Martin Spoerk

Martin Spoerk
Research Center Pharmaceutical Engineering | RCPE

Dipl.-Ing. Dr.

About

47
Publications
22,763
Reads
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1,395
Citations
Citations since 2016
44 Research Items
1394 Citations
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400
20162017201820192020202120220100200300400
Additional affiliations
August 2019 - August 2019
Research Center Pharmaceutical Engineering
Position
  • Senior Researcher
November 2015 - April 2016
Montanuniversität Leoben
Position
  • PhD Student

Publications

Publications (47)
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to develop a continuous pilot-scale solidification and characterization of self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDSs) via hot melt extrusion (HME) using Soluplus® and Kollidon® VA-64. First, an oil-binding capacity study was performed to estimate the maximal amount of SEDDSs that the polymers could bind. Then, HME was...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose New drug development and delivery approaches result in an ever-increasing demand for tailored microparticles with defined sizes and structures. Inkjet printing technologies could be promising new processes to engineer particles with defined characteristics, as they are created to precisely deliver liquid droplets with high uniformity. Meth...
Article
Microparticulate drug delivery systems, e.g., micropellets (MPs), are used in a variety of pharmaceutical formulations such as suspensions, injectable systems, and capsules. MPs are currently manufactured mainly via batch, solvent-based processes, e.g., spray-drying and solvent evaporation-extraction. In this paper, we present a novel, solvent-free...
Article
Introduction: Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) are a promising strategy to improve the oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs (PWSD). The excipients of SEDDS enable permeation through the mucus and gastro-intestinal barrier, inhibiting efflux transporters (e.g. P-glycoprotein) of drugs. Poor drug loading capacity and form...
Article
In order to expand the limited portfolio of available polymer-based excipients for fabricating three-dimensional (3D) printed pharmaceutical products, Lipid-based excipients (LBEs) have yet to be thoroughly investigated. The technical obstacle of LBEs application is, however their crystalline nature that renders them very brittle and challenging fo...
Article
The therapeutic effect of common ocular drug delivery systems is often limited because tear fluid, protective biological barriers, and the blink reflex prevent drugs from reaching their target. Combining nanodrug delivery systems with contact lenses is one approach to increase the precorneal residence time and thus the drug concentration in the eye...
Article
Full-text available
This study addressed the need for a flexible (personalizable) production of biologics, allowing their stabilization in the solid state and processing of small batch volumes. Therefore, inkjet printing into vials followed by a gentle vacuum drying step at ambient temperature was investigated by screening different formulations with a 22-full factori...
Article
To improve patient adherence, vaginal pessaries – polymeric structures providing mechanical support to treat stress urinary incontinence (SUI) – greatly benefit from 3D-printing through customization of their mechanics, e.g. infill modifications. However, currently only limited polymers provide both flawless printability and controlled drug release...
Article
Material extrusion-based additive manufacturing, commonly referred to as 3D-printing, is regarded as the key technology to pave the way for personalised medical treatment. This study explores the technique's potential in customising vaginal inserts with complex structures, so-called urethra pessaries. A novel, flawlessly 3D-printable and biocompati...
Article
To improve patient compliance and personalised drug delivery, long-acting drug delivery devices (LADDDs), such as implants and inserts, greatly benefit from a customisation in their shape through the emerging 3D-printing technology, since their production usually follows a one-size-fits-most approach. The use of 3D-printing for LADDDs, however, is...
Article
Full-text available
Implantable drug delivery systems (IDDSs) offer good patient compliance and allow the controlled delivery of drugs over prolonged times. However, their application is limited due to the scarce material selection and the limited technological possibilities to achieve extended drug release. Porous structures are an alternative strategy that can overc...
Article
Full-text available
While additive manufacturing of polymers, especially material extrusion-based methods such as fused filament fabrication, has become increasingly popular for design studies, rapid prototyping and the production of non-critical spare parts, its application in structurally loaded components is still scarce. One of the reasons for this might be scepti...
Article
Full-text available
To avoid any type of cross-contamination, residue-free production equipment is of utmost importance in the pharmaceutical industry. The equipment cleaning for continuous processes such as hot melt extrusion (HME), which has recently gained popularity in pharmaceutical applications, necessitates extensive manual labour and costs. The present work ta...
Article
Fused filament fabrication is a material extrusion-based additive manufacturing technique that has been strongly growing in popularity, for it is accessible, versatile, and affordable. The 3D-printing of semi-crystalline polymers still faces major challenges, though. Apart from common issues such as shrinkage and warpage phenomena, a variety of pro...
Article
The application of material extrusion-based additive manufacturing methods has recently become increasingly popular in the medical sector. Thereby, thermoplastic materials are likely to be used. However, thermoplastics are highly dependent on the temperature and loading rate in comparison to other material classes. Therefore, it is crucial to chara...
Article
Full-text available
Fused Layer Modelling (FLM) is one out of several material extrusion (ME) additive manufacturing (AM) methods. FLM usually deals with processing of polymeric materials but can also be used to process metal-filled polymeric systems to produce metallic parts. Using FLM for this purpose helps to save costs since the FLM hardware is cheap compared to e...
Article
Full-text available
Material extrusion‐based additive manufacturing (ME‐AM) is an emerging processing technique that is characterized by the selective deposition of thermoplastic filaments in a layer‐by‐layer manner based on digital part models. Recently, it has attracted considerable attention, as this technique offers manifold benefits over conventional manufacturin...
Article
Full-text available
Material extrusion‐based additive manufacturing, also known as fused filament fabrication (FFF) or 3D printing facilitates the fabrication of cranial implants with different materials and complex internal structures. The impact behavior plays a key role in the designing process of cranial implants. Therefore, the performance of impact tests on nove...
Article
Full-text available
Due to a lack of long-term experience with burgeoning material extrusion-based additive manufacturing technology, also known as fused filament fabrication (FFF), considerable amounts of expensive material will continue to be wasted until a defect-free 3D-printed component can be finalized. In order to lead this advanced manufacturing technique towa...
Article
One of the main benefits of material extrusion additive manufacturing, also known as fused filament fabrication (FFF)or 3D printing, is the flexibility in terms of printing materials. Locally reinforced components can be easily produced by selectively combining reinforced with unfilled tough thermoplastics. However, such multi-material composites u...
Article
The material extrusion additive manufacturing technique known as fused filament fabrication (FFF) is an interesting method to fabricate complex ceramic parts whereby feedstocks containing thermoplastic binders and ceramic powders are printed and the resulting parts are subjected to debinding and sintering. A limiting factor of this process is the d...
Article
Highly sensitive conductive polymer composites for piezoresistive sensing are developed by a design of the formulation variables of extrusion-based manufacturing (filler type/amount, polymer amount) and annealing (a), considering thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) and/or olefin block copolymer (OBC) as polymer matrix and carbon black (CB) as conducti...
Thesis
Extrusion-based additive manufacturing (EB-AM), which is also known as fused filament fabrication or 3D-printing, is an emerging processing technique that is characterised by the selective deposition of thermoplastic filaments in a layer-by-layer manner based on digital part models. In recent years, it has attracted considerable attention both from...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Stretchable/flexible strain sensors based on conductive polymer composites (CPCs) have at-tracted extensive attention as potential alternatives for metal foil-based and semiconductor strain gages. How-ever, to date, only a few composite materials can meet all desirable characteristics, e.g. high gauge factor with applicable sensing range, a linear...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Materials that are processed by means of extrusion-based additive manufacturing are exposed to complex temperature conditions during manufacturing, resulting from quick temperature alterations due to the moving nozzle. Consequently, a rather inhomogeneous temperature distribution is present in the printing chamber, which can intensify issues such a...
Article
For composites based on polypropylene (PP) filled with short carbon fibres (CF), extrusion-based additive manufacturing provides a promising and cost-effective manufacturing technique that utilises the flow-induced orientation of the fibres for their targeted alignment through the control of the printing direction. This study investigates the impac...
Article
Highly sensitive conductive polymer composites (CPCs) are designed, employing a facile and low-cost extrusion manufacturing process for both low and high strain sensing in the field of e.g. structural health/damage monitoring and human body movement tracking. Focus is on the morphology control for extrusion processed carbon black (CB)-filled CPCs,...
Article
Full-text available
A challenge in extrusion-based additive manufacturing of polypropylene (PP) filled with spherical particles is the combination of decent processability, excellent warpage control, and the retention of the tensile strength of neat PP. This study addresses this issue by adopting two approaches. Firstly, different size fractions of borosilicate glass...
Conference Paper
In order to successfully develop a structurally loaded component via additive manufacturing it is necessary to include several vital aspects. Currently, most attention is given to the geometrical reproduction of a design with as little deviation as possible. While for parts produced purely for aesthetic reasons or display this may be sufficient, it...
Article
Full-text available
Polypropylene (PP) parts produced by means of extrusion-based additive manufacturing, also known as fused filament fabrication, are prone to detaching from the build platform due to their strong tendency to shrink and warp. Apart from incorporating high volume fractions of fillers, one approach to mitigate this issue is to improve the adhesion betw...
Article
Full-text available
The preparation of polypropylene (PP)/microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) composites and their applicability for material extrusion additive manufacturing (ME‐AM) is reported. MCC is modified by grafting onto its surface with different silanes, in particular perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane, n‐octyltriethoxysilane (OTS), or aminopropyltriethoxysilane. Th...
Article
It has been widely believed that components produced by fused filament fabrication (FFF) experience weak mechanical properties due to weld lines. However, recent studies disproved this finding by reaching strength values almost identical to those of compression-molded plates by optimizing the printing parameters. Hence, the present work investigate...
Article
Polypropylene (PP) parts produced by extrusion-based additive manufacturing (EB-AM) suffer from warpage issues due to their high degree of crystallinity and orientations introduced during printing. These issues can be overcome by the addition of spherical fillers. However, the low aspect ratio of the filler and high filling degrees necessary for pr...
Article
Full-text available
Original Scientific Paper-Izvorni znanstveni rad Fused filament fabrication (FFF) combined with debinding and sintering could be an economical process for 3D printing of metal parts. In this study, compounding, filament making and FFF processing of a feedstock material containing 55 vol. % of 17-4PH stainless steel powder and a multicomponent binde...
Article
Full-text available
For parts produced by fused filament fabrication (FFF) the adhesion between the first printed layer and the printing bed is crucial, since it provides the foundation to the subsequent layers. Inadequate adhesion can result in poor printing quality or destroyed bed surfaces. This study aims at understanding and optimising the adhesion process for pa...
Article
A major challenge in extrusion-based additive manufacturing is the lack of commercially available materials compared to those in well-established processes like injection molding or extrusion. This study aims at expanding the material database by evaluating the feasibility of polypropylene, which is one of the most common and technologically releva...
Article
Parts produced by extrusion-based additive manufacturing experience the disadvantage of consisting of many weld-lines, which consequently downgrade their mechanical properties. This work aims at maximizing the strength of printed parts by considering and improving the intra- and inter-layer cohesion between adjacent strands. Therefore, printed poly...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Fused filament fabrication (FFF) has the potential to enter industrial application due to the possibility of producing complex designs in limited series. However, currently only a limited number of materials is commercially available for use in this process. This study aims at expanding the material range for FFF towards polypropylene (PP) by modif...
Poster
Entwicklung von Polyolefinen für den Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) Prozess
Thesis
In the present work, the formation mechanisms and resulting properties of non-halogenated flame-retarded polypropylene (PP) were investigated. Monomers containing vinyl and phosphorus or nitrogen groups were grafted onto PP, and crosslinking of PP was attempted by means of three different mechanisms, in order to improve both the burning and the dri...

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Projects

Projects (4)
Project
In the project Natural3D, an Austrian Chinese Consortium of research institutes makes joint efforts to bring additive manufacturing (3D printing) to the next level. Materials and processes for additive manufacturing will be improved to realize true 3D printed parts with high-strength reinforced bio-based materials. Researchers at Montanuniversitaet Leoben are responsible for the development of filaments for additive manufacturing with nano-scaled crystalline cellulose and/or carbonized bio-based nano-fillers.
Project
The goal of this project is to understand the influence of multi-layer build ups on the material performance of polymeric structures. Especially the influence of spatial deviation of material properties on crack resistance are of interest.
Archived project
Polyolefins (Polypropylen PP and Polyethylene PE) posses an attractive balance of physical properties and chemical inertness. However, as highly semi-crystalline polymers they show substantial shrinkage and warpage upon cooling, resulting in deformed parts. The feasibility of using polyolefins for additive manufacturing via. fused filament fabrication aka. extrusion-based additive manufacturing is the main focus of this project. The entire manufacturing chain from compounding, filament fabrication and printing of the specimens is systematically studied. In addition, different fillers are evaluated to overcome these problems.