Marty Hudyma

Marty Hudyma

PhD Civil and Resource Engineering

About

70
Publications
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Introduction
I am a mining engineer, with bachelors and masters degrees from the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, and a PhD from the University of Western Australia in Perth. My research interests include: seismicity and rockbursting in mines, deep mining, and ground control in underground mining.
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (70)
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The proper calibration of non-linear numerical models for the simulation of stress levels, deformation profiles and zones of failure around deep and/or highly stressed underground excavations during mining is the most crucial (and difficult) aspect of any such analyses. A particularly difficult aspect of this calibration is the accurate adjustment...
Article
Full-text available
Analysis of caving-induced seismicity can aid in the understanding of rock mass behaviour in the different stages of the caving process. A detailed analysis of caving-induced seismicity at the Telfer sublevel caving mine was undertaken. Interpretation of seismic data in the Telfer mine showed the influence of the major geological features on cave b...
Article
Full-text available
Mine blasting produces excavation geometry changes which induce stress change that can be observed in the seismic source parameter apparent stress calculated for local seismic events. Using high apparent stress as a proxy for increasing stress within a rock mass, areas experiencing increases in the local stress conditions can be determined. This pa...
Conference Paper
The occurrence of large seismic events represents one of the greatest risks in deep hard rock mines. Such events have the potential to generate rock bursts, or the violent ejection of material, which arguably poses one of the most significant risks to seismically active underground hard rock mining operations. Seismic hazard analysis in mines commo...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Seismic monitoring is widely used in deep hardrock mines in Canada and around the world. In the province of Ontario, in Canada, more than 70% of underground, hardrock mines have a seismic monitoring system, and all mines deeper than 1000 metres have a seismic monitoring system. Mine seismic systems may record tens of thousands to hundreds of thousa...
Conference Paper
Recent research has developed a seismic event clustering method that groups seismic events spatially while preserving the event sequence. The main benefit of this method is that it can be done proactively at any point in time as seismicity progresses. Since caving is a progressive non-blasting mining method, this clustering method could potentially...
Conference Paper
Throughout a mining environment, variations in geotechnical and stress conditions can lead to unplanned rock mass failure. For operations with microseismic monitoring capabilities, seismic event locations and source parameters can often provide significant insight into rock mass failure processes. This paper presents observed variations in the seis...
Cover Page
Full-text available
In 2010, I developed a university level graduate course entitled Mine Seismic Systems. I have delivered this course in the classroom and on-line six times since 2010. The course touches on a range of topics related to mining-induced seismicity including: dynamic rock mass failure mechanisms, seismic monitoring in mines, hardware and software in min...
Conference Paper
The seismic response to mining can vary significantly throughout a rock mass. Seismicity may be primarily driven by local mining activities (commonly blasting), or other factors such as geological discontinuities and tectonic loading. During regular mine operation, it can be challenging to determine the extent to which rock mass failure is generate...
Conference Paper
Canada has a long history of underground hard rock mining. As mines deplete current resources, new technologies enable deeper deposits to be extracted economically. With increased depth, Canadian mines typically experience an increase in both quantity and severity of mining-induced seismicity. A Canada Wide Seismic Monitoring Survey was used to gat...
Conference Paper
Analysis of source parameters of microseismic events provides useful information about the rock mass response to mining. Energy index and apparent stress are independent source parameters that can be related to co-seismic stress adjustment and deformation. Analysis of events following stope blasts in an open stoping operation indicates that the roc...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Hardrock mines in Canada are extracting orebodies at greater depths. With increased depth, come higher stresses, more difficult rock mass conditions and an increased potential for failing ground. In many deep mines, dynamic rock mass failures, also called mining-induced seismic events, have become a major operational risk. Seismicity and rockbursti...
Presentation
Full-text available
In February 2017, a workshop called "Seismic Data Analysis Workshop" was held at Laurentian University, in Sudbury, Ontario. Several of the presentations are available for download.
Presentation
Full-text available
In February 2017, a workshop called "Managing Seismic Risk in Canadian Mines" was held at Laurentian University, in Sudbury, Canada. About 75 people attended the workshop. There were 16 presentations from industry, government and academia. Twelve of the presentations are available in this document. Videos of 12 of the presentations are available un...
Technical Report
Full-text available
With more than 30 years of publications since seismic monitoring in mines started in Canada, there is an immense wealth of experiences and practices to share. A database was compiled with the intent of assembling a list of the publications specifically related to seismicity and rockbursting in Canadian mines. In a number of cases, these publication...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Hardrock mines in Canada are extracting orebodies at greater depths. With increased depth, come higher stresses, more difficult rock mass conditions and an increased potential for failing ground. In many deep mines, dynamic rock mass failures, also called mining-induced seismic events, have become a major operational risk. In Ontario and Quebec m...
Article
Large magnitude mining-induced seismic events can occur as a result of local rock mass stress increase. High apparent stress events can be used as a proxy to identify increases in local rock mass stress conditions. This paper proposes a relative apparent stress ratio (ASR) for quantifying apparent stress of a seismic population. Variations in ASR a...
Conference Paper
Seismically active operations require special considerations to design and mining practices in order to mitigate the risk associated with large and potentially damaging seismic events. When detailed knowledge of the local rock mass conditions and the historical seismic response is considered during initial design, costly rehabilitation and general...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
There are five independent seismic source parameters: seismic energy, seismic moment, source size, location, and time. These parameters are investigated primarily for evaluating seismic hazard and understanding seismic source mechanism(s). Broadly, seismic hazard is the likelihood of occurrence of an event of a given magnitude. Seismic source mecha...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The time-between-events (TBE) of numerous seismic datasets from both Canadian and Australian hardrock mines were analyzed. The requirement for inclusion in the study was that these actual datasets from operating mines had well-behaved relations in the Gutenberg-Richter relation of “Cumulative Number of Events” versus “Event Magnitude”. Four distinc...
Article
Phasor analysis is a means of identifying if there are a significant number of construction blasts with a population of natural earthquakes. The application of phasor analysis has been extended to mininginduced seismic data. With a subtle modification, it can be used to infer seismic source mechanism in a population of mining-induced seismic events...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Australian Centre for Geomechanics has developed a simple, but effective regional seismic monitoring system that has a number of strategic and tactical applications for monitoring seismicity in mines. From a strategic perspective, installation of a regional seismic sensor is a means of evaluating the severity of a local seismicity problem. This...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In many parts of the world, natural and mining induced seismicity impacts on mining risk. The Australian Centre for Geomechanics (ACG) developed a Regional Seismic Network (RSN) to provide local and regional seismic monitoring that enable the detection and location of larger mine induced seismic events, as well as smaller earthquakes occurring outs...
Article
Full-text available
The problem of mining-induced seismicity in hardrock mines has become significant as underground mines from around the world are pushing production to deeper levels. At many mines, the risk associated with large seismic events and rockburst damage must be managed to ensure the safety of mine workers and minimise production losses. In this paper, an...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Large seismic events have been reported in mines in the Sudbury mining camp for more than 70 years. Nevertheless, no detailed record of the events has been compiled. In 2008, the Sudbury Regional Seismic Network (SRSN) research project was initiated to collect more accurate data with regard to the magnitude and locations of mining-induced seismic e...
Article
Full-text available
Goldex is a sublevel open stoping mine near Val-d'Or in northwestern Quebec. The orebody will be extracted in stages, using a novel mining method, resulting in a single stope with the dimensions of 450 m on strike, 250 m in height and up to a width of 120 m. A microseismic monitoring system was designed to monitor the profile of the large stopes an...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The following document discusses the background of some of the more commonly used techniques in mine seismology, relating seismic events to rockmass failure in mines. It is a summary from a few of the chapters of my PhD thesis "Analysis and Interpretation of Clusters of Seismic Events in Mines", completed in 2009.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A survey was conducted of underground, mechanized hardrock mines to investigate the prevalence and consequences of seismic risk. The survey was completed by 73 mines from 11 different countries. A novel means of evaluating seismic hazard was developed, that could be applied without the use of seismic monitoring data. The results of the survey provi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Mining-induced seismicity and rockbursting is one of the primary risks in deep mines. Seismic data management software has been created to facilitate analysis of mining-induced seismicity. The Mine Seismicity Risk Analysis Program (MS-RAP) is a purpose built database with mine seismicity analysis tools. One of the primary features of MS-RAP is the...
Thesis
Full-text available
Spatial clustering of seismic events in mines has been widely reported in literature. Despite obvious visual correlations between spatial clusters of seismic events and geomechanical structures in mines (such as pillars, dykes and faults), very limited research has been undertaken to utilise this information to filter seismic data. A linkage betwee...
Article
Full-text available
Caving of the second lift of the E26 orebody at Northparkes Mines was monitored with a comprehensive package of instrumentation, including an ISS seismic monitoring system. Seismicity was collected by an array of 19 triaxial accelerometers and 9 uniaxial geophones, giving a high quality seismic data set. The seismic response to block caving at Nort...
Article
Full-text available
Production caving started for Lift 2 at Northparkes in August 2004. In a period of less than 3 months, more than 10 000 seismic events were recorded. Events up to local magnitude +2.9 were induced near the mine during caving, with event rates of up to 500 per day. This paper documents the seismicity related to cave initiation and cave propagation d...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Sublevel caving was initiated at the Ridgeway Gold mine in May 2000. A seismic system was used to monitor the progression of the cave. Several thousand seismic events were recorded as caving progressed to surface through more than 500 metres of cover rock. This paper discusses the results of the seismic monitoring, specifically addressing differenc...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The mechanisms of rockmass failure due to caving are complex and cannot be visually observed. As a result, the current understanding of caving mechanisms is relatively “shallow” as it has been built from past experience and largely from indirect observations, including cave fragmentation, the measurements of void using probing holes and the stress...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This document was prepared by the Australian Centre for Geomechanics (ACG) as one of the deliverables of the Mine Seismicity and Rockburst Risk Management (MSRRM) Phase III project, and is designed for MS-RAP (Mine Seismicity Risk Analysis Program) users at project sponsor sites. As such, this document utilises the terminology, concepts and capabil...
Conference Paper
The LaRonde mine is characterised by a foliated, highly deformable rock mass. Previous work has documented the influence of foliation on rock mass behaviour and the resulting deformation observed in the vicinity of excavations. However, as the spacing of the foliation planes increases within the mine there is an observed transition in behaviour, fr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A survey was undertaken to examine the use of seismic monitoring in mines. The 20-question survey titled “Application of Seismic Monitoring” was used for rating the design and operation of seismic systems, and the application of seismic data. The survey indicated that the design, operation and data processing is relatively well conducted at most mi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Seismic monitoring systems are becoming widely used in underground mines for monitoring mining-induced seismicity, and in highly stressed ground conditions. In many deep mines, the seismic monitoring system is an integral component in managing ground-related hazards. The capital cost of an average minewide seismic system is in the range of $200,000...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Excavation Vulnerability Potential (EVP) is proposed in this paper as an empirical index for use in seismically active underground mines. The index considers stress conditions, ground support, span and geological structural to determine an underground excavation's vulnerability to rockburst damage. The index was calibrated using 80 case histories a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The occurrence of mine seismicity and rockbursting in an underground mine has a fundamental influence on the strategic and tactical approaches in mining (including mining methods, extraction sequences and local rate of extraction, ground support, distressing, etc). The lead-time to implement some of the strategic approaches can be considerable and...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In mining, seismic hazard is generally defined as the likelihood of occurrence of mine seismicity that may result in operational losses or influence the safety of mine workers. By monitoring how seismicity varies in space and time in an underground mine, appropriate risk management techniques can be identified and applied. This paper applies a com...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In the past, simulated rockbursts using blasting have been carried out to assess the relative performance of bonded surface support systems (Espley et al. 2002, Archibald et al. 2003), study the response of rockbolts to dynamic loading (Haile et al. 2001, Tannant et al. 1994 and 1995) and for broad ground motion studies (Hagan et al. 2001). Simulat...
Article
Full-text available
A Seismic Hazard Scale (SHS) has been developed to provide a practical seismic hazard assessment tool applicable to mine site personnel. It has been applied to seismic data sets from numerous Western Australian mines. The SHS is applicable when quantifying seismic hazard on a minewide scale, on a mining block scale, and on a local cluster-by-cluste...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This is a preliminary draft of the report on the analysis of the data collected in the mine seismicity survey. One hundred and seven case histories from 73 underground, mechanised, hardrock mines has been compiled and analysed in this report. This report is written for an audience that may have limited exposure to the concepts and issues related t...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Modern, commercial seismic monitoring systems in mines have been available for more than 10 years. These systems collect large quantities of information about seismic events and seismicity in mines. Analysis of seismic data, at most mines, usually involves spatial plotting of seismic events and analysis of event frequency. More detailed analyses a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Kalgoorlie Consolidated Gold Mines (KCGM) Fimiston Open Pit is mining through a dense network of disused level workings and open stopes of greatly varying sizes. The condition of the stope crowns and remnants is often unknown, and ultimately these structures become a significant proportion of the production floor and pit walls. Significant seis...
Article
The X41 shaft is the man and supply shaft at Copper Mine, Mount Isa, Australia. There has been observed evidence of degradation manifested by the development of cracks in the shaft concrete lining since the early nineties. In addition, the shaft steel structure is being deformed and needs regular and meticulous maintenance. The shaft degradation ha...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Mining-induced seismicity at Junction Gold Mine became a serious operational problem in the late 1990’s. Assessing the local seismic hazard is an important step in assessing the risk associated with potential rockbursting. This paper discusses the qualitative and quantitative means of assessing seismic hazard used at Junction. In qualitative hazar...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Analysis of seismic source parameters can give valuable insight into the seismic hazard and seismic source mechanism of mining-induced seismic events. This paper demonstrates some simple techniques to evaluate seismic hazard and seismic source mechanism. The key to successful source parameter analysis is to identify individual seismic sources throu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The increasing depth of mining and highly deviatoric stress levels in Western Australian mines mean that mining induced seismicity, potentially leading to rockbursts, is a rapidly growing hazard. In response to the need for local research, the Australian Centre for Geomechanics established a project in August 1999 entitled “Mine Seismicity and Rock...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Seismic monitoring systems are commonly used in mechanised mines in Canada and Australia. They have become a valuable monitoring tool in highly stressed and seismically active mining conditions. Generally, these systems are not being used to try to predict rockbursts. While rockbursting conditions do exist in some of these mines, the incidence of...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Seismicity and rockbursts have been reported in Australian mines since the early 1900's. The first modern seismic monitoring system was installed in an Australian mine in 1994. In the last few years, rockbursts and mine seismicity have become a serious mine safety issue and a constraint to economic viability in several Australian mines. By the end...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Open stope mining is the most common mining method employed in underground, hard rock mines in Canada. It is characterised by relatively small, single lift stopes (20,000 to 100,000 tonnes), and fast stope turnaround times. Host wall rock mass conditions, which are typically poor to fair, are the controlling parameter in stope dimensioning. Rock ma...
Conference Paper
Ground support standards for MIM underground hardrock mines were reviewed and updated in 1996. The review was conducted by a cross section of the workforce and focussed on ground support selection, ground support design, installation procedures and quality control management. A wide range of bolt types were investigated and trialed, with the cement...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Mining problems and ground control problems, related to mine seismicity at Brunswick MIning, started to become serious in the late 1980s. In 1994, more than 30,000 seismic events were recorded in the mine. More than 150 of those events were felt on surface. Seismic related damage in the mine has, in some cases, been extreme. This paper discusses th...
Patent
A method for measuring the three dimensional stress in rock surrounding a borehole comprises the steps of cutting slots into the wall of a borehole at different angles relative to the borehole axis so as to effect stress relaxation and strain deformations which are representative of the stresses normal to the angle of the respective slots, and meas...
Technical Report
Full-text available
A detailed geomechanics investigation was carried out during the mining of two sill pillar stopes at Brunswick Mining. Microseismic monitoring, conventional ground control instruments, numerical modelling and visual observations were used to understand the observed failure mechanisms. Sever rock mass failure was initiated in several locations. The...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A detailed geomechancs study was carried out during the mining of two sill pillar stopes at Brunswick Mining. Microseismics, conventional ground control instruments, numerical modellling and visual observations were used to understand the observed failure mechanisms. Severe rock mass failure was initiated in several locations. The complex nature of...
Article
Located in northern Qubec, the Lac Shortt Mine was a small gold mine consisting of a thin subvertical orebody which was mined in three main phases. High stress and rockbursting conditions were experienced when ore was extracted in the upper zone between the surface and a depth of 500 metres during the first two phases of mining. Severe rockbursts w...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Mining of the Lac Shortt orebody was made difficult by a high stress, rockburst prone geological environment. To understand the ground control problems, a 16 channel full waveform microseismic system was installed. Analysis of the microseismicity showed clearly how the rock mass was responding to mining. Some examples include: - mine development d...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The study of mine-induced seismciity in rockbursting mines of South Africa, Europe, and Canada has been important in terms of mine design. Investigation of mine induced seismciity in mines without severe rockburst problems may also have implications regarding mine design. A case history from an underground mine is presented in this paper in which t...
Article
Full-text available
This paper introduces a new approach for the design of rib pillars. The approach involves an empirical method for pillar design and a discusion of the pillar stability used for open stope mining methods. The empirical method predicts the stability of rib pillars. Pillar load is estimated using two and three dimensional numerical modelling. Rock st...
Article
Full-text available
Artificial stope support has become an essential component of many underground mining operations. Because the use of cable bolts in open stopes is a relatively new concept, most support is still designed by trial and error or by rules of thumb. This often results in costly overdesigned support or inadequate support which leads to stope failure. Th...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Open stope mining has been practiced in Canada since the early 1930's. In recent years, it has become the most popular method of underground extraction because it is cost efficient and safe. Several modifications of open stoping have evolved as a result of technological changes such as new mining equipment and improved drilling and blasting techniq...
Thesis
Full-text available
The design of open stope rib pillars has been done using many empirical methods, but none of the methods has been verified with a design survey. This thesis uses data collected in the "Integrated Mine Design Study" to develop an empirical rib pillar design method for open stope mining. The method is called the "pillar stability graph". The design...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In recent years, open stoping has become the most common underground mining method in Canada because it is safe and efficient. The success of open stope mining depends largely on the original stope dimensioning. This paper describes an empirical approach for predicting the stability of open stopes in a mining environment. The method consists of com...

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