Martin Siegert

Martin Siegert
Imperial College London | Imperial · Grantham Institute - Climate Change and the Environment

Professor

About

570
Publications
104,162
Reads
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15,683
Citations
Introduction
Martin Siegert is Co-Director of the Grantham Institute - Climate Change and the Environment, at Imperial College London, and Professor of Geosciences in the Department of Earth Science and Engineering. He is a glaciologist, geophysicist and Quaternary scientist, who studies processes operating in large ice sheets in the past, at present and in future.
Additional affiliations
May 2014 - present
Imperial College London
Position
  • co-Director
August 2012 - April 2014
University of Bristol
Position
  • Managing Director
August 2006 - July 2012
The University of Edinburgh
Position
  • Head of School
Education
October 1990 - November 1993
University of Cambridge
Field of study
  • Glaciology
October 1986 - June 1989
University of Reading
Field of study
  • Geological Geophysics with Mathematics

Publications

Publications (570)
Article
Full-text available
Plain Language Summary Geothermal heat flow (GHF) is important in controlling both the ice temperature and the production of meltwater at the base of the Antarctic Ice Sheet, which impacts how rapidly ice flows. However, GHF estimates are generally low resolution and highly uncertain. This uncertainty in GHF impacts the reliability of model simulat...
Article
Full-text available
There is a need for computational models capable of predicting meltwater-assisted crevasse growth in glacial ice. Mass loss from glaciers and ice sheets is the largest contributor to sea-level rise and iceberg calving due to hydrofracture is one of the most prominent yet less understood glacial mass loss processes. To overcome the limitations of em...
Preprint
There is a need for computational models capable of predicting meltwater-assisted crevasse growth in glacial ice. Mass loss from glaciers and ice sheets is the largest contributor to sea-level rise and iceberg calving due to hydrofracture is one of the most prominent yet less understood glacial mass loss processes. To overcome the limitations of em...
Article
Full-text available
The Princess Elizabeth Land sector of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet is a significant reservoir of grounded ice and is adjacent to regions that experienced great change during Quaternary glacial cycles and Pliocene warm episodes. The existence of an extensive subglacial water system in Princess Elizabeth Land (to date only inferred from satellite ima...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The Terra Carta serves as the guiding mandate for HRH The Prince of Wales’ Sustainable Markets Initiative (SMI). It calls for urgent action to build a sustainable future for Nature, People and Planet. Investments in natural climate solutions can simultaneously address each of these pillars. The SMI Science Working Group aims to connect nature, scie...
Article
Subglacial lakes store ancient climate records, provide habitats for life, and modulate ice flow, basal hydrology, biogeochemical fluxes and geomorphic activity. In this Review, we construct the first global inventory of subglacial lakes (773 total): 675 from Antarctica (59 newly identified in this study), 64 from Greenland, 2 beneath Devon Ice Cap...
Chapter
Antarctic Climate Evolution – second edition is a result of both SCAR programmes and documents the state of knowledge concerning the ice and climate evolution of the Antarctic continent and its surrounding seas through the Cenozoic era to present day and into the future. Most of the subcommittees in ACE and PAIS have been responsible for individual...
Article
Full-text available
Early to Middle Miocene sea-level oscillations of approximately 40–60 m estimated from far-field records1,2,3 are interpreted to reflect the loss of virtually all East Antarctic ice during peak warmth². This contrasts with ice-sheet model experiments suggesting most terrestrial ice in East Antarctica was retained even during the warmest intervals o...
Chapter
Antarctic Climate Evolution (ACE) and Past Antarctic Ice Sheet (PAIS) have been two major and successful Scientific Research Programs of SCAR (Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research), with important achievements concerning the ice and climate evolution of the Antarctic continent and its surrounding seas through the Cenozoic era to the present d...
Chapter
Technological advances in the study and dating of both land and marine glacial geologic features, combined with both glaciological and post-glacial isostatic rebound modelling, have developed knowledge and understanding of the Antarctic ice sheets at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and their subsequent changes. Here, we review geological evidence fo...
Chapter
Our appreciation of Antarctic climate evolution has grown significantly in the last decade. Characterised by international cooperation, and leadership from the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR), we now have better understanding of how and why Antarctica's ice sheets have developed and influenced global climate change. While the natu...
Chapter
Antarctic Climate Evolution - second edition is a result of both SCAR pro�grammes and documents the state of knowledge concerning the ice and climate evolution of the Antarctic continent and its surrounding seas through the Cenozoic era to present day and into the future. Most of the subcommit�tees in ACE and PAIS have been responsible for individu...
Cover Page
Full-text available
The Antarctic continent and the Southern Ocean are influential components of the Earth System. Central to the understanding of global climate change (including increases in temperature, precipitation and ocean pH) is an appreciation of how the Antarctic Ice Sheet interacts with climate, especially during times of rapid change. To comprehend the rat...
Chapter
While geological evidence provides the clearest means to evaluate past Antarctic ice sheet change, quantification of the processes by which such change occurred can only be done through modelling. Continental-scale ice sheet modelling has been used extensively to understand how past ice-sheets have responded to environmental forcing. Such work...
Article
Full-text available
The Antarctic region has been experiencing rapid change in recent decades due to human-induced factors. Most notably, climate heating is causing ice sheet melting, leading to sea level rise and disruption in global ocean heat circulation, with far-reaching consequences. At the same time, this region holds unique research potential that can help ad...
Article
Full-text available
Sea-level rise is one of the most critical issues the world faces under global warming. Around 680 million people (10% of the world's population) live in low-lying coastal regions that are susceptible to flooding through storm surges and from seawater infiltration of fresh groundwater reserves, degradation of farmland and accelerated coastal erosio...
Article
Full-text available
Ahead of COP26 in Glasgow, the world is getting ready for firm, irreversible and immediate action to tackle climate change. On November 1, political leaders from across the world will come together in Glasgow at the so-called COP26 meeting, to discuss and agree the urgent measures necessary to avoid severely damaging global warming. Obviously, si...
Article
Full-text available
Martin Siegert highlights the dangers posed by the rise in global temperatures and says urgent action is needed now to avoid the risk of runaway heating
Article
Full-text available
During the last few decades, bed-elevation profiles from radar sounders have been used to quantify bed roughness. Various methods have been employed, such as the ‘two-parameter’ technique that considers vertical and slope irregularities in topography, but they struggle to incorporate roughness at multiple spatial scales leading to a breakdown in th...
Preprint
Full-text available
Trapped beneath the Antarctic ice sheet lie over 400 subglacial lakes, which are considered to be extreme, isolated, yet viable habitats for microbial life. The physical conditions within subglacial lakes are critical to evaluating how and where life may best exist. Here, we propose that Earth's geothermal flux provides efficient stirring of Antarc...
Article
Full-text available
Trapped beneath the Antarctic ice sheet lie over 400 subglacial lakes, which are considered to be extreme, isolated, yet viable habitats for microbial life. The physical conditions within subglacial lakes are critical to evaluating how and where life may best exist. Here, we propose that Earth's geothermal flux provides efficient stirring of Antarc...
Article
While twentieth century sea-level rise was dominated by thermal expansion of ocean water, mass loss from glaciers and ice sheets is now a larger annual contributor. There is uncertainty on how ice sheets will respond to further warming, however, reducing confidence in twenty-first century sea-level projections. In 2019, to address the uncertainty,...
Article
Full-text available
Subglacial water plays an important role in ice sheet dynamics and stability. Subglacial lakes are often located at the onset of ice streams and have been hypothesised to enhance ice flow downstream by lubricating the ice– bed interface. The most recent subglacial-lake inventory of Antarctica mapped nearly 400 lakes, of which �14% are found in West...
Article
Full-text available
We present a topographic digital elevation model (DEM) for Princess Elizabeth Land (PEL), East Antarctica. The DEM covers an area of � 900000 km2 and was built from radio-echo sounding data collected during four campaigns since 2015. Previously, to generate the Bedmap2 topographic product, PEL’s bed was characterized from low-resolution satellite g...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract We present a new simple and efficient method for correlation of unevenly and differently sampled data. This new method overcomes problems with other methods for correlation with non-uniform sampling and is an easy modification to existing correlation based codes. To demonstrate the usefulness of this new method to real-world examples, we a...
Article
Full-text available
Lake CookE2, upstream of Cook Glacier in East Antarctica, is an "active" subglacial lake that experiences episodic discharge and recharge of basal water. Although around 130 active lakes are known to exist, the majority are not able to be identified by ice-sounding radar techniques, suggesting they are ephemeral and/or distributed stores of small a...
Article
Full-text available
Deep-water 'stable' subglacial lakes likely contain microbial life adapted in isolation to extreme environmental conditions. How water is supplied into a subglacial lake, and how water outflows, is important for understanding these conditions. Isochronal radio-echo layers have been used to infer where melting occurs above Lake Vostok and Lake Conco...
Preprint
Full-text available
We present a topographic digital elevation model (DEM) for Princess Elizabeth Land (PEL), East Antarctica-the last remaining region in Antarctica to be surveyed by airborne radio-echo sounding (RES) techniques. The DEM covers an area of ~900,000 km2 and was established from new RES data collected by the ICECAP-2 consortium, led by the Polar Researc...
Article
Full-text available
Trees and forest ecosystems help limit global warming by reducing the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, alongside simultaneous ‘co-benefits’ for biodiversity, local economies, human health and leisure. Wherever possible, existing native ecosystems such as savannas, grasslands and forests should be protected, and damaged or destroy...
Article
Full-text available
It has been hypothesized that complex englacial structures identified within the East Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets are generated by (i) water freezing to the ice sheet base and evolving under ice flow, (ii) deformation of ice of varying rheology, or (iii) entrainment of basal material. Using ice-penetrating radar, we identify a widespread com...
Article
Full-text available
The Arctic has warmed by around 2°C since 1850, approximately double the global average. Even if the Paris Agreement successfully limits global warming to a further 0.5°C, the Arctic is expected to warm by at least another 1°C. The United Kingdom’s (UK) weather is linked to conditions in the European Arctic. For example, high atmospheric pressure...
Article
Full-text available
Earth’s climate has always closely followed the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2), and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The concentration was as low as 180ppm in the coldest part of the last ice age, 20,000 years ago. Around 10,000 years later, when the concentration increased to 280ppm, that ice age came to an end. Over the last 800,...
Article
Full-text available
Basal units-visibly distinct englacial structures near the ice-bed interface-warrant investigation for a number of reasons. Many are of unknown composition and origin, characteristics that could provide substantial insight into subglacial processes and ice-sheet history. Their significance, moreover, is not limited to near-bed depths; these units a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We call for attention to climate change research as a domain of application for multiagent technologies. The multiagent nature of climate change challenges and successful application of multiagent methods in decentralized power grid systems, market organization, and industrial engineering, could improve our ability to address decarbonization (clima...
Article
Full-text available
The severe consequences of human disruptions to the global carbon cycle have prompted intense interest in strategies to reduce atmospheric CO 2 concentrations. Because growing forests capture CO 2 in their biomass and soils, large-scale tree planting efforts have been advertised as a viable way to counteract anthropogenic emissions as part of net-z...
Data
Airborne ice thickness data from the Princess Elizabeth Land (PEL), East Antarctica was collected in four separateseasons. During the 􀂦rst ICECAP2 season (2015/16), a survey acquiring exploratory ‘fan-shaped’ radial pro􀂦les tomaximize range and data return on each 􀂧ight was completed across the broadly unknown region of PEL. These 􀂧ightlines extend...
Article
Full-text available
Svenner Islands-Brattstrand Bluffs-Larsemann Hills constitutes ~70 km long coastal outcrops of Princess Elizabeth Land (PEL), comprising complexly deformed metapelites and orthogneisses. Pelitic granulites from these outcrops are investigated in this work. Conventional geothermobarometric estimations and Pseudosection modelling consistently indicat...
Article
Full-text available
The Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA) balloon experiment was designed to detect radio signals initiated by high-energy neutrinos and cosmic ray (CR) air showers. These signals are typically discriminated by the polarization and phase inversions of the radio signal. The reflected signal from CRs suffer phase inversion compared to a direc...
Article
Full-text available
Plain Language Summary Ice‐penetrating radar is widely used to measure the thickness of ice sheets, critical to assessments of global sea level rise potential. This technique also captures reflections from chemical contrasts within the ice sheet, caused by the atmospheric deposition of conductive impurities, known as “internal reflection horizons”...
Preprint
Full-text available
Abstract. Subglacial water plays an important role in ice sheet dynamics and stability. It is often located at the onset of ice streams and has the potential to enhance ice flow downstream by lubricating the ice-bed interface. The most recent subglacial lake inventory of Antarctica mapped nearly 400 lakes, of which ~ 14 % are found in West Antarcti...
Article
Full-text available
Radar sounding is a powerful geophysical approach for characterizing the subsurface conditions of terrestrial and planetary ice masses at local to global scales. As a result, a wide array of orbital, airborne, ground-based, and in situ instruments, platforms and data analysis approaches for radioglaciology have been developed, applied or proposed....
Data
We present a new topographic digital elevation model (DEM) for Princess Elizabeth Land (PEL) – the last remaining region in Antarctica to be surveyed. The DEM covers an area of 899,730 km2 and was established from new aero geophysical data collected by the ICECAP-2 consortium, led by the Polar Research Institute of China, from four different survey...
Article
Full-text available
Sheet. In the last 10 years, a variety of expeditions and numerical modelling experiments have improved knowledge of its glaciology, glacial geology and tectonic setting. Two of the sector's largest ice streams rest on a steep reverse‐sloping bed yet, despite being vulnerable to change, satellite observations show contemporary stability. There is c...
Article
Full-text available
Numerical ice-sheet models are commonly matched to surface ice velocities from InSAR measurements by modifying basal drag, allowing the flow and form of the ice sheet to be simulated. Geophysical measurements of the bed are rarely used to examine if this modification is realistic, however. Here, we examine radio-echo sounding (RES) data from the We...
Article
Full-text available
The subglacial environment of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is poorly constrained both in its bulk properties, for example geology, the presence of sediment, and the presence of water, and interfacial conditions, such as roughness and bed rheology. There is, therefore, limited understanding of how spatially heterogeneous subglacial properties rela...
Article
Full-text available
The West Antarctic Ice Sheet is vulnerable to climate and ocean warming because it rests on a bed more than 2 km below sea level in some places. Understanding how this ice sheet has changed in the recent past guides our appreciation of how it will change in the near future. Getting such information requires measurement of (1) structures in the ice...
Preprint
Full-text available
Abstract. It has been hypothesized that complex englacial structures identified within the East Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets are generated by: (i) water freezing to the ice-sheet base, evolving under ice flow; (ii) deformation of ice of varying rheology; or (iii) entrainment of basal material. Using ice-penetrating radar, we identify a widesp...
Article
Full-text available
The view from the south is, more than ever, dominated by ominous signs of change. Antarctica and the Southern Ocean are intrinsic to the Earth system, and their evolution is intertwined with and influences the course of the Anthropocene. In turn, changes in the Antarctic affect and presage humanity's future. Growing understanding is countering popu...