Martin Reuter

Martin Reuter
University of Bonn | Uni Bonn · Institute of Psychology

Prof. Dr.

About

275
Publications
67,784
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8,647
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2007 - December 2012
Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn
January 2002 - December 2008
Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen

Publications

Publications (275)
Article
This paper represents the outcome of a multidisciplinary discussion on what works, what does not, and what can be improved, in ongoing work on biobehavioral taxonomies and their biomarkers. The authors of this paper, representing a wide spectrum of biobehavioral disciplines (clinical, developmental, differential psychology, neurophysiology, endocri...
Article
Full-text available
To examine whether political orientation is reflected in actual behavior, we applied classical paradigms of behavioral economics, namely the Public-Goods- (PGG) and the Trust-Game (TG) which constitute measures of cooperativeness, interpersonal trust and reciprocity respectively in a large German sample of N = 454. Participants intending to vote fo...
Article
Shape-based markers have entered the field of morphometric neuroimaging analysis as a second mainstay alongside conventional volumetric approaches. We aimed to assess the added value of shape description for the analysis of lesional and autoimmune temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) focusing on hippocampus and amygdala. We retrospectively investigated MRI...
Article
The present opinion paper makes a strong case for a biologically oriented personality theory. A short review on seminal studies applying methods from the neurosciences to unravel the biological underpinnings of personality is given, and findings are critically discussed. It becomes apparent that new methodological advances in the neurosciences prov...
Article
Full-text available
Rationale Nicotine has been widely studied for its pro-dopaminergic effects. However, at the behavioural level, past investigations have yielded heterogeneous results concerning effects on cognitive, affective, and motor outcomes, possibly linked to individual differences at the level of genetics. A candidate polymorphism is the 40-base-pair variab...
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Understanding of emotions and intentions are key processes in social cognition at which serotonin is an important neuromodulator. Its precursor is the essential amino acid tryptophan (TRP). Reduced TRP availability leads to weaker impulse control ability and higher aggression, while TRP supplementation promotes confidence. In a double-blind placebo...
Article
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Passive consumption of sexually objectifying content on social networking sites (SNS) has been shown to result in lowered body satisfaction and self-esteem, particularly in women. However, deliberate evaluations of sexually objectifying social media content are scarce. Furthermore, associations between self-objectification and active use of SNS in...
Article
Full-text available
Blatantly observable in the U.S. currently, the political chasm grows, representing a prototype of political polarization in most if not all western democratic political systems. Differential political psychology strives to trace back increasingly polarized political convictions to differences on the individual level. Recent evolutionary informed a...
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Though meat-consumption is known to be a key factor in environmental damage, veganism and vegetarianism are still perceived to be left-wing-phenomena, ironically not penetrating to those who hold ideologies of conservation. Logical contradictions and historical counter-examples cast doubt on a substantive connection between political orientation an...
Article
Background & Aims In a placebo controlled study we sought to determine if a four-weeks tryptophan-enriched diet is able to improve age-related depression or social cognitive impairment, depending on polymorphisms located in the promoter region of Solute Carrier Family 6 Member 4 (SLC6A4), also known as serotonin transporter (SERT1) gene. Methods 9...
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Exercise intervention studies in mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a prodromal stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD), have demonstrated inconsistent yet promising results. Addressing the limitations of previous studies, this trial investigated the effects of a 12-month structured exercise program on the progression of MCI. The NeuroExercise study is a m...
Preprint
Full-text available
The e4 allele of the APOE gene is strongly associated with impaired brain functionality and cognitive decline in humans at older age. It is controversial whether and how the APOE e4 allele is affecting brain activity among young healthy individuals and how such effects may contribute to individual differences in cognitive performance. Signal comple...
Article
The essential amino acid tryptophan (TRP) is discussed as a potential protective factor for physical and mental health. Besides positive effects via the microbiota of the gut on many physiological processes, TRP is the precursor of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) thereby playing a role for affective disorders. The present study investigated i...
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Full-text available
Since the emergence of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in December 2019 about 500,000 people died within the first 6 months. The virus itself, as well as the related political decisions, intensified an increasing feeling of fear in billions of people worldwide. However, while some people remained unperturbed, others experienced panic over the current situa...
Article
Recently, it has been observed a relationship between nutrition and social cognition. In this way, several dietary patterns, or even some probiotics, have been reported as social cognition modulators. However,...
Article
The serotonergic (5-HT) system is related to affective and cognitive processes and explains behavioral variability in the normal and psychopathological range. For this reason, the hypothesis was put forward that genetic and epigenetic markers related to 5-HT metabolism predict individual differences in social cognitive functioning. Social cognition...
Article
Oxytocin (OT) regulates social and emotional behaviour. Core symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) include social and emotional dysfunctions potentially associated with lower endogenous OT levels. A dimensional approach was employed to examine relationships between plasma OT levels, ADHD tendencies, and emotionality in a healt...
Article
Gender and personality traits influence risk proneness in the context of financial decisions. However, most studies on this topic have relied on either self-report data or on artificial measures of financial risk-taking behavior. Our study aimed to identify relevant trading behaviors and personal characteristics related to trading success. N = 108...
Article
Exaggerated reactivity to drug‐cues and emotional dysregulations represent key symptoms of early stages of substance use disorders. The diagnostic criteria for (Internet) gaming disorder strongly resemble symptoms for substance‐related addictions. However, previous cross‐sections studies revealed inconsistent results with respect to neural cue reac...
Article
Full-text available
Gray’s theory of personality postulates that fear and anxiety are distinct emotional systems with only the latter being sensitive to anxiolytic drugs. His work was mainly based on animal research, and translational studies validating his theory are scarce. Previous work in humans showed an influence of the benzodiazepine lorazepam on both systems,...
Article
Susceptibility to everyday cognitive failure is often assessed in clinical and vocational settings to estimate the effectiveness of interventions or to predict performance and performance decline in stressful situations. Comparatively little is known about the relationship between cognitive failure susceptibility as quantified by the Cognitive Fail...
Article
A multitude of studies investigating the effects of stress on cognition has produced an inconsistent picture on whether - and under which conditions - stress has advantageous or disadvantageous effects on executive functions (EF). This review provides a short introduction to the concept of stress and its neurobiology, before discussing the need to...
Preprint
Full-text available
Exaggerated reactivity to drug-cues and emotional dysregulations represent key symptoms of early stages of substance use disorders. The diagnostic criteria for (Internet) Gaming Disorder strongly resemble symptoms for substance-related addictions. However, previous cross-sections studies revealed inconsistent results with respect to neural cue reac...
Preprint
Susceptibility to everyday cognitive failure is often assessed in clinical and vocational settings to estimate the effectiveness of interventions or to predict performance and performance decline in stressful situations. Comparatively little is known about the relationship between cognitive failure susceptibility as quantified by the Cognitive Fail...
Article
Background: The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the biological substrate of stress reactivity, and related genetic variations play a crucial role in the initiation and maintenance of drug addiction. On the behavioral level, substance abusers are characterized by impulsivity and the inability to pursue long-term goals. The neural substra...
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Full-text available
The ε4 allele of the apolipoprotein (APOE) gene is a widely recognized genetic risk factor for developing Alzheimer’s disease in older age. However, it is controversial whether there is a positive impact of the APOE ε4 allele on human cognitive performance in young adulthood, possibly representing a case of antagonistic pleiotropy. Here we explored...
Article
Full-text available
We organized 10Kin1day, a pop-up scientific event with the goal to bring together neuroimaging groups from around the world to jointly analyze 10,000+ existing MRI connectivity datasets during a 3-day workshop. In this report, we describe the motivation and principles of 10Kin1day, together with a public release of 8,000+ MRI connectome maps of the...
Article
Background: The serotonergic and noradrenergic systems have a strong impact on several affective disorders and are key targets for psychopharmacological therapy. With respect to pathogenesis, there is a growing body of evidence showing an influence of a promoter repeat polymorphism (MAOA-uVNTR) altering the expression rate of monoamine oxidase A. H...
Preprint
Full-text available
We organized 10Kin1day, a pop-up scientific event with the goal to bring together neuroimaging groups from around the world to jointly analyze 10,000+ existing MRI connectivity datasets during a 3-day workshop. In this report, we describe the motivation and principles of 10Kin1day, together with a public release of 8,000+ MRI connectome maps of the...
Article
Full-text available
A prominent theory of developmental stuttering highlights (dys-)function of the basal ganglia (and in particular the ventral striatum) as a main neural mechanism behind this speech disorder. Although the theory is intriguing, studies on gray matter volume differences in the basal ganglia between people who stutter and control persons have reported...
Article
Response styles (RS) are an important research matter in questionnaire research and have even been interpreted as implicit personality variables aside from explicit personality measurement. To better understand RS and their impact on explicit personality measurement, it is necessary to explore causes of variability in RS, including heritability. Th...
Article
Full-text available
Stress has a critical impact on affective and cognitive processing. Based on rodent data suggesting that endocannabinoid signaling via CB1 receptors serves as an emotional buffer, we hypothesized that a common variant of the gene coding for the CB1 receptor modulates affective processing under stress (CNR1; rs1049353 A vs. G allele). Therefore, 139...
Article
Full-text available
Personality and individual differences originate from the brain. Despite major advances in the affective and cognitive neurosciences, however, it is still not well understood how personality and single personality traits are represented within the brain. Most research on brain-personality correlates has focused either on morphological aspects of th...
Article
Across species, the neuropeptide oxytocin has been associated with affiliative and social approach behavior. It has been suggested to exert its effects by modulating neural circuitry underlying anxiety, affiliative motivation, and social salience. The present study aims to investigate differences in subregional amygdala resting-state connectivity i...
Article
In animal research, the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) has been known for its role in reproduction and attachment for a longer time. There is strong evidence for an involvement of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system for these effects of OT. In contrast, human research rather concentrated on more human concepts of social cognition and behavior (e.g. trus...
Article
A prevailing topic in personality neuroscience is the question how personality traits are reflected in the brain. Functional and structural networks have been examined by functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging, however, the structural correlates of functionally defined networks have not been investigated in a personality context. By u...
Article
Full-text available
The functional connectome represents a comprehensive network map of functional connectivity throughout the human brain. To date, the relationship between the organization of functional connectivity and cognitive performance measures is still poorly understood. In the present study we use resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) da...
Article
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Stress induces a shift from hippocampus-dependent “cognitive” toward dorsal striatum-dependent “habit” memory. However, not all individuals are susceptible to this shift under stress. Based on pharmacological studies indicating a critical role of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in the stress-induced bias toward dorsal striatal learning, we hypo...
Article
Internet gaming disorder represents a growing health issue. Core symptoms include unsuccessful attempts to control the addictive patterns of behavior and continued use despite negative consequences indicating a loss of regulatory control. Previous studies revealed brain structural deficits in prefrontal regions subserving regulatory control in indi...
Article
Although HPA – axis reactivity has repeatedly been related to cognitive functioning, ambiguity remains regarding the direction of the effect, i.e. whether it benefits or impairs functioning. Genetic factors that contribute to HPA – axis reactivity on the one hand and to cognitive functioning on the other could therefore help clarify the association...
Chapter
Tryptophan (TRP), the chemical forerunner of serotonin (5-HT), is one of the most investigated amino acids. The administration of TRP can augment 5-HT levels in the brain and because of that several studies have examined whether the supplementation of TRP can enhance prosocial behavior that depends on serotonergic function. In this chapter, we revi...
Article
Cloninger's biosocial personality theory postulates a biological basis for the basic temperaments. With respect to reward dependence (RD) characterized by a tendency to sustain rewarding behaviors and to prefer behaviors previously associated with reward, he hypothesized low noradrenaline (NA) levels. Previous endocrine and genetic association stud...
Article
Heightened sensitivity to losses, known as loss aversion, is a putative avoidance behaviour, which commonly influences decision-making, particularly in economic scenarios where participants have a 50/50 chance of winning or losing money. Evidence from neuropsychology, EEG and TMS research suggests individual differences in loss aversion may be expl...
Article
Dopaminergic neurotransmission in the mesocortical system is crucial for higher order cognition. Common variation on the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene has been linked to individual differences in dopaminergic signaling and was also repeatedly associated to cognitive markers. The relationship between dopaminergic genetic variants and neurostructu...
Chapter
Mounting evidence suggests that personality plays an important role for a better understanding of Internet addiction. As twin studies have shown that both Internet addiction and personality are influenced by genetics, we highlight molecular genetics approaches to Internet addiction in this chapter too.
Chapter
Neuroscientific approaches to the understanding of Internet addiction have broadened our knowledge on the biological basis related to the overuse of the Internet. The present chapter lends a short introduction to this area. Moreover, it integrates and summarizes the most important findings of this research field.
Chapter
Psychoinformatics refers to the new collaboration between the disci- plines computer science and psychology to study psychological phenotypes by means of data mining. This chapter gives an overview of how Psychoinformatics can aid research and therapy in the context of Internet addiction. In particular, applications on smartphones are highlighted,...
Article
Evidence has indicated that the neuroactive hormone oxytocin is essential for prosocial behavior, particularly trust. Exogenous administration of oxytocin has been shown to increase trust in humans. However, one may argue that, except the administration of oxytocin in nonhealthy patient groups (e.g., those with autism or anxiety disorders) to allev...
Article
A recent study has implicated the nucleus accumbens of the ventral striatum in explaining why online-users spend time on the social network platform Facebook. Here, higher activity of the nucleus accumbens was associated with gaining reputation on social media. In the present study, we touched a related research field. We recorded the actual Facebo...
Article
Oxytocin is an important messenger in the brain that has been linked to a variety of social functions in pharmacological studies. Besides, functional genetic variations on the oxytocin receptor gene have been repeatedly associated with social processing and functioning. Despite this knowledge, there are very few studies investigating the mechanisms...
Chapter
The concept of “reserve” is defined as the resources being available to deal with adverse environmental influences on the human brain, and it has been proposed to account for the mismatch between brain pathology and clinical expression. New multidimensional approaches take into account the complexity and dynamic relation between the construct of re...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: In three consecutive studies, we aimed to investigate the relationship between problematic Internet use (PIU), Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) and implicit learning abilities, and impulsivity/risk-taking among online video gamers and control participants. Methods: In study 1, male visitors, recruited at the “Gamescom” in Cologne (2013)...
Article
Introduction: Emotion regulation is an important everyday-life skill to reduce harm and stress. Consequently, research shows associations between psychopathologies and emotional dysregulation. The serotonin transporter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) has repeatedly been associated to phenotypes and syndromes related to emotional dysregulation. However, th...
Article
Significance statement: Stressful events have a powerful effect on human learning and memory. Specifically, accumulating evidence suggests that stress favors more rigid dorsal striatum-dependent habit memory, at the expense of flexible hippocampus-dependent cognitive memory. Although this shift may have important implications for understanding men...
Article
The etiology of late onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) depends on multiple factors, among which the APOEɛ4 allele is the most adverse genetic determinant and conscientiousness represents an influential personality trait. A potential association of both factors with brain structure in young adulthood may constitute a constellation that sets the cours...
Chapter
Harm avoidance is a biologically informed conceptualization of trait anxiety. It reflects the heritable tendency to react strongly to punishment or frustration by inhibiting ongoing behavior. Harm avoidance has been discussed in particular as a risk factor for major depression and anxiety disorders. In order to derive biomarkers for these disorders...
Article
Introduction: There is a controversy in the literature whether stress and related cortisol responses are beneficial or impairing for cognitive functioning. Conflicting results might be due to individual differences in stress reactivity and cognitive load of the applied tasks. Methods: N = 48 participants underwent the Socially Evaluated Cold Presso...
Article
According to Jaak Panksepp's Affective Neuroscience Theory and the derived self-report measure, the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scales (ANPS), differences in the responsiveness of primary emotional systems form the basis of human personality. In order to investigate neuronal correlates of personality, the underlying neuronal circuits of the...
Article
A growing body of research focuses on problematic behavior patterns related to the use of the Internet to identify contextual as well as individual risk factors of this new phenomenon called Internet addiction (IA). IA can be described as a multidimensional syndrome comprising aspects such as craving, development of tolerance, loss of control and n...
Chapter
The present chapter provides an introduction into the young discipline of neuroeconomics and into the present Neuroeconomics book. Historical aspects, core concepts and future research avenues are presented.
Chapter
The present chapter aims to give a concise overview of the genetics of human decision-making. The focus will be on studies that can be considered within the field of neuroeconomics. Although genetic studies in neuroeconomics are scarce to date, interest in and use of, genetic designs is increasing. This popularity is based on the huge potential of...
Chapter
This chapter presents a concise introduction to molecular genetics. While readers familiar with the field of genetics may find this article trivial, those readers less experienced in the area may consider this a kind of ‘refresher’, still others may be new to the area, having not heard about this topic since their biology classes at school. Our aim...
Article
Full-text available
Empathy is an important psychological concept influencing social interaction. However, knowledge about its etiological components is still scarce. Estimates for the heritability of empathy range between 0 and 70 % depending on the sample, method of measurement, and level of aggregation. In this study, we investigated the heritability of empathy usi...
Presentation
Internet use: Molecular influences of a functional variant on the OXTR gene, the motivation behind using the Internet, and cross-cultural specifics