Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf · Institute of Fluid Dynamics
A cooling system for up to 300kW waste heat can be extensively improved if the properties of the corresponding coolant are known. The values in the tables are not very useful for this task, because impurities from the rod walls can change the coolants properties.
To prevent overheat condition in summer it becomes necessary to cool the 140l aquarium. In winter we also need a heater, so Peltier elements will do the job. Several temperature sensors of the type DS1820 measure the conditions. They prevent the used heat sinks to fall below the due point or to drive the Peltier elements in over power condition.
The DREsden Sodium facility for DYNamo and thermohydraulic studies (DRESDYN), which is presently in the design phase, will comprise a number of large scale liquid sodium experiments devoted to problems of geo- and astrophysical magnetohydrodynamics. A homogeneous dynamo, driven exclusively by precession, will represent the most ambitious compound of DRESDYN. Another experiment, a sodium filled Taylor-Couette cell, will allow the combined investigation of various versions of the magnetorotational instability and of the Tayler instability. For both experiments, recent results of preparatory studies are presented, and the scientific prospects for the final set-ups are delineated.
In the current-driven, kink-type Tayler instability (TI) a sufficiently strong azimuthal magnetic field becomes unstable against nonaxisymmetric perturbations. The TI has been discussed as a possible ingredient of the solar dynamo mechanism and a source of the helical structures in cosmic jets. It is also considered as a size-limiting factor for liquid metal batteries. We report on a liquid metal TI experiment using a cylindrical column of the eutectic alloy GaInSn to which electrical currents of up to 8 kA are applied. We present results of external magnetic field measurements that indicate the transient occurrence of the TI in good agreement with numerical predictions. The interference of TI with the competing large-scale convection, resulting from Joule heating, is also discussed.
In the current-driven, kink-type Tayler instability (TI) a sufficiently strong azimuthal magnetic field becomes unstable against non-axisymmetric perturbations. The TI has been discussed as a possible ingredient of the solar dynamo mechanism and a source of the helical structures in cosmic jets. It is also considered as a size limiting factor for liquid metal batteries. We report on a liquid metal TI experiment using a cylindrical column of the eutectic alloy GaInSn to which electrical currents of up to 8 kA are applied. We present results of external magnetic field measurements that indicate the occurrence of the TI in good agreement with numerical predictions. The interference of TI with the competing large scale convection, resulting from Joule heating, is also discussed.
The present status of the Riga dynamo experiment is summarized and the prospects for its future exploitation are evaluated. We further discuss the plans for a large-scale precession driven dynamo experiment to be set-up in the framework of the new installation DRESDYN (DREsden Sodium facility for dynamo and thermohydraulic studies) at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. We report recent investigations of the magnetorotational instability and the Tayler instability and sketch the plans for another large-scale liquid sodium facility devoted to the combined study of both effects.
Many astrophysical phenomena (such as the slow rotation of neutron stars or the rigid rotation of the solar core) can be explained by the action of the Tayler instability of toroidal magnetic fields in the radiative zones of stars. In order to place the theory of this instability on a safe fundament it has been realized in a laboratory experiment measuring the critical field strength, the growth rates as well as the shape of the supercritical modes. A strong electrical current flows through a liquid-metal confined in a resting columnar container with an insulating outer cylinder. As the very small magnetic Prandtl number of the gallium-indium-tin alloy does not influence the critical Hartmann number of the field amplitudes, the electric currents for marginal instability can also be computed with direct numerical simulations. The results of this theoretical concept are confirmed by the experiment. Also the predicted growth rates of the order of minutes for the nonaxisymmetric perturbations are certified by the measurements. That they do not directly depend on the size of the experiment is shown as a consequence of the weakness of the applied fields and the absence of rotation.
The azimuthal version of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) is a non-axisymmetric instability of a hydrodynamically stable differentially rotating flow under the influence of a purely or predominantly azimuthal magnetic field. It may be of considerable importance for destabilizing accretion disks, and plays a central role in the concept of the MRI dynamo. We report the results of a liquid metal Taylor-Couette experiment that shows the occurrence of an azimuthal MRI in the expected range of Hartmann numbers.
Precession has long been discussed as a complementary energy source for homogeneous dynamo action. Here we describe the present status of the preparations - theoretical predictions, velocimetry of a scale model water experiment, and engineering/construction concerns - for a liquid sodium precession experiment. Furthermore, we report recent experimental and theoretical results on the magnetorotational (MRI) and Tayler (TI) instabilities, and discuss plans for a large-scale liquid sodium experiment to study the combination of MRI and TI.
The last decades have seen a number of liquid metal experiments on the interaction of magnetic fields with the flow of electrically conducting fluids. The opaqueness of liquid metals requires non-optical methods for inferring the velocity structure of the flow. Quite often, such experiments are carried out in the presence of high electrical currents to generate the necessary magnetic fields. Depending on the specific purpose, these currents can reach several kiloamperes. The utilized switching mode power supply can then influence seriously the measurement system by electromagnetic interference. A recent experiment on the azimuthal magnetorotational instability (AMRI) has shown that a hydrodynamically stable Taylor-Couette flow becomes unstable under the influence of a high azimuthal magnetic field. An electrical current along the axis of the experiment with up to 20. kA generates the necessary field to destabilize the flow. We present experimental results of this AMRI experiment carried out at the PROMISE facility with an enhanced power supply. For this setup, we discuss the elaborate measures that were needed to obtain a reasonable signal-to-noise ratio of the ultrasonic Doppler velocimetry (UDV) system. In dependence on various parameter variations, some typical features of the observed instability, such as the energy content, the wavelength, and the frequency are analyzed and compared with theoretical predictions.
The Dresden sodium facility for dynamo and thermohydraulic studies (DRESDYN) is a platform for large-scale liquid sodium experiments devoted to fundamental geo- and astrophysical questions as well as to various applied problems related to the conversion and storage of energy. Its most ambitious part is a precession driven dynamo experiment comprising 8 tons of liquid sodium supposed to rotate with up to 10 Hz and to precess with up to 1 Hz. Another large-scale set-up is a Tayler-Couette experiment with a gap width of 0.2 m and a height of 2 m, whose inner cylinder rotates with up to 20 Hz. Equipped with a coil system for the generation of an axial field of up to 120 mT and two different axial currents through the center and the liquid sodium, this experiment aims at studying various versions of the magnetorotational instability and their combinations with the Tayler instability. We discuss the physical background of these two experiments and delineate the present status of their technical realization. Other installations, such as a sodium loop and a test stand for In-Service-Inspection experiments will also be sketched.
The analog controlled precision heat power source is the main part of a sensor development to estimate real time properties of the primary coolant in a 300 kW process cooling system. The measurement of physical properties like thermal conductivity or thermal diffusion requires a precise and accurate heater. The constant heat flux is then applied to the liquid under test to acquire its different properties. Here, commonly established control methods of heating with constant current or constant voltage may fail because the heating resistor changes its resistance with temperature. The idea is to utilize a power monitor circuit like the LT2940, which contains an analog multiplier with a control loop around it. The initial design and its assumed uncertainties will be discussed. The first version of the power controller shows an outstanding performance in terms of precision in a steady state. Compared to conventional switching mode power sources the approach with an analog controlled heater avoids EMI issues as well. The main goal of the present design is a precise source of heat power with less than 0.5% of error.
The project A2 of the LIMTECH Alliance aimed at a better understanding of those magnetohydrodynamic instabilities that are relevant for the generation and the action of cosmic magnetic fields. These comprise the hydromagnetic dynamo effect and various magnetically triggered flow instabilities, such as the magnetorotational instability and the Tayler instability. The project was intended to support the experimental capabilities to become available in the framework of the DREsden Sodium facility for DYNamo and thermohydraulic studies (DRESDYN). An associated starting grant was focused on the dimensioning of a liquid metal experiment on the newly found magnetic destabilization of rotating flows with positive shear. In this paper, the main results of these two projects are summarized.
Today non-destructive evaluation techniques become more and more important. Consequently, X-ray detectors are suitable tools to get information about specimens. In comparison to the already established scintillation principle, the direct converting method on the basis of semiconductor materials delivers several advantages. Hence, it is necessary to speed this measurement method and develop appropriate packages for these assemblies. In this paper the method of direct converting X-ray line detectors as well as their packaging and relevant aspects are introduced.
First results of a new spherical Couette experiment are presented. The liquid metal flow in a spherical shell is exposed to a homogeneous axial magnetic field. For a Reynolds number Re=1000, we study the effect of increasing Hartmann number Ha. The resulting flow structures are inspected by ultrasound Doppler velocimetry. With a weak applied magnetic field, we observe an equatorially anti-symmetric jet instability with azimuthal wave number m=3. As the magnetic field strength increases, this instability vanishes. When the field is increased further, an equatorially symmetric return flow instability arises. Our observations are shown to be in good agreement with linear stability analysis and non-linear flow simulations.
Liquid metal batteries (LMBs) consist of two liquid metal electrodes and a molten salt ionic conductor sandwiched between them. The density ratios allow for a stable stratification of the three layers. LMBs were already considered as part of energy conversion systems in the 1960s and have recently received renewed interest for economical large-scale energy storage. In this paper, we concentrate on the magnetohydrodynamic aspects of this cell type with special focus on electro-vortex flows and possible effects of the Tayler instability.