Martin Wild

Martin Wild
ETH Zurich | ETH Zürich · Department of Environmental Systems Science

Dr. sc. nat. ETH

About

367
Publications
114,230
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
24,835
Citations
Citations since 2016
94 Research Items
13178 Citations
201620172018201920202021202205001,0001,5002,000
201620172018201920202021202205001,0001,5002,000
201620172018201920202021202205001,0001,5002,000
201620172018201920202021202205001,0001,5002,000
Introduction
Skills and Expertise
Additional affiliations
January 2005 - December 2012
ETH Zurich
January 2002 - present
Hokkaido University

Publications

Publications (367)
Article
Full-text available
In the framework of the global energy balance, the radiative energy exchanges between Sun, Earth and space are now accurately quantified from new satellite missions. Much less is known about the magnitude of the energy flows within the climate system and at the Earth surface, which cannot be directly measured by satellites. In addition to satellite...
Article
Full-text available
A fundamental determinant of climate and life on our planet is the solar radiation (sunlight) incident at the Earth's surface. Any change in this precious energy source affects our habitats profoundly. Until recently, for simplicity and lack of better knowledge, the amount of solar radiation received at the Earth surface was assumed to be stable ov...
Article
Full-text available
The energy budgets over land and oceans are still afflicted with considerable uncertainties, despite their key importance for terrestrial and maritime climates. We evaluate these budgets as represented in 43 CMIP5 climate models with direct observations from both surface and space and identify substantial biases, particularly in the surface fluxes...
Article
Full-text available
Anthropogenic interference with climate occurs primarily through modification of radiative fluxes in the climate system. Increasing releases of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere lead to an enhancement of thermal radiation from the atmosphere to the surface by presently about 2Wm-2 per decade, thereby causing global warming. Yet not only thermal...
Article
Full-text available
A plausible simulation of the global energy balance is a first-order requirement for a credible climate model. Here I investigate the representation of the global energy balance in 40 state-of-the-art global climate models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 6 (CMIP6). In the CMIP6 multi-model mean, the magnitudes of th...
Article
Full-text available
Periods of dimming and brightening have been recorded in observational datasets of surface solar radiation (SSR) between the mid‐20th century and present day. Atmospheric components affect SSR, including aerosols and clouds, though studies disagree somewhat about the relative effect of each component in different regions. Current Earth system model...
Article
Full-text available
This study assesses and evaluates the 40-year (1980–2019) Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications v.2 (MERRA-2) surface solar radiation (SSR) as well as its interdecadal changes (Δ(SSR)) against high quality reference surface measurements from 1397 Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) and 73 Baseline Surface Radiation Networ...
Article
Full-text available
Terrain reflected solar radiation in snow‐covered mountains is nonnegligible in investigations of the energy budget. However, it has so far not been investigated thoroughly, especially with regard to the influence of snow cover. Several parameterization approaches have been raised but not yet evaluated in a more uniform and quantitative manner. Bas...
Article
Full-text available
A total of 56 years (1961–2016) of daily surface downward solar irradiation, sunshine duration, diurnal temperature range and the fraction of the sky covered by clouds in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, were analysed. The main purpose was to contribute to the characterization and understanding of the dimming and brightening effects on solar global r...
Article
Full-text available
Plain Language Summary The amount of sunlight received at the Earth's surface undergoes substantial variations on decadal timescales, known as “dimming and brightening.” These variations have fundamental implications for a variety of key environmental issues as well as for solar power generation, agriculture, and human health. However, the causes o...
Article
Full-text available
There was a dramatic increase in aerosol loading in China after the 1960s due to rapid industrialization, followed by a gradual reduction due to improvements in air quality since the early 2000s. They are deemed to be the main cause of ‘dimming’ and ‘brightening’ in China, respectively. China, therefore, provides an ideal testbed to investigate the...
Article
Full-text available
The annual mean surface solar radiation (SSR) trends under all-sky, clear-sky, all-sky-no-aerosol, and clear-sky-no-aerosol conditions as well as their possible causes are analyzed during 2005–2018 across China based on different satellite-retrieved datasets to determine the major drivers of the trends. The results confirm clouds and aerosols as th...
Article
Full-text available
Anthropogenic aerosol emissions have increased considerably over the last century, but climate effects and quantification of the emissions are highly uncertain as one goes back in time. This uncertainty is partly due to a lack of observations in the pre-satellite era, making the observations we do have before 1990 additionally valuable. Aerosols su...
Article
Full-text available
Although the effect of pollution on forest health and decline received much attention in the 1980s, it has not been considered to explain the 'Divergence Problem' in dendroclimatology; a decou-pling of tree growth from rising air temperatures since the 1970s. Here we use physical and bio-geochemical measurements of hundreds of living and dead conif...
Article
The current pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is having negative health, social and economic consequences worldwide. In Europe, the pandemic started to develop strongly at the end of February and beginning of March 2020. Subsequently, it spread over the contine...
Article
Solar shortwave and terrestrial thermal longwave irradiance are measured at radiation sites at the Earth's surface and on satellite platforms high up in space, since many years. Radiation profiles through the Earth's atmosphere, however, have only sporadically been measured from enhanced upper-air radiosondes. Here we show profiles of solar and ter...
Preprint
Full-text available
Fifty-six years (1961–2016) of daily surface downward solar irradiation, sunshine duration, diurnal temperature range and the fraction of the sky covered by clouds in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, were analyzed. The main purpose was to contribute to the characterization and understanding of the dimming and brightening effects on solar global radia...
Article
Full-text available
Long-term historic climate datasets are valuable tools to investigate climate variability, validate climate models and contextualise anticipated climate change. Surface solar radiation is one particularly relevant variable, with implications on policy decisions (e.g., performance of solar panels) and fundamental questions in climate science (e.g.,...
Data
The document is a supplementary material to the paper in the Ecolgy Letters: Kirdyanov A.V., Krusic P.J., Shishov V.V., Vaganov E.A., Fertikov A.I., Myglan V.S., Barinov V.V., Browse J., Esper J., Ilyin V.A., Knorre A.A., Korets M.A., Kukarskikh V.V., Mashukov D.A., Onuchin A.A., Piermattei A., Pimenov A.V., Prokushkin A.S., Ryzhkova V.A., Shishik...
Article
Full-text available
A novel method has been developed to estimate aerosol optical depth (AOD) from sunshine duration (SD) measurements under cloud-free conditions. It is a physically based method serving for the reconstruction of the historical evolution of AOD during the last century. In addition to sunshine duration data, it requires daily water vapor and ozone prod...
Article
Full-text available
Long-term decreases in the incident total radiation and water clarity might substantially affect the underwater light environment in aquatic ecosystems. However, the underlying mechanism and relative contributions of radiation dimming and decreasing water clarity to the underwater light environment on a national or global scale remains largely unkn...
Article
Full-text available
Increasing energy and food demands require an understanding of not only the availability and variability of total solar radiation (R) but also its partitioning into direct (Rd) and diffuse (Rf) components, which are key elements for solar power generation and plant photosynthesis, respectively. Potential inhomogeneities in surface solar radiation o...
Preprint
The current COVID-19 pandemic is having detrimental consequences worldwide. The pandemic started to develop strongly by the end of January and beginning of February 2020, first in China with subsequent rapid spread to other countries with new epicenters of the outbreaks concentrated mainly within the 30-50 degrees North latitudinal band (e.g., Sout...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract We explore the ability of general circulation models in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) to recreate observed seasonal variability in top‐of‐the‐atmosphere and surface radiation fluxes over West Africa. This tests CMIP5 models' ability to describe the radiative energy partitioning, which is fundamental to our understanding...
Preprint
Full-text available
The current pandemic caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is having negative health, social and economic consequences worldwide. In Europe, the pandemic started to develop strongly at the end of February and beginning of March 2020. It has subsequently spread over the continent, with special virulence in northern Italy and inland Spain. In this stu...
Article
Full-text available
Downward surface solar radiation (SSR) trends for the first decade of the 2000s were computed using a radiative transfer model and satellite and reanalysis input data and were validated against measurements from the reference global station networks Global Energy Balance Archive (GEBA) and Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN). Under all-sky co...
Preprint
Full-text available
Abstract. Anthropogenic aerosol emissions have increased considerably over the last century, but climate effects and quantification of the emissions are highly uncertain as one goes back in time. This uncertainty is partly due to a lack of observations in the pre-satellite era, and previous studies show that Earth system models (ESMs) do not adequa...
Article
Full-text available
The amount of solar (shortwave) radiation that reaches the Earth’s surface underwent substantial variations over recent decades. Since the 1950s, surface shortwave radiation gradually decreased at widespread locations. In Europe, this so-called surface dimming continued until the late 1980s, when surface brightening set in and surface shortwave rad...
Preprint
Full-text available
Abstract. A novel method has been developed to estimate aerosol optical depth (AOD) from sunshine duration (SD) measurements under cloud-free conditions. It is a physically-based method serving for the reconstruction of the historical evolution of AOD during the last century. In addition to sunshine duration data, it requires daily water vapor and...
Article
Full-text available
The air pollution crisis in China has become a global concern due to its profound effects on the global environment and human health. To significantly improve the air quality, mandatory reductions were imposed on pollution emissions and energy consumption within the framework of the 11th and 12th Five Year Plans of China. This study takes the first...
Article
Full-text available
In the second part of this study, possible impacts of climate change on Surface Solar Radiation (SSR) in Southern Africa (SA) are evaluated. We use outputs from 20 regional climate simulations from five Regional Climate Models (RCM) that participate in the Coordinated Regional Downscal-ing Experiment program over the African domain (CORDEX-Africa)...
Article
Full-text available
China is the largest worldwide consumer of solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity, with 130 GW of installed capacity as of 2017. China’s PV capacity is expected to reach at least 400 GW by 2030, to provide 10% of its primary energy. However, anthropogenic aerosol emissions and changes in cloud cover affect solar radiation in China. Here, we use observ...
Article
Full-text available
In the version of this Article originally published, the units of ‘Total electricity yield’ and ‘Potential electricity gain’ in Table 1 were incorrectly presented as GWh yr–1; they should have been TWh yr–1. These errors have now been corrected.
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Estimates of radiative fluxes under cloud‐free conditions (“clear‐sky”) are required in many fields, from climatic analyses of solar transmission to estimates of solar energy potential for electricity generation. Ideally, these fluxes can be obtained directly from measurements of solar fluxes at the surface. However, common standard method...
Article
Full-text available
We use the best currently available in situ and satellite-derived surface and top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) shortwave radiation observations to explore climatological annual cycles of fractional (i.e., normalized by incoming radiation at the TOA) atmospheric shortwave absorption [Formula: see text] on a global scale. The analysis reveals that [Formul...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a study on long-term surface solar radiation (SSR) changes over China under clear- and all-sky conditions and analyzes the causes of the “dimming” and “brightening.” To eliminate the nonclimatic signals in the historical records, the daily SSR dataset was first homogenized using quantile-matching (QM) adjustment. The results rev...
Article
Full-text available
We analyze the evolution of inter-hemispheric asymmetries in the energy budgets (EBs) and near-surface temperature anomalies during the 20th century, as given in Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project, phase 5 (CMIP5) simulations. We also consider the cross-equatorial energy transports (CET) in the atmosphere and in the oceans, in order to evidence...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The accurate knowledge of the historical evolution of aerosol optical depth (AOD) has become of a great interest to the scientific community in order to tackle questions related to the reduction of the largest uncertainty in the projections of climate change or the role played by atmospheric aerosols in the dimming/brightening phenomenon occurring...
Article
Full-text available
In recent studies we quantified the global mean Earth energy balance based on direct observations from surface and space. Here we infer complementary reference estimates for its components specifically under cloud-free conditions. While the clear-sky fluxes at the top of atmosphere (TOA) are accurately known from satellite measurements, the corresp...
Article
Full-text available
Extreme weather events in the mid-latitudes are often associated with weather systems, such as extratropical cyclones or blocks. However little is known about the decadal variation in the frequency of blocks and the activity of storm tracks and their relation to the two most important low-frequency oceanic modes of variability, the Atlantic multide...
Article
Full-text available
This study evaluates the performance of climate models in reproducing Surface Solar Radiation (SSR) over Southern Africa (SA) by validating 5 Regional Climate Models (RCM, including CCLM4, HIRHAM5, RACMO22T, RCA4 and REMO) that participated in the Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment program over Africa (CORDEX-Africa) along with their 10 dr...
Article
To achieve high-quality surface solar radiation (SSR) data for climate monitoring and analysis, the two satellite-derived monthly SSR datasets of CM SAF CLARA-A2 and SARAH-E have been validated against a homogenized ground-based dataset covering 59 stations across China for 1993-2015 and 1999-2015, respectively. The satellite products overestimate...
Article
Using projections of surface solar radiation and temperature from 23 CMIP5 global climate models for two climate change scenarios (RCP4.5 & 8.5) we quantify the average change in PV electricity production expected in the years 2060–2080 compared to the present (2007–2027). We upsample daily radiation data to hourly resolution with a sinusoidal diur...
Article
The representativeness of surface solar radiation (SSR) point observations is an important issue when using them in combination with gridded data. We conduct a comprehensive near-global (50°S to 55°N) analysis on the representativeness of SSR point observations on the monthly mean time scale. Thereto, we apply the existing concepts of decorrelation...
Conference Paper
The global dimming and brightening (GDB) phenomenon during the first decade of 2000s is studied using a deterministic spectral radiative transfer model (RTM). Input satellite and reanalysis data for various parameters of the Earth-Atmosphere system are used in the RTM, which computes monthly mean surface solar radiation (SSR) fluxes over the globe...
Article
The global temperature trend observed over the last century is largely the result of two opposing effects—cooling from aerosol particles and greenhouse gas warming. While the effect of increasing greenhouse gas concentrations on Earth's radiation budget is well constrained, that due to anthropogenic aerosols is not, partly due to a lack of observat...
Article
Full-text available
The use of regional climate models (RCMs) can partly reduce the biases in global radiative flux (Eg↓) that are found in reanalysis products and global models, as they allow for a finer spatial resolution and a finer parametrisation of surface and atmospheric processes. In this study, we assess the ability of the MAR («Modèle Atmosphérique Régional»...
Article
Full-text available
Surface solar radiation (SSR) observations have indicated an increasing trend in Europe since the mid-1980s, referred to as solar brightening. In this study, we used the regional air quality model, CAMx (Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions) to simulate and quantify, with various sensitivity runs (where the year 2010 served as the base c...
Article
Full-text available
Observations show that the surface incident solar radiation (Rs) decreased over land from the 1950s to the 1980s and increased thereafter, known as global dimming and brightening. This claim has been questioned due to the inhomogeneity and low spatial‐temporal coverage of Rs observations. Based on direct comparisons of ~200 observed and sunshine du...
Article
Atmospheric circulation types, blockings, and cyclones are central features of the extratropical flow and key to understanding the climate system. This study intercompares the representation of these features in 10 reanalyses and in an ensemble of 30 climate model simulations between 1980 and 2005. Both modern, full-input reanalyses and century-lon...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a method to homogenize China's surface solar radiation (SSR) data and uses the resulting homogenized SSR data to assess the SSR trend over the period 1958-2016. Neighboring surface sunshine duration (SSD) data are used as reference data to assess the SSR data homogeneity. A principal component analysis is applied to build a refe...
Article
Full-text available
Surface solar radiation (SSR) observations have indicated an increasing trend in Europe since the mid-1980s, referred to as solar brightening. In this study, we used the regional air quality model, CAMx (Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions) to simulate and quantify, with various sensitivity runs (where the year 2010 served as the base c...
Article
When using time series of ground based surface solar radiation (SSR) measurements in combination with gridded data the spatial and temporal representativeness of the point observations must be considered. We use SSR data from surface observations and high resolution (0.05∘) satellite derived data to infer the spatiotemporal representativeness of ob...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of the present work is to compare the projections of surface solar radiation (SSR) simulated by four regional climate models (CCLM, RCA4, WRF, ALADIN) with the respective fields of their ten driving CMIP5 global climate models. First the annual and seasonal SSR changes are examined in the regional and in the global climate models base...