Martin Schulz

Martin Schulz
Freie Universität Berlin | FUB · Institute of Pharmacy

Prof. Dr. FFIP FESCP

About

338
Publications
59,816
Reads
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4,140
Citations
Additional affiliations
April 2019 - present
Institute of Pharmacy
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
July 2005 - present
Goethe-University Frankfurt
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
October 1988 - present
ABDA
Position
  • Head of Department

Publications

Publications (338)
Article
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Background Pharmacist-led medication review and medication management programs (MMP) are well-known strategies to improve medication safety and effectiveness. If performed interprofessionally, outcomes might even improve. However, little is known about task sharing in interprofessional MMP, in which general practitioners (GPs) and community pharmac...
Article
Full-text available
Heart failure (HF) treatment has changed substantially over the last 30 years, leading to significant reductions in mortality and hospital admissions in patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Currently, the optimization of guideline‐directed chronic HF therapy remains the mainstay to further improve quality of life, mortality, and...
Article
Full-text available
Aims Addition of ezetimibe to statin therapy is recommended by current guidelines when low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) targets are not achieved with statin monotherapy. Fixed-dose combinations (FDC) improve medication adherence and facilitate risk factor control. We assessed prescription trends of ezetimibe as monotherapy or FDC with st...
Article
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Background: Five-day oral therapies against early COVID-19 infection have recently been conditionally approved in Europe. In the drug combination nirmatrelvir + ritonavir (nirmatrelvir/r), the active agent, nirmatrelvir, is made bioavailable in clinically adequate amounts by the additional administration of a potent inhibitor of its first-pass met...
Article
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Background: The 2018 European Society of Cardiology (ESC)/European Society of Hypertension (ESH) guidelines for the management of hypertension highlight the importance of fixed-dose combinations (FDC) for the treatment of hypertension and recommend initial single-pill combination therapy in almost all patients. However, data on the implementation...
Poster
Full-text available
To optimize drug therapy, patients with polymedication in the German programme ARMIN paticipated in an interprofessional physician-pharmacist intervention, consisting of an initial medication review followed by a continuous medication management (MM). To obtain an overview on their medication, patients received printed medication plans (MPs) that w...
Article
A medication plan (MP) provides an overview of a patient’s entire medication. In the interprofessional medication management program ARMIN (ARzneiMittelINitiative Sachsen-Thueringen), MPs are jointly generated by general practitioners (GPs) and community pharmacists (CPs). We aimed to assess patients’ initial acceptance of the service, how they use...
Article
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In Germany, ~8 million patients take angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and 2.25 million of them valsartan. In 2018, contamination of generic ARBs with probable carcinogenic nitrosamines resulted in more than 30 recalls. The impact of such a huge recall has never been explored in Europe. We analyzed the utilization of valsartan, all ARBs, and oth...
Article
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Interchangeability between biological medicines and biosimilars, and subsequent substitution by pharmacists represent an important opportunity for costs savings for health care systems. Because biological medicines are complex products, the expert role of the pharmacist to inform patients and support physicians is indispensable. However, regulation...
Article
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Aims: Patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) require polypharmacy and are at increased risk for drug-related problems. Interdisciplinary physician-pharmacist medication review may improve drug treatment. Our goal was to analyze the changes from the physician-documented medication plan (MP) and patient-stated medication to an interdisciplinary co...
Article
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Purpose Conflicting information on potential benefits of drugs as well as reports on hypothetical harm of commonly used drugs in COVID-19 treatment have challenged clinicians and healthcare systems. We analyzed the change in ambulatory drug utilization before, during, and after the first wave of the pandemic in 2020. Methods We explored dispensing...
Article
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Background: Despite concerns about causing bacterial resistance and serious side effects, oral cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones are still frequently prescribed in Germany. We aimed to test a method for the detection of regional quality differences in the use of oral cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones and to apply this to the German federal sta...
Article
Full-text available
Aims Patients with heart failure (HF) have poor outcomes, including poor quality of life, and high morbidity and mortality. In addition, they have a high medication burden due to the multiple drug therapies now recommended by guidelines. Previous reviews, including studies in hospital settings, provided evidence that pharmacist care improves outcom...
Article
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Background Instruments controlling statutory healthcare medical supply have long been a topic of debate in health policy reform discussions. Over the years, a variety of tools have been developed, most of which are aimed at controlling drug expenditure. The instruments controlling regional prescriptions primarily focus on controlling behavioural pa...
Article
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Educational material (EM) addresses particular safety information of medicinal products to healthcare professionals and patients. Since 2016, German national competent authorities label approved EM with a Blue Hand symbol. However, data is scarce regarding its usability as a safety communication tool in pharmacies to improve patient safety. The pur...
Article
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Germany is the highest populated country in Europe with a population of 82.3 million in 2019. As in many other developed countries, it has an aging population. Approximately 10% of the gross domestic product is spent on healthcare. The healthcare system is characterized by its accessibility. Patients are generally free to choose their primary care...
Article
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In order to assess the significance of drug/substance levels measured in intensive care medicine and clinical and forensic toxicology as well as for therapeutic drug monitoring, it is essential that a comprehensive collection of data is readily available. We revisited and expanded our 2012 compilation of therapeutic and toxic plasma concentration r...
Article
Introduction: Involvement of community pharmacists in the detection and control of hypertension improves patient care. However, current guidelines do not provide recommendations on collaboration between pharmacists and physicians, especially when and how to refer patients with undetected or uncontrolled hypertension to a physician. Methods: The Ger...
Article
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Drug budget and prescription control measures are implemented regionally in Germany, meaning that the uptake of pharmaceuticals, including biosimilars, can vary by region. We examine regional market dynamics of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF�) inhibitor originators and biosimilars in Germany and studied the influence of biosimilar policies on the...
Article
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This commentary describes the contributions of a Dutch pharmacist who contributed in a unique manner to the development of community pharmacy practice in Europe, to the evolution of practice-based research and to its publication. With an interest in pharmaceutical care and in clinical pharmacy, Dr. van Mil changed practice and policy in Europe over...
Article
Pharmacists have a societal duty of care. How to best provide that type of care requires scientific study. Pharmacy practice is a scientific discipline that studies the different aspects of the practice of pharmacy, and its impact on health care systems, medicine use, and patient care. Its scope has expanded globally to encompass clinical, behaviou...
Article
Full-text available
Involvement of community pharmacists in the detection and control of hypertension improves patient care. However, current European or North‐American guidelines do not provide specific guidance how to implement collaboration between pharmacists and physicians, especially when and how to refer patients with undetected or uncontrolled hypertension to...
Article
Full-text available
Aims Patients with heart failure (HF) have impaired quality of life (QoL). The randomized controlled trial PHARM‐CHF investigated whether an interdisciplinary intervention consisting of regular contacts with the community pharmacy and weekly dosing aids improves medication adherence in patients with HF. It is unknown how an intervention involving f...
Article
Our aim was to investigate the reason for relatively low detection rates for opioids and fentanyl in particular in post-mortem cases in the State of Hamburg. We re-analysed 822 blood samples from two different time periods, 2011/12 and 2016. These samples had been previously analysed in accordance with post-mortem routine by a case selected strateg...
Article
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Background Oral emergency contraceptives containing levonorgestrel or ulipristal acetate are available without prescription and only in pharmacies in Germany since March 2015. Due to this change community pharmacists are responsible for evaluating whether the product is appropriate and to educate women on proper use. Objective To measure the utiliz...
Chapter
Medication review and medication reconciliation are systematic processes with the aim of increasing patient safety as well as effectiveness and efficiency on different levels. Whereas medication reconciliation is defined as the formal process of obtaining a complete and accurate list of each patient's current medications with the main aim of detect...
Chapter
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are often accompanied with comor-bidities and, therefore, with multiple drug regimens. Drug-related morbidity and mortality due to drug-related problems (DRPs) represent a serious problem in these patients. Pharmacists' intervention can detect and solve or prevent DRPs. However, DRPs in CVDs are currently not a valida...
Article
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Background: Drug-induced photosensitivity refers to the development of cutaneous adverse events due to interaction between a pharmaceutical compound and sunlight. Although photosensitivity is a very commonly listed side effect of systemic drugs reliable data on its actual incidence are lacking so far. Objectives: A possible approach to evaluate...
Article
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Aims Medication non‐adherence is frequent and is associated with high morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). We investigated whether an interdisciplinary intervention improves adherence in elderly CHF patients. Methods and results The study population (mean age 74 years, 62% male, mean LVEF 47%, 52% in NYHA class III...
Article
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Zusammenfassung Einleitung Der Gesamtüberblick über die Medikation eines Patienten ist wesentliche Voraussetzung für die Arzneimitteltherapiesicherheit. Ein aktueller und vollständiger Medikationsplan (MP) ist hierfür ein geeignetes Instrument. Ziel war zu untersuchen, inwiefern die elektronische Bearbeitung des bundeseinheitlichen Medikationsplans...
Article
Medication refill reminder services (MRRS), having the potential to support the detection of non-adherence and to promote periodic medication refilling by addressing forgetfulness, are not generally available in community pharmacy practice. Based on a new software module, a MRRS was developed. The acceptance of this service was tested in community...
Article
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Medication adherence correlates with morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), but is difficult to assess. We conducted a retrospective methodological cohort study in 3,808 CHF patients calculating adherence as proportion of days covered (PDC) utilizing claims data from 2010 to 2015. We aimed to compare different paramet...
Article
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Background: Many patients at high cardiovascular risk do not reach targets for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and blood pressure (BP). Depression is a frequent comorbidity in these patients and contributes to poor medication adherence. Objective: The aim of this study was to elucidate the associations between adherence to lipid-and BP-...
Article
Drug shortages are a complex problem and of growing concern. To evaluate implications of drug shortages in terms of outpatient and inpatient safety, the Drug Commission of German Pharmacists surveyed its two nationwide reference pharmacy networks: 865 community and 54 hospital pharmacies. Participants were asked to complete a six-question online su...
Article
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Background Overuse of antibiotics is of concern, but may differ between European countries. This study compares outpatient use of oral antibiotics between Germany (DE) and the Netherlands (NL). Methods For DE, we used the DAPI database with information on dispensings at the expense of the Statutory Health Insurance Funds from > 80% of community ph...
Article
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Since 1 October 2016, all legally insured persons are entitled to a nationwide medication plan (BMP) under certain conditions (according to § 31a SGB V, E-Health Law). The catalogue of measures of the 3rd Action Plan 2013-2015 for the improvement of drug therapy safety (AMTS) provided for the testing of a medication plan in practice, including its...
Article
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Die Anzahl der verordneten und in der Selbstmedikation vom Patienten selbst erworbenen Arzneimittel nimmt in Deutschland stetig zu. Damit steigt auch der Anteil von Patienten, die regelmäßig mehrere Medikamente einnehmen. Dies hat ein höheres Risiko für unerwünschte Arzneimittelereignisse zur Folge. Mit dem „Zukunftskonzept Arzneimittelversorgung“...
Article
Zusammenfassung Ziel der Studie Die Zusammenarbeit von Ärzten und Apothekern ist essentiell, um eine effektive und sichere Patientenbetreuung zu gewährleisten. Insbesondere im ambulanten Sektor ist die Zusammenarbeit jedoch nicht standardisiert und unterschiedlich intensiv. In dieser Arbeit sollen daher Projekte zur interdisziplinären Zusammenarbei...
Article
We report the rationale and design of a community PHARMacy‐based prospective randomized controlled interdisciplinary study for ambulatory patients with Chronic Heart Failure (PHARM‐CHF) and results of its pilot study. The pilot study randomized 50 patients to a pharmacy‐based intervention or usual care for 12 months. It demonstrated the feasibility...
Article
Full-text available
To determine and address medication non-adherence is important and may improve patient outcomes. Our aim was to perform a systematic review on the operationalization of adherence measures in patients with heart failure using claims data. We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases. A quality check of the full-text articles was performed...
Article
A standardized medication plan (MP) was recently enacted into German law (§ 31a SGB V). The purpose of our study was to assess if patients with chronic diseases requiring polymedication understand the standardized MP and can transfer the given information into practice. 100 patients who took at least five medicines regularly were prospectively incl...
Article
Full-text available
Background A substantial aspect of health literacy is the knowledge of prescribed medication. In chronic heart failure, incomplete intake of prescribed drugs (medication non-adherence) is inversely associated with clinical prognosis. Therefore, we assessed medication knowledge in a cohort of patients with decompensated heart failure at hospital adm...
Article
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Purpose A standardized medication plan for patients has been developed and recently enacted into German law depicting all medicines taken. It can only increase medication safety if patients use and understand it. We evaluated patients’ comprehensibility of the medication plan and analyzed potential variables influencing patients’ understanding. Met...
Article
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Background: Emergency hormonal contraceptives (EHC) are contraceptives used to prevent unintended pregnancy following unprotected sexual intercourse (USI) or contraceptive failure. The EHCs available without a prescription include medicines containing levonorgestrel (LNG) in more than 80 countries and, recently, based on an EU-switch ellaOne®, whic...