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Martin G. Mlynczak

Martin G. Mlynczak
NASA · Langley Research Center

Ph.D., Atmospheric Science

About

540
Publications
41,096
Reads
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11,715
Citations
Introduction
I conduct basic research into the energy balance and climate of the atmosphere from Earth’s surface to the edge of Space. I lead the development of innovative techniques (instruments, technology, models, algorithms) to remotely sense the atmosphere from satellites, suborbital rockets, aircraft, high altitude balloons, and the ground. The range of topics presently studied spans solar-terrestrial coupling in the thermosphere to climate feedback processes due to tropospheric water vapor & cirrus.
Additional affiliations
January 2000 - present
NASA
May 1978 - May 1981
University of Missouri - St. Louis
Position
  • Research Assistant
Education
August 1986 - August 1989
University of Michigan
Field of study
  • Atmospheric Science

Publications

Publications (540)
Article
Full-text available
Water vapor in the middle atmosphere plays an essential role in global warming, ozone depletion, and the formation of polar stratospheric and mesospheric clouds. We show that tropical middle atmospheric water vapor simulated with the specified-dynamics version of the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (SD-WACCM) is consistent with changes obs...
Article
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In the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) region, residual circulations driven by gravity wave breaking and dissipation significantly impact constituent distribution and the height and temperature of the mesopause. The distribution of CO2 can be used as a proxy for the residual circulations. Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission...
Article
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Atomic oxygen (O) in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) results from a balance between production via photo‐dissociation in the lower thermosphere and chemical loss by recombination in the upper mesosphere. The transport of O downward from the lower thermosphere into the mesosphere is preferentially driven by the eddy diffusion process tha...
Article
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Gravity waves play a significant role in driving the semiannual oscillation (SAO) of the zonal wind in the tropics. However, detailed knowledge of this forcing is missing, and direct estimates from global observations of gravity waves are sparse. For the period 2002–2018, we investigate the SAO in four different reanalyses: ERA-Interim, JRA-55, ERA...
Preprint
Full-text available
An intriguing and rare gravity wave event was recorded on the night of 25 April 2017 using a multiwavelength all-sky airglow imager over northern Germany. The airglow imaging observations at multiple altitudes in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere region reveal that a prominent upward-propagating wave structure appeared in O(1S) and O2 airglow i...
Article
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Recently, citizen scientist photographs led to the discovery of a new auroral form called “the dune aurora” which exhibits parallel stripes of brighter emission in the green diffuse aurora at about 100 km altitude. This discovery raised several questions, such as (i) whether the dunes are associated with particle precipitation, (ii) whether their s...
Preprint
Full-text available
Gravity waves play a significant role in driving the semiannual oscillation (SAO) of the zonal wind in the tropics. However, detailed knowledge of this forcing is missing, and direct estimates from global observations of gravity waves are sparse. For the period 2002–2018, we investigate the SAO in four different reanalyses: ERA-Interim, JRA-55, ERA...
Article
Ongoing climate change in Earth’s middle and upper atmosphere will affect the rapidly expanding space and telecommunications sectors. Maintaining observations of this region is more crucial than ever.
Article
The spectroscopy of the  = 1   = 0 fundamental vibration-rotation band of nitric oxide (NO) in Earths‟ atmosphere is examined in depth in order to further assess the long-running dataset of infrared radiative cooling rates in the thermosphere from the SABER instrument on the NASA TIMED satellite. The fundamental band at 5.3 m is shown to be alm...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract NRLMSIS® 2.0 is an empirical atmospheric model that extends from the ground to the exobase and describes the average observed behavior of temperature, eight species densities, and mass density via a parametric analytic formulation. The model inputs are location, day of year, time of day, solar activity, and geomagnetic activity. NRLMSIS 2....
Article
An undular mesospheric bore event has been recorded over the western Himalayan region in O(¹S) 557.7 nm airglow images on a clear and moonless night of 02 October 2018 using a multi-wavelength all-sky imager at Hanle, Leh Ladakh, India (32.77°N, 79.97°E). The bore has a prominent leading dark front followed by trailing waves and it propagates with...
Article
Full-text available
Airglow spectrometers, as they are operated within the Network for the Detection of Mesospheric Change (NDMC; https://ndmc.dlr.de, last access: 1 November 2020), for example, allow the derivation of rotational temperatures which are equivalent to the kinetic temperature, local thermodynamic equilibrium provided. Temperature variations at the height...
Article
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This paper characterizes the impacts of sudden stratospheric warmings (SSWs) and mesospheric coolings (MCs) on the light species distribution (i.e., helium [He], and atomic hydrogen [H]) of the thermosphere using a combined data‐modeling approach. Performing a set of numerical experiments with a general circulation model whose middle atmospheric dy...
Article
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Two upcoming missions are scheduled to provide novel spaceborne observations of upwelling far-infrared spectra. In this study, the accuracy of ice cloud property retrievals using spaceborne middle-to-far-infrared (MIR-FIR) measurements is examined toward a better understanding of retrieval biases and uncertainties. Theoretical sensitivity studies d...
Article
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The exchange of energy between the lower atmosphere and the ionosphere thermosphere system is not well understood. One of the parameters that is important in the lower thermosphere is atomic oxygen. It has recently been observed that atomic oxygen is higher in summer at ∼95 km. In this study, we investigate the sensitivity of the upper thermosphere...
Article
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The outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) emitted to space is a fundamental component of the Earth’s energy budget. There are numerous, entangled physical processes that contribute to OLR and that are responsible for driving, and responding to, climate change. Spectrally resolved observations can disentangle these processes, but technical limitations h...
Preprint
Full-text available
Abstract. Airglow spectrometers as they are operated within the Network for the Detection of Mesospheric Change (NDMC, https://ndmc.dlr.de , for example, allow the derivation of rotational temperatures which are equivalent to the kinetic temperature, local thermodynamic equilibrium provided. Temperature variations at the height of the airglow layer...
Article
Full-text available
The search for life in the Universe is a fundamental problem of astrobiology and modern science. The current progress in the detection of terrestrial-type exoplanets has opened a new avenue in the characterization of exoplanetary atmospheres and in the search for biosignatures of life with the upcoming ground-based and space missions. To specify th...
Article
Full-text available
ePDFPDF Tools Share Abstract This work reports the analysis of the local‐time variations of daytime CO2 in the Upper Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (UMLT) region as observed by the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument onboard the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) Sate...
Article
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There has been much work on the value of learning about climate and the value of information regarding the climatic system. The present research moves beyond an abstract hypothesis about future learning and considers concrete Earth Observing Systems that could enhance knowledge of the climatic system and better inform decision makers. This study sh...
Article
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The SABER instrument on the NASA TIMED satellite continues to provide a long-term record of Earth’s stratosphere, mesosphere, and lower thermosphere. The SABER data are being used to examine long-term changes and trends in temperature, water vapor, and carbon dioxide. A tacit, central assumption of these analyses is that the SABER instrument radiom...
Article
Full-text available
A new model of exospheric temperatures has been developed, with the objective of predicting global values with greater spatial and temporal accuracy. From these temperatures, the neutral densities in the thermosphere can be calculated, through use of the Naval Research Laboratory Mass Spectrometer and Incoherent Scatter radar Extended (NRLMSISE‐00)...
Article
Full-text available
Water vapor (H2O) measurements made by the SABER instrument between 2002 and 2018 and by the MLS instrument between 2004 and 2018 are analyzed to determine the linear trend and solar cycle response of H2O in the stratosphere and mesosphere. Both SABER and MLS show a rapid global H2O increase of 5-6% per decade in the lower stratosphere after the 20...
Article
Full-text available
Analyzing Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) observations from 2003 to 2018, the interannual variability of 2–5d eastward propagating planetary waves is found to correlate positively with zonal‐mean zonal winds averaged over 67.5°±10°S but negatively with the quasi‐biennial oscillation (QBO) index in austral wint...
Article
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The second Radiative Heating in Underexplored Bands Campaign (RHUBC‐II) was conducted in 2009 by the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program to improve water vapor spectroscopy in the far‐infrared spectral region. RHUBC‐II was located in an extremely dry region of Chile to ensure very low opacities in this spectral regio...
Article
Electronically excited states of molecular and atomic oxygen (O2 and O) are coupled with each other as well as with the ground states of O2 and O in the Multiple Airglow Chemistry (MAC) model representing the oxygen airglow and the oxygen photochemistry in the upper Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere region. The MAC model couples seven O2 and three...
Article
Full-text available
In January and February 2016, the OH airglow camera system FAIM (Fast Airglow Imager) measured during six flights on board the research aircraft FALCON in northern Scandinavia. Flight 1 (14 January 2016) covering the same ground track in several flight legs and flight 5 (28 January 2016) along the shoreline of Norway are discussed in detail in this...
Preprint
Full-text available
The current progress in the detection of terrestrial type exoplanets has opened a new avenue in the characterization of exoplanetary atmospheres and in the search for biosignatures of life with the upcoming ground-based and space missions. To specify the conditions favorable for the origin, development and sustainment of life as we know it in other...
Article
Full-text available
The Global UltraViolet Imager (GUVI) onboard the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite provides a dataset of vertical thermospheric composition (O, N2 and O2 densities) and temperature profiles from 2002-2007. Even though GUVI sampling is limited by orbital constraint, we demonstrated that the GUVI data set ca...
Article
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In order to understand the characteristics of long‐lasting “C‐type” structure in the Sodium (Na) lidargram, six cases from different observational locations have been analyzed. The Na lidargram, collected from low, mid and high latitude sites, show long lifetime of the “C‐type” structures which is believed to be the manifestation of Kelvin‐Helmholt...
Article
Full-text available
This paper discusses the solar cycle variation of the DE3 and DE2 nonmigrating tides in the nitric oxide (NO) 5.3 μm and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) 15 μm infrared cooling between 100 and 150 km altitude and ±40° latitude. Tidal diagnostics of SABER NO and CO 2 cooling rate data (2002–2013) indicate DE3 (DE2) amplitudes during solar maximum are on the o...
Article
Full-text available
Based on the zero-dimensional box model Module Efficiently Calculating the Chemistry of the Atmosphere/Chemistry As A Box model Application (CAABA/MECCA-3.72f), an OH airglow model was developed to derive night-time number densities of atomic oxygen ([O(³P)]) and atomic hydrogen ([H]) in the mesopause region ( ∼ 75–100 km). The profiles of [O(³P)]...
Article
Full-text available
We use data from two NASA satellites, the Thermosphere Ionosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) and the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) satellites, in conjunction with model simulations from the thermosphere-ionosphere-mesosphere-electrodynamics general circulation model (TIME-GCM) to elucidate the key dynamical and chemical factors gover...
Article
Full-text available
In January and February 2016, the OH-airglow camera system FAIM (Fast Airglow Imager) measured during six flights on board the research aircraft FALCON in Northern Scandinavia. Flight 1 (14th January 2016) covering the same ground track in several flight legs and flight 5 (28th January 2016) along the shoreline of Norway are discussed in detail in...
Article
Full-text available
Observations of thermospheric infrared radiative cooling by carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitric oxide (NO) from 2002 to 2018 are presented. The time span covers more than 6,000 days including most of solar cycle (SC) 23 and the entirety of SC 24 to date. Maxima of infrared cooling rate profiles (nW/m³) are smaller during SC 24 than SC 23, indicating a...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents measurements of the amplitudes and timings of the combined, annual, and semiannual variations of thermospheric neutral density, and a comparison of these density variations with measurements of the infrared emissions from carbon dioxide and nitric oxide in the thermosphere. The density values were obtained from measurements of t...
Article
This study focuses on the effects of polar mesospheric cloud (PMC) formation on the chemical environment of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. Of specific interest is how the dehydration due to mesospheric ice particle formation leads to significant seasonal decreases in the atomic hydrogen near the mesopause at middle to high latitudes. Using...
Article
Full-text available
The Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument on board the TIMED satellite has been continuously operating for more than 16 years, since 2002, monitoring the CO2 concentration on nearly a global scale in the middle and upper atmosphere (from 65 km up to 110 km). A recent reanalysis (Qian et al., 2017, https:/...
Article
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Radiometry (SABER) instrument performs near-global measurements of the vertical kinetic temperature (Tk) profiles and volume mixing ratios of various trace species (including O3, CO2,...
Article
Full-text available
An OH airglow model was developed to derive night-time atomic oxygen (O(³P)) and atomic hydrogen (H) from satellite OH airglow observations in the mesopause region (~75–100km). The OH airglow model is based on the zero dimensional box model CAABA/MECCA-3.72f and was empirically adjusted to fit four different OH airglow emissions observed by the sat...
Article
Full-text available
This work uses SABER CO2 data from 2002 to 2015 and SD-WACCM model outputs from 1979 to 2014 to show, for the first time, the solar cycle response of CO2 in the Austral winter Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere region (MLT region). Both SABER and SD-WACCM show that CO2 experiences a decrease during solar maximum throughout the Austral winter MLT reg...
Article
Full-text available
For the first time, we present an approach to derive zonal, meridional, and vertical wavelengths as well as periods of gravity waves based on only one OH* spectrometer, addressing one vibrational-rotational transition. Knowledge of these parameters is a precondition for the calculation of further information, such as the wave group velocity vector....
Article
Updated night atomic oxygen concentration (O) profiles from the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration TIMED satellite are presented. These are derived from measurements of the OH(υ = 9 + 8) volume emission rates and photochemical balance relationships....
Article
Full-text available
Gravity waves are one of the main drivers of atmospheric dynamics. The spatial resolution of most global atmospheric models, however, is too coarse to properly resolve the small scales of gravity waves, which range from tens to a few thousand kilometers horizontally, and from below 1 km to tens of kilometers vertically. Gravity wave source processe...
Article
We present the first-ever global assessment of thermospheric nitric oxide infrared radiative flux (NOF) variability. NOF (W/m²) from 100- to 250-km altitude is extracted from 13.7 years of data from the TIMED satellite, Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument, and decomposed into four empirical orthogonal f...
Article
Full-text available
Infrared radiative cooling by nitric oxide (NO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) modulates the thermosphere's density and thermal response to geomagnetic storms. Satellite tracking and collision avoidance planning require accurate density forecasts during these events. Over the past several years, failed density forecasts have been tied to the onset of rap...
Article
Full-text available
We investigate atomic hydrogen (H) variability from the mesopause to the upper thermosphere, on time scales of solar cycle, seasonal, and diurnal, using measurements made by the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) instrument on the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics Dynamics (TIMED) satellite, and simul...