Martin J. Tomasik

Martin J. Tomasik
University of Zurich | UZH · Institute of Education and Institute for Educational Evaluation

Prof. Dr.

About

99
Publications
46,835
Reads
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1,852
Citations
Citations since 2016
52 Research Items
1122 Citations
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Introduction
My research is situated at the intersection between educational and developmental science and focusses on research technology, quantitative methodology, and mathematical modelling. It addresses conceptual and methodological challenges related to the measurement of intraindividual change and interindividual differences in this change. I am involved in the R&D of digital tools for the measurement of learning or developmental processes and the advancement of the corresponding mathematical models.
Additional affiliations
October 2021 - February 2022
University of Zurich
Position
  • Professor (Full)
October 2017 - September 2021
Universität Witten/Herdecke
Position
  • Professor
September 2016 - February 2022
University of Zurich
Position
  • Scientific Director
Education
October 2004 - April 2008
October 1997 - September 2004
Freie Universität Berlin
Field of study
  • Psychology

Publications

Publications (99)
Article
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We examined the influence of individual views of aging on health changes in later life. We hypothesized that aging-related cognitions affect health changes irrespective of control beliefs and that the impact of aging-related cognitions on health is higher than for the reverse direction of causality. We based our analyses on data from the longitudin...
Article
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Globalized labor markets confront many adults, both employed and unemployed, with demands arising from career uncertainty that have the potential to jeopardize their occupational planning. This article investigated how individuals in different regions of Germany, which are characterized by different economic opportunities, negotiate such demands to...
Article
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Based on optimal foraging theory, we propose a metric that allows evaluating the goodness of goal systems, that is, systems comprising multiple goals with facilitative and conflicting interrelations. This optimal foraging theory takes into account expectancy and value, as well as opportunity costs, of foraging. Applying this approach to goal system...
Article
Thriving is a developmental process that is shaped by previous and current interactions within developmental contexts. We hypothesized that academic performance in the school context will positively predict thriving in young adulthood. Data of N = 2,043 students from Zurich was assessed with standardized tests in Grades 1, 3, 6, and 9. Results show...
Article
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Using data from a computer-based formative feedback system, we compare learning gains in the eight weeks of school closures related to the COVID-19 pandemic in Switzerland with learning gains in the eight weeks before these school closures. The school performance in mathematics and language of N = 28,685 pupils is modelled in second-order piecewise...
Poster
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A computer-based formative feedback system was developed to provide teachers with data that can be used for instruction-related decision making and students with feedback on their current performance and on their learning gains (Tomasik, Berger & Moser, 2018). It was built against the official school curriculum as the content framework and comprise...
Article
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A recent Registered Replication Report (RRR) of the development of verbal rehearsal during serial recall revealed that children verbalized at younger ages than previously thought, but did not identify sources of individual differences. Here, we use mediation analysis to reanalyze data from the 934 children ranging from 5 to 10 years old from the RR...
Article
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Objectives: Age group stereotypes (AGS), especially those targeting old age, affect an individual’s behavior and long-term cognitive and physiological functioning. Conventional paradigms investigating the related mechanisms lack validity and stability. Our novel approach for the activation of self-relevant AGS uses a virtual reality (VR) ageing exp...
Article
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The projection into a virtual character and the concomitant illusionary body ownership can lead to transformations of one’s entity. Both during and after the exposure, behavioural and attitudinal changes may occur, depending on the characteristics or stereotypes associated with the embodied avatar. In the present study, we investigated the effects...
Article
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Complementing widely used explanatory models in the educational sciences that pinpoint the resources and characteristics for explaining students’ distinct educational transitions, this paper departs from methodological traditions and evaluates the predictive power of established concepts: to what extent can we actually predict school track enrollme...
Article
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Digitalization affects research in almost every scientific discipline. This becomes apparent in new approaches of data analysis and management, such as machine learning, but also in new therapeutic approaches using digital and virtual technologies in patient care. Thus, digitalization can be considered a promising area in the field of evidence-base...
Article
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Introduction: While virtual reality (VR) is an emerging paradigm in a variety of research contexts, VR-based embodiment effects on behavior and performance still lack in sufficient evidence regarding to bias in cognitive performance assessment. Methods: In this methodological observational study, we compare the VR measurement of cognitive performan...
Article
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Objectives: Socio-emotional selectivity theory implies that an individual's motives change over their lifespan, starting with a focus on information seeking and shifting toward the motivation of maintaining emotionally meaningful social relationships in old age. The concept of future time perspective serves as an underlying mechanism for this phen...
Article
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Work by Flavell, Beach, and Chinsky indicated a change in the spontaneous production of overt verbalization behaviors when comparing young children (age 5) with older children (age 10). Despite the critical role that this evidence of a change in verbalization behaviors plays in modern theories of cognitive development and working memory, there has...
Article
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Summer break study designs are used in educational research to disentangle school from non-school contributions to social performance gaps. The summer breaks provide a natural experimental setting that allows for the measurement of learning progress when school is not in session, which can help to capture the unfolding of social disparities in lear...
Article
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Three studies tested the role of prioritization in solving conflict between multiple goals in different age groups. Study 1 ( N = 185 young, middle-aged, older adults) stressed the importance to solve two competing tasks equally well within a short time. Older adults prioritized more than younger adults. However, contrary to our expectations, prior...
Article
Wir untersuchen die Wirkungen frühkindlicher Bildung, Betreuung und Erziehung auf die Lernverläufe während der Schulzeit und differenzieren dabei nach deren Dauer und Intensität. Datengrundlage bilden die Zürcher Lernstandserhebungen (N = 1681). Für die Auswertungen bedienen wir uns eines ‚propensity score‘-Verfahrens. Es zeigen sich teilweise sign...
Article
Zusammenfassung. Das Hessische Kindersprachscreening stellt ein Verfahren zur Feststellung des Sprachstands bei Kindern im Alter von 4;0 bis 4;6 Jahren dar. In der hier vorgestellten Überarbeitung wurden zunächst eine neue kriteriumsorientierte Skalierung und eine neue Normierung an einer flächendeckenden Stichprobe von insgesamt N = 43 556 Kindern...
Article
In diesem Aufsatz werden die Leistungszuwächse in Mathematik und Deutsch von Schülerinnen und Schülern während der obligatorischen Schulzeit betrachtet. Es wird untersucht, ob sich distinkte Typen von Leistungsverläufen identifizieren lassen, um wie viele Typen es sich handelt und ob sich die Zugehörigkeit zu einem Verlaufstyp durch Variablen auf d...
Article
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Differential item functioning (DIF) indicates differential response probabilities of items for different subgroups. While there is a vast amount of research and literature on DIF in the field of educational screening and career assessment, DIF analysis has hardly been applied in the field of clinical assessment. This paper aims at analyzing the pre...
Poster
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This study used a stratified random sample of classes in Zurich, Switzerland, comprising about N = 2,043 students whose academic performance in math and language was assessed across primary and lower secondary education. Based on this longitudinal data, the study investigated the association of social inequalities with the baseline of and gains in...
Presentation
Full-text available
Some applications of item response theory (e.g., cohort comparisons of school performance or measurement of learning progress) require that scores from multiple assessments are linked on a common scale. Usually, this is achieved by placing linking items across the different assessments and fixing the parameters of these items to be equal. This is n...
Poster
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Ethological models of optimal foraging for multiple nutrients (e.g. proteins and carbohydrates) suggest that both relative deficits and relative surpluses of one nutrient result in fitness costs that, in turn, affect growth or procreation rates. These fitness costs can be modeled in term of cost functions that, in ethology, are usually parameterize...
Article
This study used a stratified random sample of classes in Zurich, Switzerland, comprising approximately 2,000 students whose academic performances in math and language were assessed across primary and lower secondary education. Based on this longitudinal data, the study investigated the association of social inequalities with the baseline of, and ga...
Article
We aimed at showing that children are able to identify and draw a line of best fit through a cloud of points according to the concept of linear regression. A sample of 72 children in third and fourth primary school grades were given two different tasks. In a first task, 10 different sheets with three illustrations of the same scatterplot with diffe...
Article
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Formative assessments in schools have the potential to improve students’ learning outcomes and self-regulation skills; they make learning visible and provide evidence-based guidelines for setting up and pursuing individual learning goals. With the recent introduction of the computer-based formative assessment systems for the educational contexts, t...
Article
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In PISA 2015 erreichen die 15-Jährigen in der Schweiz erneut einen Spitzenplatz in Mathematik, die Ergebnisse in Naturwissenschaften liegen deutlich über dem OECD-Mittel, das Leseergebnis liegt im OECD-Mittel. Der Bericht behandelt unter anderem die Frage der Vergleichbarkeit der Ergebnisse von PISA 2015 mit den Ergebnissen früherer PISA-Erhebungen...
Poster
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Als eine Makrotheorie des menschlichen Verhaltens geht die Selbstbestimmungstheorie davon aus, dass das Streben nach Autonomie, Kompetenz und sozialer Bezogenheit ein allen Menschen gemeinsames Grundbedürfnis darstellt. In unserer Forschung adaptieren wir ethologische Modelle der optimalen Nahrungssuche für mehrere Nährstoffe auf die Selbstbestimmu...
Presentation
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Auf der Grundlage ethologischer Theorien zur optimalen Nahrungssuche (optimal foraging theory) schlagen wir eine Metrik vor, die es erlaubt, die Güte eines Zielsystems mit wechselseitigen positiven und negativen Zielbeziehungen zu bestimmen. Theorien zur optimalen Nahrungssuche berücksichtigen den kalorischen Wert, die Auffindenswahrscheinlichkeit...
Presentation
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Erfolgreiche Entwicklung kann als ein Prozess verstanden werden, der durch frühere und gegenwärtige Auseinandersetzungen mit den relevanten Entwicklungskontexten geprägt wird. Ein prominenter Ansatz diese zu messen stammt dabei von Lerner und Lerner, die fünf Aspekte (5 Cs) erfolgreicher Entwicklung unterschieden. Dabei handelt es sich um die Kompe...
Presentation
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Neben individuellen und sozialen Ressourcen, die sich auf die individuelle Leistungsentwicklung von Schülerinnen und Schülern auswirken, können Lernfortschritte je nach sozialem Kontext, in dem das Lernen stattfindet, variieren (Becker & Schulze, 2013). Hierbei werden in der Literatur verschiedene Mechanismen diskutiert. So wird zum Beispiel von „A...
Presentation
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In diesem Vortrag werden die Leistungszuwächse von Schülerinnen und Schülern während der obligatorischen Schulzeit betrachtet. Zwei Fragestellungen stehen im Vordergrund. Erstens wird untersucht, ob sich distinkte Typen von Leistungsverläufen identifizieren lassen und wenn ja, um wie viele Typen es sich handelt. Zweitens wird untersucht, ob sich di...
Chapter
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Dieser Beitrag beschreibt den längsschnittlichen Lernzuwachs in den Fächern Mathematik und Deutsch während der obligatorischen Schulzeit. Die Grundlage dafür bildet eine Zufallsstichprobe von etwa 2000 Schülerinnen und Schülern aus dem Kanton Zürich, die im Sommer 2003 eingeschult worden sind. Neben der Beschreibung der Schulleistungen wird überprü...
Poster
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In this study the trajectories of school achievement in Mathematics and German were investigated in a longitudinal sample of N = 1,970 students within compulsory education between grades 3 and 9. School performance was assessed using standardized tests based on the Swiss school curriculum. Single test scores were linked on a common metric scale usi...
Presentation
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Dieser Beitrag befasst sich mit der Untersuchung von primären und sekundären Effekten der sozialen Herkunft beim Übergang von der Primar- in die Sekundarstufe innerhalb des Bildungssystems des Kantons Zürich. Die soziale Herkunft wird dabei über die bildungsbezogenen Ressourcen im Elternhaus (operationalisiert über den höchsten Bildungsabschluss de...
Article
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Rather than focusing on single goals, people usually strive for multiple goals in different domains of life at the same time. To do so successfully, people need to match their multiple goals to their opportunity structures, maintain sufficient diversity in their goal system, and consider the positive and negative tradeoffs between particular goals....
Article
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Longitudinal data collected between 2005 and 2009 is analyzed to investigate the interplay of trajectories of perceived demands in the domains of work and family. Quadratic latent growth curve models were used to mimic the increase of demands in N = 1,296 young adults from Germany as structural uncertainty increased in the second half of the study....
Article
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Recent changes in labor market and working conditions have rendered youth's education-to-work transitions and career prospects more uncertain. This study investigated how youth, while still in education or training, deal with perceived growing occupational uncertainties in terms of goal engagement (i.e., investing active effort in goal pursuit; sur...
Article
In this study, the effectiveness of a life skills program to impede tobacco use in early adolescence was scrutinized. The focus was on the mediating role of yielding to peer pressure. The universal school-based life skills program IPSY (Information + Psychosocial Competence = Protection) against adolescent substance use was implemented over 3 years...
Article
Although the consideration of contextual influences on individual development has a long tradition in psychological science, the rapid pace of social, economic, and political change around the globe has spurred new conceptual and empirical research on the dynamics between macro-level change and individual-level adjustment and development. This rese...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, the effectiveness of a life skills program to impede tobacco use in early adolescence was scrutinized. The focus was on the mediating role of yielding to peer pressure. The universal school-based life skills program IPSY (Information + Psychosocial Competence = Protection) against adolescent substance use was implemented over 3 years...
Research
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This study (N = 40) compares differences in the psychometric quality of the Affect Misattribution Procedure (AMP) as a function of the number of trials. Data comprising three rounds of the AMP over the course of a laboratory session suggest that 12 trials are the absolute minimum that still yield satisfactory psychometric characteristics. Not much...
Article
This study investigated how religiosity relates to goal engagement (i.e., investing time and effort; overcoming obstacles) and goal disengagement (i.e., protecting self-esteem and motivational resources against failure experiences; distancing from unattainable goals) in coping with perceived work-related uncertainties (e.g., growing risk of job los...
Poster
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Social change does not affect all individuals alike. Rather, its effect on adjustment and development depends on the individuals’ stage in the life course, various biographical and demographical factors, where they live, and how they deal with the resulting demands
Article
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The present study investigated the role of religiosity in dealing with family-related uncertainties (e.g., uncertainty concerning fertility decisions or the stability of family relationships) that arise from current social change in industrialized nations. We hypothesized that religiosity, because it is a central source of family values and norms,...
Article
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The challenges of population ageing and globalisation have been addressed by many welfare states in terms of active ageing policies, which in turn confront individuals with new demands such as keeping up to date with technological developments. The purpose of this paper is to analyse how individuals negotiate the demands of active ageing. The outco...
Presentation
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Negative Altersstereotype und sowie Altersdiskriminierung haben einen negativen Einfluss auf die Lebensqualität, Gesundheit sowie kognitive Entwicklung älterer Menschen. Ein Teil dieser Effekte entsteht dadurch, dass ältere Menschen diese Altersstereotype auf sich selbst anwenden, sich somit in ihrem Entwicklungspotenzial einschränken und letztlich...
Article
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Religiousness has been found to act as a protective factor against the adverse effects of stressors originating from a variety of sources. Despite ample precedent in sociological theories of religion, however, the potential stress-buffering role of religiousness in relation to stressors arising from macrolevel societal trends has not received empir...
Article
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Social and economic changes on the societal macro level, such as globalization, pluralization, and demographic shifts, create new demands that produce stress and require behavioral adaptation. In this large-sample correlational study, which replicates a similar study previously conducted in Germany, we investigated how young and middle-aged adults...
Article
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— The radical political transformations of the 1990s in many countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, overlaid by effects of globalization and related economic crises, have had an effect on young people, particularly by changing contexts relevant for psychosocial development. According to research on major developmental...
Article
Developmental contexts play a pivotal role in shaping the psychosocial adaptation and development of young people. Family, school, peer groups, and community provide the opportunities and constraints for the attainment of major developmental tasks of adolescence, and changing relations between the individual and these contexts constitute the basic...
Poster
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Social change at the macro level (such as globalization) has an impact on individual development via cascaded changes in the more proximal contexts of development. For the individuals this chain of effects results in perceived uncertainties or “demands” that require adaptation beyond routine action to the new pressures. A case in point is facing a...
Poster
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Changing social structures produce uncertainty and require individuals to decide which developmental paths to follow and which to give up. Previous research has demonstrated cross-sectionally that the adaptiveness of engagement and disengagement is a function of the opportunities provided by the social ecology: When opportunities for engagement are...
Chapter
This article reviews the recent macrosocial trends related to globalization insofar as they are relevant for adolescents' development, presents a model to describe how globalization affects individual development of adolescents, and elucidates the effects of globalization on the most central domains or contexts of adolescents' life: family of origi...
Article
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We present results on the beneficial effects of compensatory secondary control strategies in a sample who failed the entrance exam at an university. Based on the action phase model of developmental regulation we assumed that failing the exam represents the passing of a developmental deadline. We thus hypothesized that compensatory secondary control...
Article
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Social change at the macro level confronts individuals with demands that index a new state of affairs as compared to what he or she was accustomed, and thus produces uncertainty that can result in negative effects on individual adaptation. Social change also brings about benefits for the individual which open new opportunities for individual develo...
Article
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This paper investigates how individuals deal with demands of social and economic change in the domains of work and family when opportunities for their mastery are unfavorable. Theoretical considerations and empirical research suggest that with unattainable goals and unmanageable demands motivational disengagement and self-protective cognitions brin...
Article
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There are many benefits of applying control strategies that foster engagement in pursuing selected goals (i.e., selective control strategies). We examined one such benefit by investigating how use of selective control strategies when making important real-life decisions helps young adults make satisfactory choices in the areas of work and love. In...
Article
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We investigated how individuals negotiated demands of social change in the domains of work and family life in terms of primary and secondary control strategies of goal engagement and disengagement. A sample of N = 2,153 adults from East and West Germany was interviewed on demands they experienced, related primary and secondary control strategies, o...
Article
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Social change is understood as a more or less rapid and comprehensive change of societal structures and institutions, including changes to the economic, technological, and cultural frameworks of a society (Calhoun, 1992). A case in point is the breakup or transformation of the former communist countries in Europe in the 1980s. The political transit...
Article
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"Entwicklung als Handlung im Kontext: Perspektiven aus sechs Landern". This paper reviews five recent contributions that empirically investigate the interaction between changing socio-historical contexts and individual adaptation and development. The contributions by John Bynner, Rand Conger and colleagues, Cigdem Kagitcibasi, Jungsik Kim and coll...
Article
Discusses results of the Jena Study on Social Change and Human Development on methods used by individuals to adjust to stress caused by social change. A list of everyday manifestations of social challenges related to work, life course planning, and family was derived. These impact of those challenges was assessed using a measure of cumulated demand...
Article
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This paper analyzes adaptive behavior of individuals who face developmental barriers, i.e., a situation with seriously limited opportunities for primary control or problem-oriented coping. It focuses on coping with demands of social change in the domains of work and family when opportunity structures are limited. Heckhausen's life-span theory of co...
Article
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Physical activity is one of the most important health behaviours associated with the prevention and management of chronic diseases in older adults, but this potential is often insufficiently used. The present study examined for the first time whether a positive view on ageing (PVA) may contribute to a higher level of physical activity. Analyses wer...
Poster
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developmental paths to follow and which to give up. Previous research has demonstrated cross-sectionally that the adaptiveness of engagement and disengagement is a function of the opportunities provided by the social ecology: When opportunities for primary control are very limited, secondary control strategies such as self-protective attributions o...
Article
The transition from school to work is a central developmental task with long-term implications for the financial and social status of individuals. We argue that dynamic adjustments of aspirations play a decisive role for a successful outcome of the school to work transition, particularly in the context of the German vocational training system. Late...