# Martin LeibHeriot-Watt University · Institute of Photonics and Quantum Sciences (IPaQS)

Martin Leib

Doctor of Philosophy

## About

43

Publications

12,346

Reads

**How we measure 'reads'**

A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more

2,434

Citations

Introduction

Additional affiliations

January 2012 - present

## Publications

Publications (43)

20-QUBIT QUANTUM COMPUTER 3 Quantum computing has tremendous potential to overcome some of the fundamental limitations present in classical information processing. Yet, today's technological limitations in the quality and scaling prevent exploiting its full potential. Quantum computing based on superconduct-ing quantum processing units (QPUs) is am...

Quantum computing has tremendous potential to overcome some of the fundamental limitations present in classical information processing. Yet, today's technological limitations in the quality and scaling prevent exploiting its full potential. Quantum computing based on superconducting quantum processing units (QPUs) is among the most promising approa...

We present an empirical analysis of the scaling of the minimal quantum circuit depth required for a variational quantum simulation (VQS) method to obtain a solution to the time evolution of a quantum system within a predefined error tolerance. In a comparison against a non-variational method based on Trotterized time evolution, we observe a better...

We consider the maximum cut and maximum independent set problems on random regular graphs, and calculate the energy densities achieved by QAOA for high regularities up to $d=100$. Such an analysis is possible because the reverse causal cones of the operators in the Hamiltonian are associated with tree subgraphs, for which efficient classical contra...

We present a general strategy for mapping fermionic systems to quantum hardware with square qubit connectivity which yields low-depth quantum circuits, counted in the number of native two-qubit fSIM gates. We achieve this by leveraging novel operator decomposition and circuit compression techniques paired with specifically chosen low-depth fermion-...

We show how to efficiently decompose a parameterized multi-qubit Pauli (PMQP) gate into native parameterized two-qubit Pauli (P2QP) gates minimizing both the circuit depth and the number of P2QP gates. Given a realistic quantum computational model, we argue that the technique is optimal in terms of the number of hardware native gates and the overal...

We show how to efficiently decompose a parameterized multi-qubit Pauli (PMQP) gate into native parameterized two-qubit Pauli (P2QP) gates minimizing both the circuit depth and the number of P2QP gates. Given a realistic quantum computational model, we argue that the technique is optimal in terms of the number of hardware native gates and the overal...

We present a general strategy for mapping fermionic systems to quantum hardware with square qubit connectivity which yields low-depth quantum circuits, counted in the number of native two-qubit fSIM gates. We achieve this by leveraging novel operator decomposition and circuit compression techniques paired with specifically chosen fermion-to-qubit m...

Quantum computers have the potential to efficiently simulate the dynamics of nanoscale NMR systems. In this work, we demonstrate that a noisy intermediate-scale quantum computer can be used to simulate and predict nanoscale NMR resonances. In order to minimize the required gate fidelities, we propose a superconducting application-specific Co-Design...

Quantum computers have the potential to efficiently simulate the dynamics of nanoscale NMR systems. In this work we demonstrate that a noisy intermediate-scale quantum computer can be used to simulate and predict nanoscale NMR resonances. In order to minimize the required gate fidelities, we propose a superconducting application-specific Co-Design...

Quantum computing promises to overcome computational limitations with better and faster solutions for optimization, simulation, and machine learning problems. Europe and Germany are in the process of successfully establishing research and funding programs with the objective to advance the technology’s ecosystem and industrialization, thereby ensuri...

In this work we develop methods to optimize an industrially-relevant logistics problem using quantum computing. We consider the scenario of partially filled trucks transporting shipments between a network of hubs. By selecting alternative routes for some shipment paths, we optimize the trade-off between merging partially filled trucks using fewer t...

The binary paint shop problem (BPSP) is an APX-hard optimization problem of the automotive industry. In this work, we show how to use the quantum approximate optimization algorithm (QAOA) to find solutions of the BPSP. We demonstrate that QAOA with constant depth is able to beat all known heuristics for the binary paint shop problem on average in t...

With the increased focus on quantum circuit learning for near-term applications on quantum devices, in conjunction with unique challenges presented by cost function landscapes of parametrized quantum circuits, strategies for effective training are becoming increasingly important. In order to ameliorate some of these challenges, we investigate a lay...

Quantum circuits with local particle-number conservation restrict the quantum computation to a subspace of the Hilbert space of the qubit register. In a noiseless or fault-tolerant quantum computation, such quantities are preserved. In the presence of noise, however, the evolution's symmetry could be broken and nonvalid states could be sampled at t...

Faster algorithms for combinatorial optimization could prove transformative for diverse areas such as logistics, finance and machine learning. Accordingly, the possibility of quantum enhanced optimization has driven much interest in quantum technologies. Here we demonstrate the application of the Google Sycamore superconducting qubit quantum proces...

Quantum circuits with local particle number conservation (LPNC) restrict the quantum computation to a subspace of the Hilbert space of the qubit register. In a noiseless or fault-tolerant quantum computation, such quantities are preserved. In the presence of noise, however, the evolution's symmetry could be broken and non-valid states could be samp...

The binary paint shop problem (BPSP) is an APX-hard optimization problem of the automotive industry. In this work, we show how to use the Quantum Approximate Optimization Algorithm (QAOA) to find solutions of the BPSP and demonstrate that QAOA with constant depth is able to beat classical heuristics on average in the infinite size limit $n\rightarr...

We present a thorough investigation of problems that can be solved exactly with the level-1 quantum approximate optimization algorithm (QAOA). To this end, we implicitly define a class of problem Hamiltonians that are employed as phase separators in a level-1 QAOA circuit and provide unit overlap with a target subspace spanned by a set of computati...

We present a thorough investigation of problems that can be solved exactly with the level-1 Quantum Approximate Optimization Algorithm (QAOA). To this end we implicitly define a class of problem Hamiltonians that employed as phase separator in a level-1 QAOA circuit provide unit overlap with a target subspace spanned by a set of computational basis...

With the increased focus on quantum circuit learning for near-term applications on quantum devices, in conjunction with unique challenges presented by cost function landscapes of parametrized quantum circuits, strategies for effective training are becoming increasingly important. In order to ameliorate some of these challenges, we investigate a lay...

In this paper, we eliminate the classical outer learning loop of the quantum approximate optimization algorithm (QAOA) and present a strategy to find good parameters for QAOA based on topological arguments of the problem graph and tensor network techniques. Starting from the observation of the concentration of control parameters of QAOA, we find a...

We demonstrate the application of the Google Sycamore superconducting qubit quantum processor to discrete optimization problems with the quantum approximate optimization algorithm (QAOA). We execute the QAOA across a variety of problem sizes and circuit depths for random instances of the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model and 3-regular MaxCut, both high...

We introduce TensorFlow Quantum (TFQ), an open source library for the rapid prototyping of hybrid quantum-classical models for classical or quantum data. This framework offers high-level abstractions for the design and training of both discriminative and generative quantum models under TensorFlow and supports high-performance quantum circuit simula...

In this paper, we eliminate the classical outer learning loop of the Quantum Approximate Optimization Algorithm (QAOA) and present a strategy to find good parameters for QAOA based on topological arguments of the problem graph and tensor network techniques. Starting from the observation of the concentration of control parameters of QAOA, we find a...

Quantum annealing devices have been subject to various analyses in order to classify their usefulness for practical applications. While it has been successfully proven that such systems can in general be used for solving combinatorial optimization problems, they have not been used to solve chemistry applications. In this paper we apply a mapping, p...

We present a comparison between the Quantum Approximate Optimization Algorithm (QAOA) and two widely studied competing methods, Quantum Annealing (QA) and Simulated Annealing (SA). To achieve this, we define a class of optimization problems with respect to their spectral properties which are exactly solvable with QAOA. In this class, we identify in...

Quantum annealing devices have been subject to various analyses in order to classify their usefulness for practical applications. While it has been successfully proven that such systems can in general be used for solving combinatorial optimization problems, they have not been used to solve chemistry applications. In this paper we apply a mapping, p...

Adiabatic quantum computing is an analog quantum computing scheme with various applications in solving optimization problems. In the parity picture of quantum optimization, the problem is encoded in local fields that act on qubits which are connected via local 4-body terms. We present an implementation of a parity annealer with Transmon qubits with...

We study the properties of an array of QED-cavities coupled by nonlinear
elements in the presence of photon leakage and driven by a coherent source. The
main effect of the nonlinear couplings is to provide an effective cross-Kerr
interaction between nearest-neighbor cavities. Additionally correlated photon
hopping between neighboring cavities arise...

We consider a superconducting coplanar waveguide resonator where the central
conductor is interrupted by a series of uniformly spaced Josephson junctions.
The device forms an extended medium that is optically nonlinear on the single
photon level with normal modes that inherit the full nonlinearity of the
junctions but are nonetheless accessible via...

We introduce a circuit quantum electrodynamical setup for a "single-photon" transistor. In our approach photons propagate in two open transmission lines that are coupled via two interacting transmon qubits. The interaction is such that no photons are exchanged between the two transmission lines but a single photon in one line can completely block o...

In its infancy circuit quantum electrodynamics (cQED) has quickly started reproducing fundamental quantum optical experiments, e.g. observation of vacuum rabi oscillations in frequency and time domain, with unprecedented cooperativity. This was possible because of the large coupling of the quasi one-dimensional microwave field of the superconductin...

We introduce and study the properties of an array of QED cavities coupled by nonlinear elements, in the presence of photon leakage and driven by a coherent source. The nonlinear couplings lead to photon hopping and to nearest-neighbor Kerr terms. By tuning the system parameters, the steady state of the array can exhibit a photon crystal associated...

We present the Josephson junction intersected superconducting transmission
line resonator. In contrast to the Josephson parametric amplifier, Josephson
bifurcation amplifier and Josephson parametric converter we consider the regime
of few microwave photons. We review the derivation of eigenmode frequencies and
zero point fluctuations of the nonline...

We study thermal emission of a cavity quantum electrodynamic system in the
ultrastrong-coupling regime where the atom-cavity coupling rate becomes
comparable the cavity resonance frequency. In this regime, the standard
descriptions of photodetection and dissipation fail. Following an approach that
was recently put forward by Ridolfo et al.[arXiv:12...

This document provides supplementary information on the approach that leads to the results presented in the main text of "Photon Blockade in the Ultrastrong Coupling Regime"

We explore photon coincidence counting statistics in the ultrastrong coupling regime, where the atomcavity coupling rate becomes comparable to the cavity resonance frequency. In this regime, usual normal order correlation functions fail to describe the output photon statistics. By expressing the electric-field operator in the cavity-emitter dressed...

We investigate a network of coupled superconducting transmission line
resonators, each of them made nonlinear with a capacitively shunted Josephson
junction coupling to the odd flux modes of the resonator. The resulting
eigenmode spectrum shows anticrossings between the plasma mode of the shunted
junction and the odd resonator modes. Notably, we fi...

We investigate a chain of superconducting stripline resonators, each interacting with a transmon qubit, that are capacitively coupled in a row. We show that the dynamics of this system can be described by a Bose–Hubbard Hamiltonian with attractive interactions for polaritons, superpositions of photons and qubit excitations. This setup, we envisage,...

We investigate a chain of superconducting stripline resonators, each interacting with a transmon qubit, that are capacitively coupled in a row. We show that the dynamics of this system can be described by a Bose–Hubbard Hamiltonian with attractive interactions for polaritons, superpositions of photons and qubit excitations. This setup, we envisage,...