Martin Skov

Martin Skov
Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre · Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance

About

85
Publications
60,209
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1,818
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 2004 - present
Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre
Position
  • Research Associate

Publications

Publications (85)
Preprint
Full-text available
Evidence dating back a century suggests that humans are sensitive to and exhibit a preference for visual curvature. Recently, this effect has been observed in different age groups, human cultures, and primate species, suggesting that a preference for curvature might be universal. At the same time, several studies have found preference for curvature...
Chapter
Sensory liking is a biological process by which biological organisms compute how liked or disliked a sensory stimulus is. The purpose of this process is to tag the sensory objects an organism encounter in its physical environment as either conducive or threatening to survival. Objects that are deemed likeable elicit appetitive behaviour whereas obj...
Chapter
Neuroaesthetics is new scientific discipline. Bibliometric data show that publications indexed as neuroasthetics only started to appear in the 2000s. There was, however, a history of work trying to furnish aesthetics with a neuroscientific basis that preceded the emergence of neuroaesthetics by 200 years. This chapter tries to explain what motivate...
Chapter
Aesthetic liking has traditionally been thought to be caused by specific object properties: symmetry, curvature, etc. One of the great insights of neuroaesthetics is the realization that expectations play almost as great a role in shaping liking responses. For example, by prefacing exposure to an artwork with information about its provenance it is...
Chapter
It has long been observed that experience influences aesthetic evaluations. Psychological research has found multiple examples of experts and nonexperts forming different liking responses to similar stimuli. It remains unclear, though, precisely why experts evaluate objects they are experts on differently from people who are not experts. In the art...
Article
Hedonic evaluation of sensory objects varies from person to person. While this variability has been linked to differences in experience, little is known about why stimuli lead to different evaluations in different people. We used linear mixed-effects models to determine the extent to which the openness, contour, and ceiling height of interior space...
Article
Full-text available
Judgments of liking and beauty appear to be expressions of a common hedonic state, but they differ in how they engage cognitive processes. We hypothesized that beauty judgments place greater demands on limited executive resources than judgments of liking. We tested this hypothesis by asking two groups of participants to judge works of visual art fo...
Preprint
Judgments of liking and beauty appear to be expressions of a common hedonic state, but they differ in how they engage cognitive processes. We hypothesized that beauty judgments place greater demands on limited executive resources than judgments of liking. We tested this hypothesis by asking two groups of participants to judge works of visual art fo...
Article
Evaluative judgment - i.e., assessing to what degree a stimulus is liked or disliked - is a fundamental aspect of cognition, facilitating comparison and choosing among alternatives, deciding, and prioritizing actions. Neuro-imaging studies have shown that evaluative judgment involves the projection of sensory information to the reward circuit. To i...
Article
Full-text available
Evaluative judgment—i.e., assessing to what degree a stimulus is liked or disliked—is a fundamental aspect of cognition, facilitating comparison and choosing among alternatives, deciding, and prioritizing actions. Neuroimaging studies have shown that evaluative judgment involves the projection of sensory information to the reward circuit. To invest...
Preprint
Full-text available
Evaluative judgment—i.e., assessing to what degree a stimulus is liked or disliked—is a fundamental aspect of cognition, facilitating comparison and choosing among alternatives, deciding, and prioritizing actions. Neuroimaging studies have shown that evaluative judgment involves the projection of sensory information to the reward circuit. To invest...
Preprint
Full-text available
Hedonic evaluation of sensory objects varies from person to person. While this variability has been linked to differences in experience and personality traits, little is known about why stimuli lead to different evaluations in different people. We used linear mixed effect models to determine the extent to which the openness, contour, and ceiling he...
Article
Beauty is commonly used to refer to positive evaluative appraisals that are uniquely human. Little is known, however, about what distinguishes beauty in terms of psychological function or neurobiological mechanisms. Our review describes recent empirical studies and synthesizes what behavioral, cognitive, and neuroscientific experiments have reveale...
Preprint
Full-text available
This is a preprint of a chapter that will appear in A. Chatterjee & E. Cardillo (eds.), Brain Beauty, and Art: Essays Bringing Neuroaesthetics into Focus. Oxford University Press. Please do not cite this version.
Preprint
Full-text available
This is a preprint of a chapter that will appear in A. Chatterjee & E. Cardillo (eds.), Brain Beauty, and Art: Essays Bringing Neuroaesthetics into Focus. Oxford University Press. Please do not cite this version.
Preprint
Full-text available
This is a preprint of a chapter that will appear in A. Chatterjee & E. Cardillo (eds.), Brain Beauty, and Art: Essays Bringing Neuroaesthetics into Focus. Oxford University Press. Please do not cite this version.
Preprint
Full-text available
Beauty is commonly used to refer to positive evaluative appraisals that are uniquely human. Little is known, however, about what distinguishes beauty in terms of psychological function or neurobiological mechanisms. This review describes recent empirical studies, and synthesizes what behavioral, cognitive, and neuroscientific experiments have revea...
Article
Many scientific disciplines give rise to research published under the moniker of aesthetics. For instance, both psychology and neuroscience have highly active subfields focused on aesthetics research, known as empirical aesthetics and neuroaesthetics. However, it remains unclear what aesthetics is about, and, consequently, if aesthetics research pu...
Article
Nodes, 11-12, pp. 8-15 (2020). http://nodesjournal.com/en/ Italian translation of "Art Is Not Special"
Preprint
The theory of sexual selection posits that sexual species make use of sensory preferences for physical traits and behavior displayed by potential sexual partners to inform mate choices. This suggests that the ability to compute hedonic liking for perceptual stimuli is widespread across biological taxa, have a long evolutionary history, and that the...
Article
Menninghaus and colleagues (2019) have recently argued that aesthetic emotions constitute a distinct class of emotions. They claim that aesthetic emotions are distinct because they involve an aesthetic evaluation, they are tuned to specific aesthetic virtues, they involve subjectively felt pleasure or displeasure, and predict liking or disliking. H...
Article
Full-text available
Empirical aesthetics is associated with two research questions: How the mind generally assigns value to sensory stimuli and how it responds specifically to art objects. Researchers have debated whether these phenomena share enough to warrant being collapsed into a single field. To ask how these particular questions came to be associated with aesthe...
Article
Empirical aesthetics and neuroaesthetics study two main issues: the valuation of sensory objects and art experience. These two issues are often treated as if they were intrinsically interrelated: Research on art experience focuses on how art elicits aesthetic pleasure, and research on valuation focuses on special categories of objects or emotional...
Article
Full-text available
Review of M. Harrison (Ed.), Bacon and the Mind: Art, Neuroscience, and Psychology (Thames & Hudson, 2019).
Chapter
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Translated version of "What have we learned since Neuroaesthetics?"
Preprint
Full-text available
Many scientific disciplines give rise to research published under the moniker of aesthetics. For instance, both psychology and neuroscience have highly active subfields focused on aesthetics research, known as empirical aesthetics and neuroaesthetics. However, it remains unclear what aesthetics is about, and, consequently, if aesthetics research pu...
Preprint
Full-text available
Many scientific disciplines give rise to research published under the moniker of aesthetics. For instance, both psychology and neuroscience have highly active subfields focused on aesthetics research, known as empirical aesthetics and neuroaesthetics. However, it remains unclear what aesthetics is about, and, consequently, if aesthetics research pu...
Preprint
Full-text available
Preface written for the second edition of the Korean translation of Neuroaesthetics.
Article
Alexis Makin argued in a recent paper that Empirical Aesthetics is unable to properly advance our understanding of the mechanisms involved in aesthetic experience. The reason for this predicament, he claims, is an inability of current research methods to capture the psychological properties that truly characterize aesthetic experience, especially t...
Chapter
This chapter introduces the reader to the basic features of the neurobiological system involved in forming a hedonic liking response for sensory objects. In this way it aims to provide nonneuroscientists working in empirical aesthetics with a first primer on the neurobiological mechanisms and computational principles that underlie aesthetic appreci...
Preprint
Full-text available
Alexis Makin argued in a recent paper that Empirical Aesthetics is unable to properly advance our understanding of the mechanisms involved in aesthetic experience. The reason for this predicament, he claims, is an inability of current research methods to capture the psychological properties that truly characterize aesthetic experience, especially t...
Preprint
Full-text available
This chapter introduces the reader to the basic features of the neurobiological processes involved in forming a hedonic liking response for sensory objects. In this way it aims to provide non-neuroscientists working in empirical aesthetics with a first primer on the neurobiological mechanisms and computational principles that underlie aesthetic app...
Article
Our understanding of aesthetic appreciation has undergone a profound change during the past 20 years, as a result of the ability to study the human brain through neuroimaging. A number of findings cast into doubt important tenets of previous theories and models. Specifically, neuroscientific evidence suggests that aesthetic appreciation is not a di...
Article
Full-text available
Consumers frequently make decisions about how much they are willing to pay (WTP) for specific products and services, but little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying such calculations. In this study, we were interested in testing whether specific brain activation—the asymmetry in engagement of the prefrontal cortex—would be related to con...
Article
Full-text available
Much evidence suggests that preference for curvilinear visual contour is robust. We collected data from experts (i.e., self-identified architects and designers) and nonexperts to test the hypothesis that expertise moderates one’s sensitivity to curvilinear contour within architectural spaces. When assessing beauty, experts found rectilinear spaces...
Article
Full-text available
The assumption that human cognition requires exceptional explanations holds strong in some domains of behavioral and brain sciences. Scientific aesthetics in general, and neuroaesthetics in particular, abound with claims for art-specific cognitive or neural processes. This assumption fosters a conceptual structure disconnected from other fields and...
Article
We commend Menninghaus et al. for tackling the role of negative emotions in art reception. However, their model suffers from shortcomings that reduce its applicability to empirical studies of the arts: poor use of evidence, lack of integration with other models, and limited derivation of testable hypotheses. We argue that theories about art experie...
Article
Full-text available
In everyday listening, we can selectively attend to different kinds of object information in the same acoustic input. Previous studies on speech categories suggest that top-down task demands may enhance cortical encoding of behaviorally relevant sounds in speech-specific auditory regions. However, much less is known about the cortical processing in...
Article
Full-text available
What does it take to have a creative mind? Theories of creative cognition assert that the quantity of automatic associations places fundamental constraints on the probability of reaching creative solutions. Due to the difficulties inherent in isolating automated associative responses from cognitive control, the neural basis underlying this faculty...
Article
In everyday sound environments, we recognize sound sources and events by attending to relevant aspects of an acoustic input. Evidence about the cortical mechanisms involved in extracting relevant category information from natural sounds is, however, limited to speech. Here, we used functional MRI to measure cortical response patterns while human li...
Article
Full-text available
In neuroeconomics and neuromarketing, the assessment of arousal has become one of the key measures in our effort to understand the basic mechanisms of value-based choice. While neurophysiological responses such as pupil dilation and galvanic skin response (GSR) have provided a significant explanatory value in the mechanisms of decision-making, othe...
Article
Full-text available
The field of neuroaesthetics has gained in popularity in recent years but also attracted criticism from the perspectives both of the humanities and the sciences. In an effort to consolidate research in the field, we characterize neuroaesthetics as the cognitive neuroscience of aesthetic experience, drawing on long traditions of research in empirica...
Article
Full-text available
Human behavior in social dilemmas is strongly framed by the social context, but the mechanisms underlying this framing effect remains poorly understood. To identify the behavioral and neural responses mediating framing of social interactions, subjects underwent functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging while playing a Prisoners Dilemma game. In separat...
Article
Full-text available
Human behavior in social dilemmas is strongly framed by the social context, but the mechanisms underlying this framing effect remain poorly understood. To identify the behavioral and neural responses mediating framing of social interactions, participants underwent functional MRI while playing a prisoner’s dilemma game. In separate neuroimaging sess...
Chapter
Full-text available
Neuroesthetics is a subfield of cognitive neuroscience that studies the biological mechanisms and psychological processes evoked in the creator or the spectator when adopting an esthetic orientation toward an artistic or nonartistic object in the course of interacting with it. These psychological processes are related to perception, cognition, emot...
Article
Full-text available
Intelligent action entails exploiting predictions about associations between elements of ones environment. The hippocampus and mediotemporal cortex are endowed with the network topology, physiology, and neurochem-istry to automatically and sparsely code sensori-cognitive associations that can be reconstructed from single or partial inputs. Whilst a...
Article
Full-text available
Decision-making in social dilemmas is suggested to rely on three factors: the valuation of a choice option, the relative judgment of two or more choice alternatives, and individual factors affecting the ease at which judgments and decisions are made. Here, we test whether empathy—an individual’s relative ability to understand others’ thoughts, emot...
Article
Full-text available
Despite decades of scientific scrutiny, much is still unknown about the effects that brands have on perception. Brands are known to lead to changes in attention and mnemonic processing and by altering emotional preferences they imbue products with value. Less, however, is known about the exact mechanism through which this occurs. Here, a novel and...
Article
Full-text available
Extant research in political science has demonstrated that citizens’ opinions on policies are influenced by their attachment to the party sponsoring them. At the same time, little evidence exists illuminating the psychological processes through which such party cues are filtered. From the psychological literature on source cues, we derive two possi...
Article
Full-text available
On average, we urban dwellers spend about 90% of our time indoors, and share the intuition that the physical features of the places we live and work in influence how we feel and act. However, there is surprisingly little research on how architecture impacts behavior, much less on how it influences brain function. To begin closing this gap, we condu...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Compulsive buying disorder (CBD) is noted by an obsession with shopping and a chronic, repetitive purchasing behavior with adverse consequences for the sufferer and their social surroundings. While CBD is often classified as an impulse control disorder (ICD), little is still known about the actual psychological and physiological mechanisms underlyi...
Article
Full-text available
The contents of this special issue represent four main approaches to the biological underpinnings of art and aesthetics: psychology, neuroimaging, neurology, and evolution. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Extant research in political science has demonstrated that citizens' opinions on policies are influenced by their attachment to the party sponsoring them. At the same time, little evidence exists illuminating the psychological processes through which such party cues are filtered. From the psychological literature on source cues, we derive...
Article
Full-text available
To what extent can simple contextual events affect preference? In this study, three tests were applied to assert whether contextual unpredictability has a negative effect on preference for novel visual items. By asking subjects to rate their first impressions of novel brand logos while playing simple sounds, Study 1 shows that brand logos coupled t...
Chapter
Full-text available
A theoretical account of the topics neuroaesthetics can be seen as to cover.
Book
The beginning of psychological aesthetics is normally traced back to the publication of Gustav Theodor Fechner's seminal book Vorschule der Aesthetik in 1876. Following in the footsteps of this rich tradition, editors Martin Skov and Oshin Vartanian view neuroaesthetics-the emerging field of inquiry concerned with uncovering the ways in which aesth...
Chapter
Full-text available
Discussion of the neural systems involved in generating aesthetic pleasure.
Article
Full-text available
Aesthetic judgments, like most judgments, depend on context. Whether an object or image is seen in daily life or in an art gallery can significantly modulate the aesthetic value humans attach to it. We investigated the neural system supporting this modulation by presenting human subjects with artworks under different contexts whilst acquiring fMRI...
Article
Full-text available
Several studies have demonstrated that acquired expertise influences aesthetic judgments. In this paradigm we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study aesthetic judgments of visually presented architectural stimuli and control-stimuli (faces) for a group of architects and a group of non-architects. This design allowed us to test w...
Book
Anthology of original papers investigating the role emotions play in human cognition.
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter reviews some of the research and focuses on language studies that have a bearing on the relation between mental imagery and language. Especially important has been the growing realization that vision and language in some respects use a shared neural substrate, giving rise to the idea that conceptual knowledge consists in the activation...