Martin Schnittler

Martin Schnittler
University of Greifswald · Institute of Botany and Landscape Ecology

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391
Publications
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6,700
Citations
Citations since 2017
92 Research Items
3361 Citations
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20172018201920202021202220230200400600800
20172018201920202021202220230200400600800
20172018201920202021202220230200400600800

Publications

Publications (391)
Article
Full-text available
Myxomycetes, or plasmodial slime molds, are a monophyletic group ofamoeboid protists whose classification is based mainly on morphological features of fruiting bodies. Although published phylogenies based on one or two genetic markers have clarified the boundaries of the main order-level systematic groups, the position and composition of some famil...
Article
Full-text available
In wet peatlands, plant growth conditions are largely determined by local soil conditions, leading to locally adapted vegetation. Despite that Carex species are often the prevailing vascular plant species in fen peatlands of the temperate zone, information about how these species adapt to local environmental conditions is scarce. This holds true es...
Article
Lycogala epidendrum is one of the most widely known myxomycete species and the first-ever discovered representative of this group. Using 687 original DNA sequences from 330 herbarium specimens from Europe, Asia, North and Central America, and Australia, we constructed the first detailed phylogenies of the genus Lycogala, based on two independently...
Article
�Sequencing herbarium specimens can be instrumental in answering ecological, evolutionary, and taxonomic inquiries. We developed a protocol for sequencing herbarium specimens of rust fungi (Pucciniales) and proceeded to sequence specimens ranging from 4 to 211 yr old from five different genera. � We then obtained sequences from an economically impo...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change is increasing the frequency and intensity of drought events in many boreal forests. Trees are sessile organisms with a long generation time, which makes them vulnerable to fast climate change and hinders fast adaptations. Therefore, it is important to know how forests cope with drought stress and to explore the genetic basis of these...
Article
Spore size enables dispersal in plasmodial slime molds (Myxomycetes) and is an important taxonomic character. We recorded size and the number of nuclei per spore for 39 specimens (colonies of 50–1000 sporocarps) of the nivicolous myxomycete Physarum albescens, a morphologically defined taxon with several biological species. For each colony, three s...
Article
Hybridization occurs often in the genus Diphasiastrum (Lycopodiaceae), which corroborates reports for the two other recognized lycophyte families, Isoëtaceae and Selaginellaceae. Here we investigate the case of D. alpinum and D. sitchense from the Russian Far East (Kamchatka). Their hybrid, D. × takedae, was morphologically recognizable in 16 out o...
Article
Full-text available
A new species of Lamproderma (Myxomycetes), described herein as L. vietnamense, was recovered in the field on ground litter from mountain subtropical forests (Phia Oắc - Phia Đén National Park) of northern Vietnam. Morphological details were examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. The species is characterized by a distinct and unique co...
Article
Full-text available
This work is a supplement to a previous publication on the Dryopteris affinis complex in the German Harz Mts. (Bär et al. 2020). It reports on the identification and naming of a tetraploid and population-forming taxon that was called "Dryopteris affinis s. l. (tetraploid, Rehberger Gra-ben)" without a specific name. By extensive investigations of v...
Article
A new species of Diderma, described herein as D. kamchaticum, was found on ground litter in subalpine vegetation (National Park “Vulkany Kamchatki”) of the Kamchatka Peninsula. The morphology of representative specimens was examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. D. kamchaticum shows a unique combination of morphological characters amon...
Chapter
In this chapter, the results obtained from recent studies of myxomycete ecology are discussed, with special emphasis on their distribution patterns in particular habitats, the relationships that exist between myxomycetes and other organisms, and the effect of disturbance events on myxomycete communities. It is important to note that most of the ava...
Chapter
Metagenomics could help to overcome some of the limitations of more traditional approaches in myxomycete research. It can be used to increase the taxonomic resolution of ecological studies and to explore the distribution of myxomycete trophic stages in diverse habitats both at large and small geographic scales. In this chapter, we discuss the “pros...
Chapter
Within the myxomycetes, phylogenetic research is still at a relatively early stage, and available phylogenies are often based on only a single or a few marker genes. According to the available data, the “true” myxomycetes (exosporous, myxogastric) form a monophyletic clade within the phylum Eumycetozoa with two basal subclades, a dark-spored (treat...
Chapter
This chapter discusses the adaptations of myxomycetes relating to spore dispersal, which is the key to understanding distribution patterns in this group of protists. Although several groups of protists form spores, myxomycetes are the most successful group, judged by the number of species. Fruiting bodies in myxomycetes are primarily stalked to all...
Article
Full-text available
Measuring spore size is a standard method for the description of fungal taxa, but in manual microscopic analyses the number of spores that can be measured and information on their morphological traits are typically limited. To overcome this weakness we present a method to analyze the size and shape of large numbers of spherical bodies, such as spor...
Article
European populations of common reed (Phragmites australis) are considered to build a single metapopulation with an extensive gene pool. Here we characterize the pattern of genetic diversity of 24 common reed populations in northeastern Germany and test how a disturbance by water salinity and mowing influences population genetic and morphological pa...
Article
To identify potentially suitable areas for the mostly alpine ecological guild of nivicolous (snowbank) myxomycetes, the worldwide distribution of a distinct morphospecies, Physarum albescens, was modelled with a correlative spatial approach using the software MaxEnt from 537 unique occurrence points. Three models were developed, first with only the...
Article
Full-text available
Myxomycetes are terrestrial protists with many presumably cosmopolitan species dispersing via airborne spores. A truly cosmopolitan species would suffer from outbreeding depression hampering local adaptation, while locally adapted species with limited distribution would be at a higher risk of extinction in changing environments. Here, we investigat...
Article
Knowledge on the adaptation of trees to rapid environmental changes is essential to preserve forests and their ecosystem services under climate change. Treeline populations are particularly suitable for studying adaptation processes in trees, as environmental stress together with reduced gene flow can enhance local adaptation. We investigated white...
Article
Abstract: During a field survey in April 2019 fourteen species of nivicolous myxomycetes were recorded from the Carpathian National Nature Park, East Carpathians, Ukraine. Most abundant were Diderma alpinum, Lepidoderma chailletii, and Lamproderma echinosporum. Five species (Meriderma echinulatum, Lamproderma arcyrioides, L. album, Diderma europaeu...
Article
Full-text available
We present a workflow for efficient barcoding of myxomycete fructifications, which (i) requires less than 1000 spores, (ii) allows to collect spores with only a needle, (iii) works without any commercial kits, and (iv) is optimized for the use of 96-well PCR plates throughout the process. Specimens of 291 dark-spored nivicolous myxomycetes and 121...
Article
Full-text available
The main objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the history and the level of research on biodiversity of myxomycetes in Russia. The first doubtless mention of myxomycetes in Russia dates back to the 18th century. Since then, numerous studies on myxomycete diversity in different regions of Russia have been published. Yu.K. Novozhilov s...
Article
Full-text available
Northern taiga forests and subalpine plant communities of the Laplandskiy State Nature Biosphere Reserve (Kola Peninsula, Russia) were surveyed for myxomycetes. A total of 1675 specimens of myxomycete fruit bodies (sporocarps) were registered, among them 1584 records from field collections and 92 obtained from 210 moist chamber cultures of ground l...
Article
Assessing the genetic adaptive potential of populations and species is essential for better understanding evolutionary processes. However, the expression of genetic variation may depend on environmental conditions, which may speed up or slow down evolutionary responses. Thus, the same selection pressure may lead to different responses. Against this...
Article
Full-text available
This article provides an outline of the classification of the kingdom Fungi (including fossil fungi. i.e. dispersed spores, mycelia, sporophores, mycorrhizas). We treat 19 phyla of fungi. These are Aphelidiomycota, Ascomycota, Basidiobolomycota, Basidiomycota, Blastocladiomycota, Calcarisporiellomycota, Caulochytriomycota, Chytridiomycota, Entomoph...
Preprint
Full-text available
This article provides an outline of the classification of the kingdom Fungi (including fossil fungi. i.e. dispersed spores, mycelia, sporophores, mycorrhizas). We treat 19 phyla of fungi. These are Aphelidiomycota, Ascomycota, Basidiobolomycota, Basidiomycota, Blastocladiomycota, Calcarisporiellomycota, Caulochytriomycota, Chytridiomycota, Entomoph...
Article
Full-text available
Plants, fungi and algae are important components of global biodiversity and are fundamental to all ecosystems. They are the basis for human well-being, providing food, materials and medicines. Specimens of all three groups of organisms are accommodated in herbaria, where they are commonly referred to as botanical specimens. The large number of spec...
Article
Winter-cold arid regions of western Kazakhstan were surveyed for myxomycetes for a period of 20 years. A total of 3228 records belonging to 111 species from 31 genera and 10 families are provided in an annotated checklist. The checklist contains data on the localities, habitats, substrates, methods of collection and voucher numbers of specimens dep...
Poster
Full-text available
Myxomycetes constitute the most species-rich group within the Amoebozoa. Due to the presence of fruiting bodies in their life cycle, they can be relatively easily detected in the field, compared to the other members of Amoebozoa. This allowed accumulating a large body of data on diversity and distribution of myxomycetes during the last 250 y. In co...
Article
A systematic survey for myxomycetes was carried out in 2011–2014 and 2017 at 106 localities in mountain tropical forests of Bidoup Nui Ba and Chu Yang Sin national parks (Dalat Plateau, southern Vietnam). In total, the survey yielded 652 records, of which 358 were field collections and 294 were collections obtained from 819 moist chamber cultures p...
Article
The genus Siphoptychium is resurrected on the basis of comparative morphology and phylogeny of partial nuc 18S rDNA (18S) and translation elongation factor 1-alpha (EF1A) nucleotide sequences. The genus is characterized by the firm upper surface of the pseudoaethalium, accreted but easily separable sporothecae, a tubular or fibrous columella, and s...
Article
Full-text available
We used direct DNA amplification from soil extracts to analyze microbial communities from an elevational transect in the German Alps by parallel metabarcoding of bacteria (16S rRNA), fungi (ITS2), and myxomycetes (18S rRNA). For the three microbial groups, 5710, 6133, and 261 operational taxonomic units (OTU) were found. For the latter group, we ca...
Article
Mercurialis perennis is a dioecious clonal woodland herb. Its male-biased shoot sex ratio may result from differential selection (with skewed genet sex ratio) and/or differential performance (fairly even genet sex ratio but skewed shoot sex ratio since male clones grow more vigorously or have a higher flowering propensity). To test both scenarios,...
Article
Full-text available
Background and aims - Recent studies showed the position of two slime mould species with microscopic sporocarps, Echinosteliopsis oligospora and Echinostelium bisporum, within the class Myxomycetes. These minute species are seldom seen in studies based on detection of sporocarps and can easily be confused with protosteloid amoebozoans. Methods - W...
Article
Fungi play a crucial role in terrestrial Arctic ecosystems as symbionts of vascular plants and nutrient recyclers in soil, with many species persistently or temporarily inhabiting the phyllosphere of the vegetation. In this study we apply high-throughput sequencing to investigate the mycobiome of 172 samples of fresh (current year) and aged (3 year...
Article
The rare myxomycete Barbeyella minutissima is known preferentially from montane coniferous biomes of the Northern Hemisphere. Despite being a relatively widespread species, the distributional limits of Barbeyella are still unknown in the tropics and the entire Southern Hemisphere. Herein, we provide records for the species from two new localities,...
Article
Full-text available
The traditional classification of the Myxomycetes (Myxogastrea) into five orders (Echinosteliales, Liceales, Trichiales, Stemonitidales and Physarales), used in all monographs published since 1945, does not properly reflect evolutionary relationships within the group. Reviewing all published phylogenies for myxomycete subgroups together with a 18S...
Article
Full-text available
Key message Changes in tree’s climate sensitivity during their ontogenetic development is best assessed with stem diameter classes, which can be calculated retrospectively from the cumulative ring width. Abstract Climate affects tree growth but the effect size can be modulated by other variables, including tree’s age and size. To assess how climat...
Article
In Europe, the genus Diphasiastrum (Lycopodiophyta) forms a reticulate network of six diploid taxa, including three parent species (D. alpinum, D. complanatum and D. tristachyum) and three hybrids (D. × issleri, D. × oellgaardii and D. × zeilleri). It was not clear if the hybrids arose once or repeatedly, if they have reproductive competence and if...
Article
The diversity of dark-spored myxomycetes in forest ground litter and soil from four study plots across a fire chronosequence in Nizhne-Svirskiy Nature Reserve (northwest of Russia) was assessed by a DNA metabarcoding approach. The history of fire disturbances and the season of sampling influenced the composition of myxomycete assemblages. Several s...
Article
Full-text available
This short communication reports five new records of three critically endangered club-moss taxa (Diphasiastrum alpinum, D. × issleri and D. × zeilleri), which were discovered in 2018 in the interior Bavarian Forest respectively in the natural space unit "Wegscheider Hochfläche".
Article
Many plant species reproduce by cloning, if environmental conditions are unfavorable for sexual reproduction. To test the alternative hypotheses whether cloning is an “exit strategy” or caused by selection, clonal growth in white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) was investigated in three stands in Alaska, each consisting of a core (closed forest...
Article
Full-text available
We have studied the influence of the stage of decomposition and acidity of wood, as well as the illumination of the microhabitat on the species composition, abundance, and occurrence of slime molds (Myxomycetes) of the xylobiontic (inhabitants of the wood) substrate complex of forest communities in Siberia (Altai krai, Altai Republic, and Novosibir...
Article
Full-text available
Background and aims – In spite of the cosmopolitan distributions of myxomycetes, relatively few studies have been conducted in subtropical forests of Southeast Asia, particularly in Northern Vietnam, where comprehensive reports of myxomycetes are lacking up to this date. Hence, a rapid biodiversity assessment was conducted in protected and unprotec...
Article
Full-text available
Among soil-inhabiting protists, myxomycetes stand out by their macroscopic fructifications which have allowed studies on their ecology and distribution for more than two hundred years. One of the most distinct ecological guilds in myxomycetes are the nivicolous or "snowbank" myxomycete species, which produce fruit bodies at the edge of melting snow...
Article
Full-text available
Averaging tree-ring measurements from multiple individuals is one of the most common procedures in dendrochronology. It serves to filter out noise from individual differences between trees, such as competition, height, and micro-site effects, which ideally results in a site chronology sensitive to regional scale factors such as climate. However, th...
Article
Full-text available
Moist chamber culture experiments are one of the basic methods of detection of myxomycete diversity that is usually employed to complement field datasets based on fruit bodies (sporocarps). However, often a large fraction of plasmodia that appear in moist chamber cultures does not yield sporocarps that can be determined to species based on morpholo...
Article
Unicellular, eukaryotic organisms (protists) play a key role in soil food webs as major predators of microorganisms. However, due to the polyphyletic nature of protists no single universal barcode can be established for this group, and the structure of many protistean communities remains unresolved. Plasmodial slime molds (Myxogastria or Myxomycete...
Article
Full-text available
Background: We studied the life history of Gagea graeca (L.) A. Terracc. (sect. Anthericoides) by field surveys on the Greek island of Crete, including quantitative analyses of 405 individuals, estimation of resource allocation by measuring the nitrogen content of different plant organs, assessing seed set and recording genetic diversity via ampli...
Chapter
The myxomycetes (class Myxogastria), also commonly known as plasmodial slime molds or acellular slime molds, are the most species-rich group within the Amoebozoa, with approximately 1,000 morphologically recognizable species having been described. These organisms are free-living predators of bacteria and other eukaryotic protists. Myxomycetes have...
Chapter
This chapter discusses the adaptations of myxomycetes relating to spore dispersal, which is the key to understand distribution patterns in this group of protists. Several groups of protists form spores-small, spherical, durable cells released from fruiting bodies. Judged by the number of species, myxomycetes are the most successful group. Fruiting...
Chapter
In this chapter, the results obtained from recent studies of myxomycete ecology are discussed, with special emphasis on their distribution patterns in particular habitats, the relationships that exist between myxomycetes and other organisms and the effect of disturbance events on myxomycete communities. It is important to note that most of the avai...
Chapter
Full-text available
Within the myxomycetes, phylogenetic research is still at a relatively early stage; available phylogenies are often based on only a single or a few marker genes. In this chapter, we review the molecular data currently available on the position of myxomycetes in relation to other eukaryotic organisms, and compare these with existing classifications...
Article
Northern and elevational treelines are classic sites for dendroclimatological studies. At these marginal sites only one climate parameter is usually considered growth limiting and trees from these sites are therefore used to reconstruct that parameter back in time. Marginal sites are also those sites within a species range, where clonal reproductio...
Article
Full-text available
Myxomycetes (plasmodial slime molds, Amoebozoa) are often perceived as widely distributed, confounding to the “everything is everywhere” hypothesis. To test if gene flow within these spore-dispersed protists is restricted by geographical barriers, we chose the widespread but morphologically unmistakable species Hemitrichia serpula for a phylogeogra...
Data
(Microsoft Excel 2010). Database including collection number, geographic coordinates, SSU ribotype (for all 135 specimens), EF1A genotype (for 30 selected specimens), and morphotype for the investigated accessions of Hemitrichia serpula. (XLS)
Data
(fasta file). Alignment of partial SSU sequences for 135 specimens (making 138 sequences with three specimens being heterogeneous for SSU) used in this study. (FAS)
Data
(fasta file). Alignment of partial EF1A sequences of 30 specimens (30 sequences) used in this study. Specimen sc28067 shows a heterozygous sequence and is therefore listed twice. (FAS)