand, assess, treat, and research test anxiety. Marty Sapp presents the various cognitive and behavioral theories of test anxiety along with instruments for mea...
Article
The current study assessed the efficacy of hypnosis as an adjunct to a standard cognitivebehavioral program for the treatment of obesity. Weight loss was compared among participants who received the standard cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT), those who received hypnosis in addition to the standard cognitive-behavioral treatment (H-CBT), and a mi...
Article
Like many journals within education, for Multicultural Learning and Teaching, this writer found little written on measurement, effect sizes, and confidence intervals; therefore, the purpose of this article is to address these factors. The effect of not addressing these issues is that a basic foundation of science cannot be established without them...
Article
Full-text available
Hypnotizability is not an all-or-nothing construct; rather, it is an individual's reactions to being hypnotized, and this may fall on a continuum (1). In addition, even thought hypnotizability is relatively stable, it is also influenced by the client's rapport with the hypnotherapist, the client's expectations and beliefs, and other social or psych...
Article
Diagnosis and classification are processes of using tests and other measures to assess the educational needs of children with special needs. Unlike assessment in general education, assessment of children with special needs is different for each child and must be an intra-individual process for each child's needs. Finally, diagnosis and classificati...
Article
This article discusses how Adlerian counseling can be used as a form of school counseling for African American adolescents. Moreover, school counseling for African American adolescents is discussed within the context of African American culture. Due to the strength-based nature of Adlerian approach, it can capitalize on African American adolescents...
Book
The goal of this book is to examine three major theories and their approach to psychotherapy- psychodynamic, affective, and behavioral- which are defined as specific skills that a clinician or student can readily understand. In this book, these theories of psychotherapy are broken down into three phases or levels: beginning (Level I) intermediate (...
Article
This chapter discussed the intricacies in assessing ASD. This can be especially intriguing within a multicultural context because minority students are seldom a part of standardization samples for educational tests (see Dyches, Wilder, Sudweeks, Obiakor, & Algozzine, 2004). As indicated, ASD are developmental disorders with neurological origins tha...
Article
This study analyzed the degree to which state education funding systems supported social justice for the 1998-99 school year, where social justice was operationalized using the theory of vertical equity and research-based factors that placed students at risk of academic failure. The results of the study combined content analysis and statistical ana...
Article
Historically, words are powerful! In many cases, they are used appropriately when we value people and used inappropriately when we hate them. As a result, they have become powerful tools in multicultural education and interactions. In today's changing world with demographic shifts in power and paradigm, the society is bombarded with words that hate...
Article
Full-text available
This study surveys the research on hypnosis and obesity over the past 25 years. Confidence intervals were used to provide upper and lower limits of hypnosis in the treatment of obesity. Previous studies have found mixed results. For example, Levitt (1993) reported an average correlation between weight loss and hypnotic susceptibility of .550, p>.05...
Article
Full-text available
Mahalanobis distance, a multivariate measure of effect, can improve hypnosis research. When two groups of research participants are measured on two or more dependent variables, Mahalanobis distance can provide a multivariate measure of effect. Finally, Mahalanobis distance is the multivariate squared generalization of the univariate d effect size,...
Article
This article describes applications of hypnosis in the treatment of diabetes for children, adolescents, and adults. Research is increasingly showing a connection between hypnosis and the brain. For children, adolescents, and adults with diabetes, hypnosis can be used to reduce stress which affects glucose levels. Moreover, adolescents tend to have...
Article
With the increasing enrollment of multicultural students in public schools, it is necessary to understand how to provide appropriate services to students from diverse backgrounds. Testing situations are also increasing with the addition of the No Child Left Behind Act. In order to accurately assess whether students are performing poorly due to not...
Article
This study compared a group of African American college students at a traditional black university with a group of largely white European American college students at a traditional white institution on the Waterloo-Stanford Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form C (WSGC). The two groups differed significantly: Wilks' Lambda=.32 (26, 56), p=.0...
Article
Confidence intervals within hypnosis would improve research, especially confidence intervals for effect sizes. Moreover, within hypnosis research, confidence intervals are needed for reliability and validity measures. This paper describes definitions and issues related to confidence intervals. Confidence intervals can be used with one sample and tw...
Article
Hypnosis has applications for at-risk African American high school students. Sapp (2004b), Sapp and Hitchcock (2001), and Sapp and Hitchcock (2003a, 2003b) have presented extensive group and individual data on hypnotizability with African American college students, but there are not articles that describe applications of hypnosis with at-risk Afric...
Article
The purpose of this study was to assess hypnotizability using the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (HGSHS:A), and the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C (SHSS:C) with African American college students. There were 103 African American undergraduate students participating in this study. Like a previous study by Sapp...
Article
Two hundred and two undergraduate African American college students participated in this study. Students completed the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (HGSHS:A), the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), General Dissociation Scale (GDS) and the Inner Subjective Experiences scoring for the HGSHS:A, a measure of nonvolitonal hy...
Article
The purpose of this study was to assess creative imagination, absorption, and dissociation with African-American college students. Two hundred thirty-six undergraduate African-American students ranging between the ages of 18 to 22 participated in this study. Students were assigned to the following experimental manipulation: (a) Creative Imagination...
Article
Recently, Barber has presented a three dimensional paradigm of hypnosis. He proposed that there are three hypnotic types of clients- the fantasy-prone, amnesic-prone, and positively-set. This paper discusses the major theoretical implications of this new paradigm, and, if Barber is correct, his new theory should bridge a gap between the special pro...
Article
Employing a non-randomised two-group pretest post-test design, this study found that a regression hypnotic transcript produced a greater reduction in conflict responses than a relaxation hypnotic transcript. Finally, this study re-operationalised the concept of regression.
Article
The purpose of this study was to assess hypnosis, with African American college students, using the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (HGSHS:A). Two hundred seventeen undergraduate African American students participated in this study. Students completed the HGSHS:A, a measure of hypnotic depth, the Dissociative Experiences Scal...
Article
A telephone survey was conducted with randomly selected members of the American Society of Clinical Hypnosis (ASCH), the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis (SCEH), and the Psychological Hypnosis Division of the American Psychological Association (DIV 30). The purpose of this study was to explore the extent to which hypnosis society memb...
Article
Forty college student participants (10 in each condition) were assigned to one of four condition groups: (1) Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) group using the traditional version of the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (HGSHS:A); (2) ADHD group using the passive-alert version of the HGSHS:A; (3) non-ADHD group us...
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate how African American male and female college students differ in their attitudes concerning rape. Two-hundred and ten college students completed a 12-item questionnaire designed to measure their views toward this issue. A 2-group multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) revealed statistically significan...
Article
Demographic data on population, poverty levels, and the life expectancies of African Americans, including some that contrast aged African Americans to European Americans, and Latinos, are presented briefly in this article. Attention also is directed briefly to the death and dying process occurring when aging African Americans have reached the final...
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of 2 measures of hypnotizability on absorption and dissociation. One measure, the Creative Imagination Scale (CIS) corresponds to the cognitive theory of hypnosis and the other, the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (HGSHS:A) corresponds to the neodissociative perspective. 1...
Article
This study investigated the utility of the PK scale of the MMPI-2 with college students. Results indicated that the PK scale, when combined with DSM IV criteria, does discriminate between college students who obtain a score of 65 or higher and those who score below 65.
Article
Mean scores of students on the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A and the Creative Imagination Scale were higher if the latter preceded the former (n = 15); in contrast, in the reverse order (n = 20) scores on both tests were lower.
Article
This study investigated the utility of the PK scale of the MMPI-2 with college students. Results indicated that the PK scale, when combined with DSM IV criteria, does discriminate between college students who obtain a score of 65 or higher and those who score below 65. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Clin Psychol 53: 841–846, 1997
Article
This study investigated the utility of the PK scale of the MMPI-2 with college students. Results indicated that the PK scale, when combined with DSM IV criteria, does discriminate between college students who obtain a score of 65 or higher and those who score below 65. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Clin Psychol 53: 841–846, 1997
Article
This paper outlines an alternative, contextual framework for analyzing capital murder cases involving young Black males. To illustrate the utility of the framework, we draw upon the findings of recent social science research, which document the effects of forces operating in both the societal and local environmental contexts, and on information fro...
Article
Describes how the rehabilitation counselor can employ hypnosis as a tool in working with individuals who have experienced a disability. Hypnosis can be used to reduce anxiety and stress related to returning to work, can help clients learn to reduce stress and to modify themselves, even if their environments cannot change, and can be used to increas...
Article
This article discussed the complex relationship between hypnotizability scales and treatment outcomes. Certain disorders have treatment outcomes that correlate directly with hypnotizability; others do not. Finally, this article addresses four perspectives that can explain the implications of individual differences in hypnotizability.
Article
Some theorists argue that hypnosis is an altered state of consciousness; these are called the state theorists. In contrast, nonstate theorists do not view hypnosis as an out-of-the body altered state of consciousness. This position does not challenge the fact that chemicals can produce altered states of consciousness; nor does this position reject...
Article
The strategy of neoconservative advocates of private and religious school choice appears to be to exploit the dissatisfaction of poor, predominantly minority parents in order to achieve the goal of creating a publicly funded private school system free of public control and oversight. If achieved, the authors argue, this alternative system will inev...
Article
Midnight Basketball is one example of a new generation of social resource programs which are designed to mend the social fabric of inner city communities. In this paper, we present the results of an evaluation of Milwaukee's Midnight Basketball League, In the Paint at One Two, which indicates that the ''returns'' on the money invested in the progra...
Article
Full-text available
This article describes how rational emotive behavior therapy and other cognitive-behavioral therapies can be used to improve the achievement of academically at-risk African American students at the middle-school level. Definitions of at-risk and a review of relevant literature are provided. This article offers an outline of several main irrational...
Article
The effects of cognitive-behavioral hypnosis, relaxation therapy, and supportive counseling in reducing the worry and emotionality components of test anxiety among undergraduate students and graduate students were examined. Relaxation therapy was more effective with graduate students; undergraduates responded more to supportive counseling. Similarl...
Article
This article addresses the potential negative sequelae of hypnosis. All forms of psychotherapy pose risks to clients; however, if the hypnotherapist is unaware of how hypnosis can accelerate transference and countertransference, it can place both the client and hypnotherapist at risk. Negative sequelae of hypnosis are infrequent, but awareness of t...
Article
Employing a randomized repeated measures design, 84 economically and educationally disadvantaged college students (aged 16–19 yrs) were randomly assigned to 3 standardized testing situations: mathematics, reading, and writing. All 3 tests were diagnostic, placement tests used to assess students' abilities. Students were measured simultaneously on t...

Questions

Question (1)
Question
In in the context of multiple regression, what is the differences between a mediation variable and suppressor variable?

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Projects (5)
Project
Hypnosis researchers need to provide effect size measures, and that they need to calculate reliability indices for their data. In addition, hypnosis researchers need to think meta-analytically, and not to apply mindlessly statistics and measurement (Fidler, Cumming, Thomason, Pannuzzo, Smith, Fyffe, et al 2005). Moreover, confidence intervals are needed within hypnosis research. Finally, this article described applications of reliability, validity, effect sizes, and confidence intervals to hypnosis research.
Project
Previous research suggests that there are only slight differences between hypnosis and mindfulness meditation. The purpose of this study is to test whether individuals in a group setting are equally suggestible when engaging in hypnotic induction and mindfulness meditation, or if one method will lead to greater suggestibility than compared to the other method. When this is determined, it is possible that future research can then be done using the more effective method and improve the success for many treatments and conditions in the health related field. For example, in the past hypnotherapy has been used for treating pain, smoking, weight loss, stress, anxiety, depression, improving memory performance and many more.