Martin Schiller

Martin Schiller
University of Copenhagen · Center for Star and Planet Formation

31.89
 · 
PhD in Geochemistry
About
60
Research items
3,408
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894
Citations
Research Experience
Education
Apr 2007 - Apr 2010
Victoria University of Wellington
Field of study
  • Geochemistry
Mar 2005 - Mar 2007
Victoria University of Wellington
Field of study
  • Geology, Geochemistry
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Research
Research items (60)
Article
Planetary bodies a few hundred kilometers in radii are the precursors to larger planets but it is unclear whether these bodies themselves formed very rapidly or accreted slowly over several millions of years. Ordinary H chondrite meteorites provide an opportunity to investigate the accretion time scale of a small planetary body given that variable...
Article
Full-text available
Nucleosynthetic isotope variability amongst Solar System objects is commonly used to probe the genetic relationship between meteorite groups and rocky planets, which, in turn, may provide insights into the building blocks of the Earth-Moon system1–5. Using this approach, it is inferred that no primitive meteorite matches the terrestrial composition...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Although many scenarios have been proposed for the origin of the Earth-Moon system, they fail to account for the identical isotopic composition of the Earth and the Moon for refractory elements despite the large nucleosynthetic variability observed between bulk Solar System reservoirs. A potential solution to this conundrum is the proposal of a iso...
Article
Full-text available
Polymict ureilites are meteoritic breccias that provide insights into the differentiation history of the ureilite parent body.We have sampled a total of 24 clasts from the polymict ureilite Dar al Gani 319, representing a variety of lithologies such as mantle residues, cumulates and crustal fragments that are genetically related to monomict ureilit...
Article
The large collection of howardite-eucrite-diogenite (HED) meteorites allows us to study the initial magmatic differentiation of a planetesimal. We report Pb-Pb ages of the unequilibrated North West Africa (NWA) 4215 and Dhofar 700 diogenite meteorites and their mass-independent 26Mg isotope compositions (26Mg*) to better understand the timing of di...
Article
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Primitive meteorites are samples of asteroidal bodies that contain a high proportion of chemically complex organic matter (COM) including prebiotic molecules such as amino acids, which are thought to have been delivered to Earth via impacts during the early history of the Solar System. Thus, understanding the origin of COM, including their formatio...
Article
The processes associated with magma ocean formation and solidi cation can control the earliest compositional differentiation and volatile inventory of planetary bodies. Thus, eluci- dating the scale and extent to which magma oceans existed in the Solar System is critical for a full understanding of planet formation. Here we show that the magnesium...
Article
Full-text available
We report on the petrology, magnesium isotopes and mass-independent 54Cr/52Cr compositions (μ54Cr) of 42 chondrules from CV (Vigarano and NWA 3118) and CR (NWA 6043, NWA 801 and LAP 02342) chondrites. All sampled chondrules are classified as type IA or type IAB, have low 27Al/24Mg ratios (0.04 to 0.27) and display little or no evidence for secondar...
Chapter
In this chapter, we summarize the evidence for high temperature Ca isotope fractionation in natural and experimental samples including minerals, igneous and metamorphic rocks and silicate melts and discuss the underlying isotope fractionation mechanisms. Furthermore, we outline the evidence for primordial nucleosynthetic variability of Ca isotopes...
Article
Full-text available
The short-lived (26)Al radionuclide is thought to have been admixed into the initially (26)Al-poor protosolar molecular cloud before or contemporaneously with its collapse. Bulk inner Solar System reservoirs record positively correlated variability in mass-independent (54)Cr and (26)Mg*, the decay product of (26)Al. This correlation is interpreted...
Book
This book provides an overview of the fundamentals and reference values for Ca stable isotope research, as well as current analytical methodologies including detailed instructions for sample preparation and isotope analysis. As such, it introduces readers to the different fields of application, including low-temperature mineral precipitation and bi...
Article
Full-text available
The decay of radioactive 26Al to 26Mg (half-life of 730,000 years) is postulated to have been the main energy source promoting asteroidal melting and differentiation in the nascent Solar System. High-resolution chronological information provided by the 26Al-26Mg decay system is, therefore, intrinsically linked to the thermal evolution of early-form...
Article
The mechanisms and timescales of accretion of 10–1000 km sized planetesimals, the building blocks of planets, are not yet well understood. With planetesimal melting predominantly driven by the decay of the short-lived radionuclide 26Al (26Al→26Mg; ), its initial abundance determines the permissible timeframe of planetesimal-scale melting and its su...
Article
Full-text available
We report novel analytical procedures allowing for the concurrent determination of the stable and mass-independent Cr isotopic composition of silicate material by multiple collector inductively coupled mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). In particular, we focus on improved precision of the measurement of the neutron-rich isotope 54 Cr. Because nitride an...
Article
Polygonal patterned ground is a dominant geomorphic feature in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. In central Beacon Valley, polygons are considered to be ancient expressions of stagnant surface processes and are thought to be stable for millions of years. However, the actual rate at which these polygons form and alter is not known. We describe a...
Article
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Chondrules are igneous spherical objects preserved in chondritic meteorites and believed to have formed during transient heating events in the solar protoplanetary disk. Chondrules present in the metal-rich CB chondrites show unusual chemical and petrologic features not observed in other chondrite groups, implying a markedly distinct formation mech...
Article
Full-text available
Refractory inclusions [calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions, (CAIs)] represent the oldest Solar System solids and provide information regarding the formation of the Sun and its protoplanetary disk. CAIs contain evidence of now extinct short-lived radioisotopes (e.g., (26)Al, (41)Ca, and (182)Hf) synthesized in one or multiple stars and added to the pro...
Article
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We present a new technique for the precise determination of platinum (Pt) stable isotope ratios by multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) using two different Pt double-spikes (192Pt–198Pt and 196Pt–198Pt). Results are expressed relative to the IRMM-010 Pt isotope standard as the parts per million difference in 19...
Article
Full-text available
The existence of correlated nucleosynthetic heterogeneities in solar system reservoirs is now well demonstrated for numerous nuclides. However, it has proven difficult to discriminate between the two disparate processes that can explain such correlated variability: incomplete mixing of presolar material or secondary processing of a well-mixed disk....
Article
A long-standing debate concerning Neogene Antarctic climate in the McMurdo Dry Valleys relies largely on evidence from landscape evolution, glacial modeling and stratigraphy. We provide new evidence from meteoric 10Be for the onset of frozen, hyper-arid conditions on a high elevation (1840 m) interfluve at Table Mountain. A simple decay model for t...
Article
Major and trace element and high precision Mg isotope measurements are used to investigate the timing and mechanisms of silicate differentiation on the howardite-eucrite-diogenite parent body.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
A combined study of Ba-isotopes in acid leaches and bulk meteorites to better understand the role of SiC in the generation of nucleosynthetic anomalies.
Conference Paper
The presence of isotope heterogeneity of nucleosynthetic origin amongst meteorites and their components provides a record of the diverse stars that contributed matter to the protosolar molecular cloud core. Understanding how and when the solar system's nucleosynthetic heterogeneity was established and preserved within the solar protoplanetary disk...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The formation of chondrules is still a mystery, however using Mg and Cr isotope variations of bulk CR and CV chondrules we can test some of the chondrule-formation models.
Article
We present methods for the separation of platinum from geological materials and measurement of stable isotopes of platinum by MC-ICPMS. These are applied to a range of meteorites and terrestrial samples to investigate Earth's differentiation.
Article
Full-text available
The precision of the 26Al–26Mg system—one of the most widely used chronometers for constraining the relative timing of events in the early solar system—is presently limited by methods for the determination of 27Al/24Mg ratios, which have seen little improvement in the last decade. We present a novel method for the measurement of 27Al/24Mg ratios in...
Article
Meteorites with significantly sub-chondritic Al/Mg that formed in the first 2 million years of the Solar System should be characterised by deficits in the abundance of 26Mg (δ26Mg∗) due to the absence of in-growth of 26Mg from the decay of short-lived 26Al (t1/2 = 0.73 Myr). However, these 26Mg deficits will be small (δ26Mg∗ >−0.037‰) even for mate...
Article
Full-text available
We report a novel approach for the chemical purification of Ca from silicate rocks by ion-exchange chromatography, and a highly-precise method for the isotopic analysis of Ca—including the smallest isotope 46Ca (0.003%)—by high-resolution multiple collector inductively coupled plasma source mass spectrometry (HR-MC-ICPMS), in combination with therm...
Article
Abstract– We report on mineralogy, petrography, and whole-rock 26Al-26Mg systematics of eight amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs) from the oxidized CV chondrite Allende. The AOAs consist of forsteritic olivine, opaque nodules, and variable amounts of Ca,Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) of different types, and show evidence for alteration to varying degrees...
Article
Full-text available
Asteroid 4 Vesta has long been postulated as the source for the howardite-eucrite-diogenite (HED) achondrite meteorites. Here we show that Al-free diogenite meteorites record variability in the mass-independent abundance of 26Mg (26Mg*) that is correlated with their mineral chemistry. This suggests that these meteorites captured the Mg-isotopic evo...
Article
Full-text available
With a half-life of 0.73 Myr, the 26Al-to-26Mg decay system is the most widely used short-lived chronometer for understanding the formation and earliest evolution of the solar protoplanetary disk. However, the validity of 26Al-26Mg ages of meteorites and their components relies on the critical assumption that the canonical 26Al/27Al ratio of ~5 × 1...
Article
Full-text available
We report novel methods for the chemical purification of Mg from silicate rocks by ion-exchange chromatography, and high-precision analysis of Mg-isotopes by high-resolution multiple collector inductively coupled plasma source mass spectrometry (HR-MC-ICPMS). Using these methods, we have measured the relative and absolute Mg-isotope composition of...
Article
We present high-precision Mg isotope data for most classes of basaltic meteorites including eucrites, mesosiderite silicate clasts, angrites and the ungrouped Northwest Africa (NWA) 2976 measured by pseudo-high-resolution multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and utilising improved techniques for chemical purification of M...
Article
Variations of the mass-independent abundance of 26Mg (delta26Mg*) and stable Mg (delta25Mg) isotope composition of chondrites are important because they constrain the homogeneity of 26Al and Mg isotopes in the proto-planetary disc and the validity of the short-lived 26Al-to-26Mg chronometer applied to meteorites. We present high-precision Mg isotop...
Article
A precise and accurate chronology of events that shaped the early Solar System is crucial in understanding its formation. One of the high-resolution chronometers that can be used to establish a relative chronology is the short-lived 26A1-to-26Mg clock (t1/2 = 0.73 Myr). This study developed new Mg chemical separation techniques for complex meteorit...
Article
Full-text available
The mantle is Earth's largest reservoir of Mg containing > 99% of Earth's Mg inventory. However, no consensus exists on the stable Mg isotope composition of the Earth's mantle or how variable it is and, in particular, whether the mantle has the same stable Mg isotope composition as chondrite meteorites. We have determined the Mg isotope composition...
Article
Full-text available
1] Concentrations of 10 Be, 9 Be, and salt in a soil profile from the lower Wright Valley reveal two distinct climatic regimes. In the upper horizon of the soil profile, a thin gravel lag overlies the Hart ash (3.9 ± 0.3 Ma), and this sits on the surface of a well-developed paleosol, which makes up the lower horizon of the profile. The surface lag...
Article
Introduction: Nickel has five isotopes (58, 60, 61, 62 & 64) and is potentially a powerful early Solar System chronometer and tool to identify the astrophysical setting in which our Solar System formed. Variations of 60 Ni abundances in meteorites can result from the decay of short-lived 60 Fe (t 1/2 = 1.49 Myr), if it was injected by a nearby supe...