Martin Smalbrugge

Martin Smalbrugge
Amsterdam University Medical Center | VUmc · Department of Medicine for Older People

MD, PhD

About

216
Publications
22,824
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2,752
Citations
Citations since 2017
99 Research Items
1976 Citations
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Introduction
Martin Smalbrugge currently works as professor of medicine for older people and head of the trainingscenter for residents at the department of medicine for older people, Amsterdam UMC, location VUmc. Martin does research in long term care. Topics: dementia, challenging behavior, infections, pain, end of life care, ACP.
Additional affiliations
January 2000 - present

Publications

Publications (216)
Article
Objective: Conceptualize successful treatment of persons with dementia and severe challenging behavior as perceived by professionals. Methods: In this concept mapping study 82 experts in dementia care participated. The study followed two phases of data collection: (1) an online brainstorm where participants completed the focus prompt: 'I conside...
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Objectives In the Netherlands, a case of euthanasia of an incompetent patient with dementia and an advance euthanasia directive (AED) caused great societal unrest and led to a petition signed by more than 450 physicians. In this paper, we investigate these physicians’ reasons and underlying motives for supporting the ‘no sneaky euthanasia’ petition...
Article
Objectives The researchers aimed to (1) explore the occurrence of psychological resilience in the face of a major life stressor and conflict in older residents of long-term care facilities (LTCFs), and (2) identify factors associated with resilience in this population. Design Longitudinal cohort study using the Dutch InterRAI-LTCF cohort. Setting...
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Background Situations of extreme challenging behavior such as very frequent and/or severe agitation or physical aggression in nursing home residents with dementia can be experienced as an impasse by nursing home staff and relatives. In this distinct part of our WAALBED (WAAL-Behavior-in-Dementia)-III study, we aimed to explore these situations by o...
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Background Agitation is a common challenging behaviour in dementia with a negative influence on patient’s quality of life and a high caregiver burden. Treatment is often difficult. Current guidelines recommend restrictive use of psychotropic drug treatment, but guideline recommendations do not always suffice. Objective To explore how physicians de...
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Objectives In the first months of 2021 the Dutch COVID-19 vaccination campaign was disturbed by reports of death in Norwegian nursing homes (NHs) after vaccination. Reports predominantly concerned persons >65 years of age with one or more comorbidities. Also in the Netherlands adverse events were reported after COVID-19 vaccination in this vulnerab...
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Objectives We aimed to explore the effects of the Dutch COVID-19 lockdown (March 20-May 25, 2020) on mood, behavior and social and cognitive functioning of older residents of long-term care facilities (LTCFs) prospectively. Design Mixed methods:1.Historically controlled longitudinal cohort study, 2.Focus groups Setting and participants Residents...
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Background Neuropsychiatric symptoms occur frequently in many nursing home residents with dementia. Despite the availability of multidisciplinary guidelines, neuropsychiatric symptoms are often inadequately managed. Three proven effective methods for managing neuropsychiatric symptoms were integrated into a single intervention method: the STIP-Meth...
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Introduction Resilience incorporates the presence of a positive response to some type of stressor. To properly explore resilience, it is important to systematically identify relevant stressors. We aimed to identify (combinations of) stressors with the strongest relationship with observer-reported and self-reported mood outcomes in older residents o...
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Objective: Several European studies investigated the trends in psychotropic drug prescriptions (PDPs) among nursing home (NH) residents and reported a decline in antipsychotics prescriptions. Since the Dutch long-term care system differs from other European systems (e.g. higher threshold for NH admission and trained elderly care physicians), this...
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Introduction Many nursing homes (NHs) are affected by COVID-19 and 30-day mortality is high. Knowledge on recovery of NH residents after COVID-19 is limited. Therefore, we investigated the trajectory in the first three months after a COVID-19 infection in NH residents. Methods Retrospective observational cohort study of Dutch NH residents with COV...
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Aim This study aims to test the feasibility of the PainChek app to assess pain for people with dementia living in residential aged care facilities (RACFs). It will also identify the optimal dosage and efficacy of a social robot (personal assistant robot [PARO]) intervention on chronic pain for people with dementia. Design This is a feasibility ran...
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Objective: To describe the course of neuropsychiatric symptoms in nursing home residents with dementia during the step-by-step lifting of restrictions after the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in the Netherlands, and to describe psychotropic drug use (PDU) throughout the whole first wave. Methods: Longitudinal cohort study of nursing home re...
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Background: To evaluate how a serial SARS-CoV-2 national testing policy was implemented in Dutch nursing homes regardless of symptoms during outbreaks in the second wave and to explore barriers and facilitators to serial testing. Methods: We conducted a mixed-method study of nursing homes in the Netherlands with a SARS-CoV-2 outbreak after 15 Se...
Book
Na vijf jaar is dit veelgebruikte Leerboek geriatrie herzien: bestaande hoofdstukken zijn up-to-date gemaakt en nieuwe (online) hoofdstukken over complexe besluitvorming, interprofessioneel leren, preventieve geneeskunde en COVID-19 bij ouderen zijn toegevoegd. Hiermee past het boek goed in dit tijdperk van veel aandacht bij arts en maatschappij vo...
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Objective To investigate whether an electronic health record (EHR)–integrated decision tool, combined with supportive interventions, results in more appropriate antibiotic prescribing in nursing home (NH) residents with suspected urinary tract infection (UTI), without negative consequences for residents. Design Cluster randomized controlled trial...
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Purpose To describe a guidance on the management of post-acute COVID 19 patients in geriatric rehabilitation. Methods The guidance is based on guidelines for post-acute COVID-19 geriatric rehabilitation developed in the Netherlands, updated with recent insights from literature, related guidance from other countries and disciplines, and combined wi...
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PurposeTo assess whether one swab can be used to perform both the antigen-detection rapid diagnostic test (Ag-RDT) and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for COVID-19 detection during an outbreak in the nursing home (NH) setting.Methods The single-swab method (SSM), where the Ag-RDT is performed with the transport medium used...
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Objectives To explore how physicians in Dutch nursing homes practiced advance care planning (ACP) during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, and to explore whether and how ACP changed during the first wave of the pandemic. Design Qualitative analysis of an online, mainly open-ended questionnaire on ACP among physicians working in nursing home...
Preprint
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BACKGROUND Neuropsychiatric symptoms occur frequently in many nursing home residents with dementia. Despite the availability of multidisciplinary guidelines, neuropsychiatric symptoms are often inadequately managed. Three proven effective methods for managing neuropsychiatric symptoms were integrated into a single intervention method: the STIP-Meth...
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Background Continuity of care, in particular personal continuity, is a core principle of general practice and is associated with many benefits such as a better patient-provider relationship and lower mortality. However, personal continuity is under pressure due to changes in society and healthcare. This affects older patients more than younger pati...
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Introduction Little is known about the raising number of specialized units for patients with dementia and very severe challenging behavior in the Netherlands. This study describes organizational and treatment characteristics of a sample of these units. Methods The organizational and treatment characteristics were studied with digital questionnaire...
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Nursing homes (NH) residents with COVID-19 can either be tested because of presence of core symptoms (S-based) or because of transmission prevention (TP-based). The investigated study sample included all NH residents who underwent SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR testing between March 16, 2020 and May 31, 2020 ( n = 380). Clinical symptoms, temperature, and oxyge...
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Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to high mortality rates in nursing homes (NHs) in Europe. For adequate risk management and good prognostications, it is essential to identify mortality risk factors. Objective: This study aimed to determine whether previously identified risk factors for 30-day mortality in Dutch NH residents with COVID-1...
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Background Research suggests that collaborative and tailored approaches with external expertise are important to process implementations. We therefore performed a process evaluation of an intervention using participatory action research, tailored information provision, and external coaching to reduce inappropriate psychotropic drug use among nursin...
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We aimed to assess the contribution of a- and presymptomatic residents and healthcare workers in transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in nursing homes. We conducted two serial point-prevalence surveys, including standardized symptom assessment and nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal testing for SARS-CoV-2, among 297 residents and 542 healthcare workers of three...
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Objectives From the perspective of the nursing home (NH) practitioners, to gain understanding of (1) whether challenging behavior in NH residents changed during the COVID-19 measures, (2) whether the practitioners’ involvement in the treatment of challenging behavior changed, (3) what can be learned from the experience of NH staff. Methods A mixed...
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Objectives Extreme neuropsychiatric symptoms can be a heavy burden for nursing home (NH) residents, relatives, and caregivers. Sometimes, when extreme neuropsychiatric symptoms are considered refractory, continuous palliative sedation is administered. The aim of this study was to explore the trajectory leading to continuous palliative sedation and...
Article
BPSD are highly prevalent in nursing home (NH) residents with dementia. Sometimes these BPSD are very severe or even extreme resulting in the application of continuous palliative sedation (CPS) CPS is defined as “the deliberate lowering of a patient’s level of consciousness in the last stages of life”. The aim of this study was to explore the traje...
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Objectives To describe the symptomatology, mortality, and risk factors for mortality in a large group of Dutch nursing home (NH) residents with clinically suspected COVID-19 who were tested with a reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting and Participants Residents of Dutch NHs with cl...
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Objectives To mitigate the spread of COVID-19, a nationwide restriction for all visitors of residents of long-term care facilities including nursing homes (NHs) was established in the Netherlands. The aim of this study was an exploration of dilemmas experienced by elderly care physicians (ECPs) as a result of the COVID-19 driven restrictive visitin...
Preprint
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Background: Nursing homes (NH) residents with COVID-19 can either be tested because of presence of core symptoms (fever, cough, dyspnea) (S-based) or because of transmission prevention (TP-based). We described the clinical presentation and course of COVID-19 in NH residents who were tested either because of presence of core symptoms (S-based) or be...
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Objective To explore the course of quality of life (QoL) and possible resident-related predictors associated with this course in institutionalized people with young-onset dementia (YOD). Design An observational longitudinal study. Setting and Participants A total of 278 residents with YOD were recruited from 13 YOD special care units in the Nethe...
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Objectives To describe symptomatology, mortality and risk factors for mortality in a large group of Dutch nursing home (NH) residents with clinically-suspected COVID-19 who were tested with a Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) test. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting and participants Residents of Dutch NHs with clinica...
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Objectives Initially, for preventing COVID-19 transmission in long-term care facilities (LTCF) primarily rely on presence of core symptoms (fever, cough, dyspnea), but LTCF residents may also show an atypical course of a SARS-CoV-2 infection. We described the clinical presentation and course of COVID-19 in LTCF residents who were tested either beca...
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Background People with young-onset dementia (YOD) living in nursing homes may experience poor quality of life (QoL) due to advanced dementia, high prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms and psychotropic drug use. However, the course of QoL in institutionalized people with YOD and factors that predict this course are unclear. This knowledge could h...
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Introduction Extreme neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) can be a heavy burden for nursing home (NH)-residents, relatives and caregivers. When conventional treatments are ineffective or have intolerable side effects, extreme NPS can be considered refractory. In these situations, continuous palliative sedation (CPS) is sometimes administered. We explore...
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Background: Antibiotic overprescribing for suspected urinary tract infection (UTI) in nursing homes (NHs) is common. Typical clinical scenarios in which antibiotics are inappropriately prescribed include response to nonspecific signs and symptoms and/or a positive urine test in the absence of symptoms referable to the urinary tract. These and othe...
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Introduction: Research incorporating resilience, a concept featuring a positive outcome despite some type of stressor, has the potential to identify possibilities for promotion of the well-being of older people. This study aims to gain insight into the value and potential applications of resilience in both research and care practice from the perspe...
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Although ageing research increasingly incorporates resilience, a common notion on what resilience means is lacking. We aimed to give a comprehensive overview of the conceptual literature on resilience in older persons, identifying areas of consensus and variation/debate. A systematic search of eight databases from different disciplines led to the i...
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Objective: To describe the diagnosis, symptomatology and disease course of COVID-19 in nursing home (NH) residents in the Netherlands. Design: Prospective cohort study. Method: Data on NH residents with suspected COVID-19 were collected from the electronic patient records. Data were collected on diagnostic status (COVID-19: confirmed/excluded...
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Objectives: We investigated the 2-week prevalence and correlates of very frequent physical aggression (PA) and vocalizations in nursing home (NH)-residents with dementia. Method/Design: This cross-sectional study used combined data of 2074 NH-residents from four studies, collected from 119 dementia special care units in 26 Dutch NH. Very frequent P...
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Objectives To evaluate the effect of the PROPER intervention in nursing home residents with dementia on the prevalence of psychotropic drug use and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Design A cluster-randomized controlled design with two parallel groups (intervention versus usual care) and assessments at 0, 6, 12, and 18 months. Setting Thirty-one dement...
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Background: Several efforts have been made to change management of neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in nursing homes, however only few were successful. Numerous barriers to change in healthcare were identified, yet only one conceptual model is known to study their interrelationships. Unfortunately, this model does not discuss specific barriers enco...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background. Several efforts have been made to change management of neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in nursing homes, however only few were successful. Numerous barriers to change in healthcare were identified, yet only one conceptual model is known to study their interrelationships . Unfortunately, this model does not discuss specific barriers enco...
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Objectives Psychotropic drugs are frequently and sometimes inappropriately used for the treatment of neuropsychiatric symptoms of people with dementia, despite their limited efficacy and side effects. Interventions to address neuropsychiatric symptoms and psychotropic drug use are multifactorial and often multidisciplinary. Suboptimal implementatio...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background. Several efforts have been made to change management of neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in nursing homes, however only few were successful. Numerous barriers to change in healthcare were identified, yet only one conceptual model is known to study their interrelationships . Unfortunately, this model does not discuss specific barriers enco...
Article
Objective The Act in case of Depression program showed effects on the quality of life and depression in nursing home (NH) residents. We aimed to explore the effects of this complex multidisciplinary program on job satisfaction, job demands, and autonomy in nursing home staff. Design Four data points from a stepped-wedge cluster-randomized trial on...
Preprint
Background Many studies have tried to achieve change in the treatment of neuropsychiatric symptoms in nursing homes, however only few of them succeeded. Numerous barriers to change were identified, yet only one conceptual model is known to study the relationships between these barriers in healthcare. Unfortunately, this model does not discuss speci...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background. Several efforts have been made to change management of neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in nursing homes, however only few were successful. Numerous barriers to change in healthcare were identified, yet only one conceptual model is known to study their interrelationships . Unfortunately, this model does not discuss specific barriers enco...
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Objective: To evaluate the cost-consequences of an intervention for the management of neuropsychiatric symptoms in nursing home residents with young-onset dementia. Methods: A stepped wedge design was used. The intervention consisted of an educational program and a multidisciplinary care program and was implemented in 13 nursing homes from Septe...
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Background: Psychotropic drugs are often prescribed to treat neuropsychiatric symptoms in nursing home residents with dementia, despite having limited efficacy and considerable side effects. To reduce the inappropriate prescribing of these psychotropic drugs, various non-pharmacological, psychosocial, person-centered, or multidisciplinary interven...
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Inleiding Arts-onderzoekers zijn praktiserende dokters die ook een academische rol hebben. Zij zijn bij uitstek degenen die wetenschap en praktijk kunnen verbinden. Wij onderzochten hoe arts-onderzoekers binnen de huisartsgeneeskunde en de ouderengeneeskunde aankijken tegen deze verbindende activiteiten, en welke belemmerende of bevorderende factor...
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Objectives Before drawing conclusions on the contribution of an effective intervention to daily practice and initiating dissemination, its quality and implementation in daily practice should be optimal. The aim of this process evaluation was to study these aspects alongside a randomized controlled trial investigating the effects of a multidisciplin...
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Purpose: Clinician-scientists are said to be well-placed to connect research and practice, but their broker role has been underexplored. This review sought to gain an understanding of the broker role of clinician-scientists. Method: The authors conducted a realist review to describe context-mechanism-outcome (CMO) configurations associated with...
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Background: As the population ages, the number of people with chronic diseases increases. Frequently, older people suffer from joint pain together with other chronic diseases, which can lead to decreased physical functioning. Aims: To investigate the associations of the changes in cognitive appraisals, coping strategies and pain with the change...
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Purpose To explore the association between apathy and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) from resident and proxy perspectives and whether cognition and depression moderate this relationship. Methods Secondary analyses with baseline data from a cluster randomized trial on the effects of a care program for depression in Nursing Homes (NHs) were...
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Background: Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common in nursing home residents with young-onset dementia and burdensome for nursing staff. It is known that neuropsychiatric symptoms are associated with burn-out complaints and low job satisfaction. An intervention aimed at decreasing neuropsychiatric symptoms in nursing home residents with young-onset...
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Background: Clinician-scientists (CSs) are physicians who work in daily care and have an academic role in research or education. They may act as knowledge brokers and help to connect research and clinical practice. There is no data available on CSs’ brokering activities and the perceived barriers and facilitators to optimising their role in general...
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Objective: The effect of an intervention on neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS), particularly agitation and aggression, and psychotropic drug use (PDU) in institutionalized people with young-onset dementia (YOD) was evaluated. Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted using a stepped wedge design. Thirteen YOD special care units were rand...
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The initiative described here aims to identify quality indicators (QIs) germane to the international practice of primary care providers (PCP) in post-acute and long-term care in order to demonstrate the added value of medical providers in nursing homes (NHs). A 7-member international team identified and adapted existing QIs to the AMDA competencies...
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Background and goal Sleep problems and challenging behavioural symptoms are frequently reported among nursing home residents with dementia. Coffee with caffeine is consumed frequently by these residents and can have a negative effect on sleep and behaviour in older persons with dementia. In this interventional study, the effect of caffeine reductio...
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Objectives: Depression, apathy, and cognitive impairments are widespread in nursing home (NH) residents. Scarce research that explicitly compares apathy to depression suggests that the association between apathy and cognitive functioning is stronger than the association between depression and cognitive functioning. This study in Dutch NH residents...
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Background: The aim of this study was to explore self-perceived care needs and determinants of identified needs in older adults with joint pain and comorbidity. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study using baseline data from a cohort study of older adults in the Netherlands (≥65 years) with joint pain and comorbidity (n = 407). We used the Cam...
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Objective: Postulating that efficacy of antipsychotics for agitation and psychosis in dementia is best estimated in trials among patients with these symptoms and with symptom-specific outcomes, we investigated whether clinically broader definitions affected the pooled efficacy. Study design and setting: Trials were searched in multiple databases...
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Objectives: A process evaluation was performed for an intervention aimed at improvement of the management of neuropsychiatric symptoms in young-onset dementia. Data about sample quality and intervention quality was evaluated to better understand internal and external validity. In addition, data about the implementation strategy and factors affecti...
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De nieuwe multidisciplinaire richtlijn 'Probleemgedrag bij mensen met dementie' heeft een andere opzet dan de vorige versie uit 2008: er is gekozen voor een modulaire opbouw is, met gelijke weging van medicamenteuze en psychologische en psychosociale interventies. De nadruk ligt steeds op zorgvuldige analyse van het gedrag en vervolgens aanbeveling...