Martin Palmer

Martin Palmer
University of Southampton · National Oceanography Centre Southampton (NOCS)

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273
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Introduction
Skills and Expertise

Publications

Publications (273)
Article
Full-text available
Plume magmatism and continental breakup led to the opening of the northeast Atlantic Ocean during the globally warm early Cenozoic. This warmth culminated in a transient (170 thousand year, kyr) hyperthermal event associated with a large, if poorly constrained, emission of carbon called the Palaeocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) 56 million years...
Article
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Surface ocean availability of the micronutrients iron and manganese influences primary productivity and carbon cycling in the ocean. Volcanic ash is rich in iron and manganese, but the global supply of these nutrients to the oceans via ash deposition is poorly constrained. Here, we use marine sediment-hosted ash composition data from ten volcanic r...
Article
Full-text available
The Late Ordovician (~459–444 million years ago) was characterized by global cooling, glaciation and severe mass extinction. These events may have been driven by increased delivery of the nutrient phosphorus (P) to the ocean and associated increases in marine productivity, but it is not clear why this occurred in the two pulses identified in the ge...
Article
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The southern Myanmar tin ore district is an important part of the well-known Southeast Asia tin belt (SATB), and hosts numerous economically important primary tin-tungsten ore deposits. However, the timing of formation of these deposits is unclear due to the scarcity of robust age data. The tectonic setting of tin mineralization in this area also n...
Article
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The Dachang Sn-polymetallic ore district in South China is the second largest tin district in the world with a tin reserve of over one million tonnes. Zn-Cu skarn and stratiform, massive, and vein Sn-Pb-Zn ores are all present in this district. This has led to a debate as to whether the Sn orebodies were formed by Cretaceous magmatic-hydrothermal r...
Article
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Preservation of organic carbon (OC) in marine sediments exerts a major control on the cycling of carbon in the Earth system. In these marine environments, OC preservation may be enhanced by diagenetic reactions in locations where deposition of fragmental volcanic material called tephra occurs. While the mechanisms by which this process occurs are w...
Preprint
Full-text available
Diamonds are erupted at Earth’s surface in volatile-rich magmas called kimberlites 1,2,3 . These enigmatic magmas, originating from depths exceeding 150 kilometres in Earth’s mantle ¹ , occur in stable cratons and in pulses broadly synchronous with supercontinent cyclicity ⁴ . Whether their mobilization is driven by mantle plumes ⁵ or mechanical we...
Article
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We report a new, autonomous Lab-on-Chip (LOC) microfluidic pH sensor with a 6000 m depth capability, ten times the depth capability of the state of the art autonomous spectrophotometric sensor. The pH is determined spectrophotometrically using purified meta-Cresol Purple indicator dye offering high precision (<0.001 pH unit measurement reproducibil...
Article
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Earth’s plate-tectonic activity regulates the carbon cycle and, hence, climate, via volcanic outgassing and silicate-rock weathering. Mountain building, arc–continent collisions and clustering of continents in the tropics have all been invoked as controlling the weathering flux, with arcs also acting as a major contributor of carbon dioxide to the...
Article
Study of the origin and chemical differentiation of silicic magmas can provide important insights into crustal evolution and rare metal metallogeny. Tin mineralization always tends to form in relatively reduced, highly fractionated granite systems. Recognition of distinctions between fertile and barren magmas is of enormous benefit to mineral explo...
Article
Owing to the superimposition of water-rock interaction and external fluids, magmatic source signatures of ore-forming fluids for vein-type tin deposits are commonly overprinted. Hence, there is uncertainty regarding the involvement of magmatic fluids in mineralization processes within these deposits. Tourmaline is a common gangue mineral in Sn depo...
Article
The Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) was a period of intense global warming that began ~55.9 million years ago and lasted about 170,000 years. Various mechanisms have been proposed to cause this warming, including the emplacement of the North Atlantic Igneous Province (NAIP). Equally, many mechanisms have been invoked to explain sequestrati...
Article
We report the iron (n = 13), copper (n = 13), sulfur (n = 25) and lead (n = 31) isotope compositions of mineralized samples from porphyry, skarn and epithermal mineralization in the Yenice region that lies in the east of the Biga Peninsula, Turkey. The vast majority of isotopic data were analyzed from the world-class Arapuçandere Pb-Zn-Cu (Ag-Au) d...
Preprint
Full-text available
The early Cenozoic exhibited profound environmental change influenced by plume magmatism, continental breakup, and opening of the North Atlantic Ocean. Global warming culminated in the transient (170 thousand year, kyr) hyperthermal event, the Palaeocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) 56 million years ago (Ma). Although sedimentary methane release h...
Article
The high mobility of boron during fluid-rock interaction makes it an effective tracer for the sources of magmatic and metamorphic fluids, as recorded in minerals such as tourmaline and muscovite. Although advances have been made in quantifying the fractionation of boron isotopes among different phases, boron isotope fractionation in complex silicat...
Article
Full-text available
The good biocompatibility and corrosion resistance of the bulk CoCrMo alloy has resulted in it being used in the manufacture of implants and load bearing medical devices. These devices, however, can release wear and corrosion products which differ from the composition of the bulk CoCrMo alloy. The physicochemical characteristics of the particles an...
Article
Sulfur-bearing Fe-rich nanoparticles (SINPs) have been subject to increased levels of interest because of their catalytic properties and other features. However, with increasing interest in greener and sustainable practice, traditional engineered routes to SINP synthesis have become a concern owing to their high energy and resource demand as well a...
Preprint
Full-text available
Earth’s plate tectonic activity regulates the carbon cycle, and hence, climate, via volcanic outgassing and silicate-rock weathering 1,2,3 . Mountain building, arc-continent collisions, and clustering of continents in the tropics have all been invoked as controlling the weathering flux 4,5,6 , with arcs also acting as a major contributor of carbon...
Article
Alkaline igneous-related rare earth element (REE) deposits constitute a major global economic resource of REE. However, our understanding of their geodynamic settings and magmatic-hydrothermal processes remains uncertain. Here, we present an investigation of petrography, geochronology and mineral chemistry of newly discovered REE mineralization in...
Article
Mitigating human contributions to climate change is a highly debated topic, as it becomes evident that many nations do not adhere to optional reductions in global emission. Substantial research is taking place into negative carbon technologies that actively reduce the amount of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) via greenhouse gas removal (GGR). Vari...
Article
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The formation of large, economic borate deposits requires a boron-rich source, the means of transporting and concentrating the boron in a restricted environment, and mechanisms for the preservation of the deposit. There are several Miocene basins in western Turkey containing world-class borate reserves, with mineralization present as stratabound de...
Article
Tourmaline group minerals are typically the predominant host of boron in hydrothermal mineral deposits. Boron is a fluid-mobile element whose isotopic composition reflects many factors that are relevant to understanding mineralizing processes, including fluid source(s), fluid-rock interaction, and formational temperature. A new compilation of 2622...
Article
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Upwelling plumes from the deep mantle have an impact on the Earth's surface for tens to hundreds of millions of years. During the lifetime of a mantle plume, periodic fluctuations in its composition and temperature have the potential to generate changes in the nature and volume of surface volcanism. We constrain the spatial and temporal scale of co...
Article
The equilibrium boron isotope fractionations (α3–4, Δ11B(tour-fluid)) between tourmaline mineral groups and fluids at 0.5 GPa, 600–1000 K are investigated using density functional theory calculations. The first solvent shell controls boron isotope fractionation in solution, where the β values of both H3BO3 and B(OH)4− decrease with increasing numbe...
Article
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Glacial–interglacial changes in atmospheric CO2 are generally attributed to changes in seawater carbon chemistry in response to large-scale shifts in the ocean’s biogeochemistry and general circulation. The Southern Ocean currently takes up more CO2 than any other and it is likely to have played a crucial role in regulating past atmospheric CO2. Ho...
Article
Potassic volcanic rocks are characteristic of collisional tectonic zones, with recycling of continental crust playing an important role in their generation. Potassium-rich partial melts and/or fluids derived from subducted continental material initiate and/or mix with mantle-derived melts and then erupt at the surface with varying degrees of intera...
Article
Potassic volcanic rocks are characteristic of collisional tectonic zones, with recyclingof continental crust playing an important role in their generation. Potassium-rich partial melts and/or fluids derived from subducted continental material initiate and/or mix with mantle-derived melts and then erupt at the surface with varying degrees of interac...
Article
Full-text available
Preservation of organic carbon (C org ) in marine sediments plays a major role in defining ocean-atmosphere CO 2 levels, Earth climate, and the generation of hydrocarbons. Important controls over sedimentary C org preservation include; biological productivity, C org isolation from oxidants (mainly dissolved O 2 ) in the overlying water column and s...
Article
b>Rationale: Boron isotope analysis of marine carbonates by laser ablation multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-MC-ICP-MS) offers the potential for rapid sample throughput, and the means to examine micron scale variations in the δ<sup>11</sup>B signatures of fossil skeletons and shells/tests of marine organisms. Existing...
Article
The large-scale, high-grade Sn ores and the Cu-Sn metal association in the volcanic massive sulfide (VMS) ores in Neves Corvo are unique among VMS deposits, not only in the Iberian Pyrite Belt but also worldwide. Thus, the exceptional nature of the Neves Corvo deposit calls for unusual metallogenic processes. Previous efforts to constrain these pro...
Conference Paper
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INTRODUCTION: A major problem with metal-on-metal (MoM) hip replacements results from their potential to release wear and corrosion products in the body. The clinical implications of metal debris cover a wide spectrum of adverse local tissue reactions (ALTRs) and systemic manifestations, which can occur even in the absence of MoM bearing surfaces w...
Poster
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Here, we reveal the size, morphology, composition and speciation of debris released from CoCrMo tapers, mixed CoCrMo/Ti tapers and cement-stem ibterface, and compare the physico-chemical characteristics of the particles in relation to the origin. The comprehensive structural and chemical characterisation was performed with a high-resolution STEM (C...
Article
We present sediment pore fluid and sediment solid phase results obtained during IODP Expedition 340 from seven sites located within the Grenada Basin of the southern Lesser Antilles Volcanic Arc region. These sites are generally characterized as being low in organic carbon content and rich in calcium carbonate and volcanogenic material. In addition...
Article
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Studying the older volcanic centers on Montserrat, Centre Hills and Silver Hills, may reveal how volcanic activity can change over long time periods (≥1 Myr), and whether the recent activity at the Soufrière Hills is typical of volcanism throughout Montserrat's history. Here, we present the first detailed mapping of the Silver Hills, the oldest and...
Chapter
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Over the last twenty years applications of the boron isotope system have expanded from the analysis of boron-rich phases (e.g., tourmaline, borates) to include other materials with low B concentrations (e.g., carbonates, basaltic glass). The accurate and precise determination of the boron isotopic composition of geological materials is however a di...
Poster
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Geochronology and isotope (Sr, Nd and Pb) geochemistry of the Oligocene intrusions and associated hydrothermal mineralization in the northeast of Yenice, NW Turkey
Article
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Naturally occurring borates are the major economic source of boron. Borates were first used over 4,000 years ago in precious-metal working and are now essential components of modern industry. Although borates have been exploited from other sources, three minerals from non-marine evaporites now form the major commercial sources of borate – borax, co...
Article
Subduction zones are geologically dramatic features, with much of the drama being driven by the movement of water. The "light and lively" nature of boron, coupled with its wide variations in isotopic composition shown by the different geo-players in this drama, make it an ideal tracer for the role and movement of water during subduction. The utilit...
Article
The northern Aegean region was shaped by subduction, obduction, collision, and post-collisional extension processes. Two areas in this region, the Rhodope-Thrace-Biga Peninsula to the west and Armutlu-Almacık-Nallıhan (the Central Sakarya) to the east, are characterized by extensive Eocene to Miocene post-collisional magmatic associations. We sugge...
Article
Post-collisional Cenozoic magmatic activity in NW Anatolia produced widespread volcanism across the region. In the Biga Peninsula, in the west, medium-K calc-alkaline to ultra-K rocks with orogenic geochemical signature were emplaced at ~ 43–15 Ma (Biga orogenic volcanic rocks; BOVR). Volcanic activity in the Central Sakarya region, to the east, is...
Article
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Site U1396 was piston cored as a part of Integrated Ocean Drilling Project Expedition 340 to establish a long record for Lesser Antilles volcanism. A ∼150 m sediment succession was recovered from three holes on a bathymetric high ∼33 km southwest of Montserrat. A series of shipboard and newly-generated chronostratigraphic tools (biostratigraphy, ma...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Adverse local tissue reactions (ALTRs) to solid and soluble debris originating from metal-on-metal (MoM) hip replacements currently represent the main reason for MoM revision surgery. The introduction of modularity at the femoral components in non-MoM joints has resulted in ALTRs and pseudotumour formation due to wear and corrosion at the taper int...
Poster
Full-text available
An in-depth characterization of wear and corrosion products released from modular CoCrMo taper junctions.
Conference Paper
Metallic contacts in hip replacements are susceptible to wear and corrosion processes which lead to the release of particles and metal ions. Adverse local tissue reactions (ALTRs) and systemic manifestations to solid and soluble debris can be debilitating for the patients. It is believed that particles originating from CoCrMo taper junctions trigge...
Poster
Full-text available
Characterisation of debris from CoCrMo tapers and cement-stem interface, using SEM, TEM, STEM and EDX.
Article
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Hole U1395B, drilled southeast of Montserrat during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 340, provides a long (>1 Ma) and detailed record of eruptive and mass-wasting events (>130 discrete events). This record can be used to explore the temporal evolution in volcanic activity and landslides at an arc volcano. Analysis of tephra fall and vol...
Article
The occurrence of damage on polished femoral stems has been widely reported in the literature, and bone cement has been implicated in a tribocorrosive failure process. However, the mechanisms of cement-mediated damage and the impact of cement formulation on this process are not well understood. In this study, 13 Zimmer CPT polished femoral stems, a...
Article
During Neoproterozoic Snowball Earth glaciations, the oceans gained massive amounts of alkalinity, culminating in the deposition of massive cap carbonates on deglaciation. Changes in terrestrial runoff associated with both breakup of the Rodinia supercontinent and deglaciation can explain some, but not all of the requisite changes in ocean chemistr...
Article
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This data report focuses on Holes U1394B, U1395B, and U1396C located offshore Montserrat. These holes were drilled during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 340 and contain deposits associated with the growth and decay of the volcanic island of Montserrat. Hole U1394B dates to ~353 ka and is composed of 17 bioclastic turbidites, 24 mixed...
Article
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Large volcanic eruptions are major geohazards, so identifying their frequency in the geologic record is critical for making predictions and hazard assessments. Following the discovery of a thick (18 cm) tephra layer in marine sediments from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Site U1396 between Montserrat and Guadeloupe in the Caribbean Sea, w...
Article
Using strontium isotope measurements on the teeth of fallow deer found at Fishhourne, the authors argue that these elegant creatures were first introduced into Britain as a gift to the Romanised aristocracy. Kept and bred in a special enclosure at the palace, they provided more than a status symbol and gastronomic treat: the fallow deer was an embl...
Article
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Recent studies hypothesize that some submarine slides fail via pressure-driven slow-slip deformation. To test this hypothesis, this study derives pore pressures in failed and adjacent unfailed deep marine sediments by integrating rock physics models, physical property measurements on recovered sediment core, and wireline logs. Two drill sites (U139...
Article
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Major and trace element compositions with Sr–Nd isotopic ratios, as well as Ar–Ar radiometric ages of the Miocene volcanic rocks from the Neogene units around Simav region (western Anatolia), are used to discuss the genetic relationship between (1) high-voluminous Lower–Middle Miocene high-potassic, calc-alkaline (HKCA) and (2) Middle Miocene small...
Article
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Volcanic edifice collapses generate some of Earth's largest landslides. How such unloading affects the magma storage systems is important for both hazard assessment and for determining long-term controls on volcano growth and decay. Here we present a detailed stratigraphic and petrological analyses of volcanic landslide and eruption deposits offsho...
Article
Full-text available
Mafic magmas are common in subduction zone settings, yet their high density restricts their ascent to the surface. Once stalled in the crust, these magmas may differentiate, assimilate crust and other melts and mushes to produce hybridised intermediate magmas. The Soufriere Hills Volcano on Montserrat is a ?type locality? for these hybridisation pr...