Martin Lauritzen

Martin Lauritzen
University of Copenhagen · Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology

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43
Publications
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921
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Publications

Publications (43)
Article
Reduced cerebrovascular response to neuronal activation is observed in patients with neurodegenerative disease. In the present study, we examined the correlation between reduced cerebrovascular response to visual activation (ΔCBF Vis.Act ) and subclinical cognitive deficits in a human population of mid-sixties individuals without neurodegenerative...
Article
Full-text available
Treatment of brain disorders relies on efficient delivery of therapeutics to the brain, which is hindered by the blood–brain barrier (BBB). The work of Prof. Margareta Hammarlund-Udenaes was instrumental in understanding the principles of drug delivery to the brain and developing new tools to study it. Here, we show how some of the concepts develop...
Preprint
Increases in adsorptive mediated transcytosis (AMT) at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) are linked to many brain disorders. In a healthy brain, AMT is suppressed by sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor 1 (S1PR1) signaling. Low levels of S1P lead to a rise in AMT, but the mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here, we explored whether the rises in...
Preprint
Neurovascular coupling (NVC) modulates cerebral blood flow to match increased metabolic demand during neuronal excitation. Activation of inhibitory interneurons also increase blood flow, but the basis for this inhibitory NVC is unclear. We performed two-photon microscopy in awake mice to examine the correlation between astrocytic Ca2+ and NVC, evok...
Article
Objective In critical care, continuous EEG (cEEG) monitoring is useful for delirium diagnosis. Although visual cEEG analysis is most commonly used, automatic cEEG analysis has shown promising results in small samples. Here we aimed to compare visual versus automatic cEEG analysis for delirium diagnosis in septic patients. Methods We obtained cEEG...
Article
The neurovascular coupling ensures that cerebral activity is matched by the relevant blood flow. The control of the blood flow is mediated by capillaries and by the precapillary aterioles. It is the tone of the mural cells, which include pericytes, smooth muscle cells and cells with intermediate phenotypes between pericytes and smooth muscle cells,...
Article
Brain capillary pericytes have been suggested to play a role in the regulation of cerebral blood-flow under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. ATP has been shown to cause constriction of capillaries under ischemic conditions and suggested to be involved in the "no-reflow" phenomenon. In order to investigate the effects of extracellula...
Article
Studies exploring age-related brain and cognitive change have identified substantial heterogeneity among individuals, but the underlying reasons for the differential trajectories remain largely unknown. We investigated cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between brain-imaging phenotypes (IDPs) and cognitive ability, and how these relation...
Article
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Novel stroke therapies are needed. Inhibition of the interaction between the postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95)/disc large/ZO-1 (PDZ) domains of PSD-95 and the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor has been suggested as a strategy for relieving neuronal damage. The peptides NR2B9c and N-dimer have been designed to hinder this interaction; they are con...
Preprint
Full-text available
Neurotransmitter-mediated signaling correlates strongly to changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF), and functional neuroimaging relies on the robust coupling between activity and CBF, i.e. neurovascular coupling (NVC). We here reveal that key endothelial signaling molecules, nitric oxide (eNO) and endothelin-1 (ET1), modulate pericyte contractility an...
Article
Objective: A central concern in aging is the preservation of cognitive skills. Tools to detect cognitive decline are sparse. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether cognitive decline is accompanied by alterations in the temporal dynamics of steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs). Methods: We included 162 men from the Danish Metrop...
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Full-text available
Active nerve cells release vasodilators that increase their energy supply by dilating local blood vessels, a mechanism termed neurovascular coupling and the basis of BOLD functional neuroimaging signals. Here, we reveal a mechanism for cerebral blood flow control, a precapillary sphincter at the transition between the penetrating arteriole and firs...
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Full-text available
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is formed by the endothelial cells lining cerebral microvessels, but how blood-borne signaling molecules influence permeability is incompletely understood. We here examined how the apolipoprotein M (apoM)-bound sphingosine 1–phosphate (S1P) signaling pathway affects the BBB in different categories of cerebral microvess...
Article
There is a pressing need to identify markers of cognitive and neural decline in healthy late-midlife participants. We explored the relationship between cross-sectional structural brain-imaging derived phenotypes (IDPs) and cognitive ability, demographic, health and lifestyle factors (non-IDPs). Participants were recruited from the 1953 Danish Male...
Article
Full-text available
Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) induces ischemia characterized by a densely ischemic focus, and a less densely ischemic penumbral zone in which neurons and astrocytes display age-dependent dynamic variations in spontaneous Ca2+ activities. However, it is unknown whether penumbral nerve cells respond to sensory stimulation early after stroke...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates the association between intelligence and brain power responses to a passive audiovisual stimulation. We measure the power of gamma-range steady-state responses (SSRs) as well as intelligence and other aspects of neurocognitive function in 40 healthy males born in 1953. The participants are a part of a Danish birth cohort stu...
Article
Background Delirium is a disturbance of consciousness characterized by acute onset and fluctuating course of attention and cognition and it is associated with cognitive decline. The objective of this project was to explore whether continuous recording of EEG (cEEG) was useful to identify delirium in septic patients. Accordingly, we examined the hyp...
Article
Active nerve cells produce and release vasodilators that increase their energy supply by dilating local blood vessels, a mechanism termed neurovascular coupling, which is the basis of the BOLD (blood-oxygen-level-dependent) functional neuroimaging signals. We here reveal a unique mechanism for cerebral blood flow control, a precapillary sphincter a...
Preprint
Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) induces ischemia characterized by a densely ischemic focus, and a less densely ischemic penumbral zone in which neurons and astrocytes display age-dependent dynamic variations in spontaneous Ca ²⁺ activities. However, it is unknown whether penumbral nerve cells respond to sensory stimulation early after strok...
Preprint
Full-text available
Gamma activity arises from the interplay between pyramidal neurons and fast-spiking parvalbumin (PV) interneurons, is an integral part of higher cognitive functions and is assumed to contribute importantly to brain metabolic responses. Cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO ² ) responses were evoked by optogenetic stimulation of cortical PV intern...
Article
Background Delirium is common during sepsis, although under-recognized. We aimed to assess the value of continuous electroencephalography (cEEG) to aid in the diagnosis of delirium in septic patients. Methods We prospectively evaluated 102 consecutive patients in a medical intensive care unit (ICU), who had sepsis or septic shock, without evidence...
Article
Experimental focal cortical ischemic lesions consist of an ischemic core and a potentially salvageable peri‐ischemic region, the ischemic penumbra. The activity of neurons and astrocytes is assumed to be suppressed in the penumbra because the electrical function is interrupted, but this is incompletely elucidated. Most experimental stroke studies u...
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Full-text available
The endothelial cells that form the blood-brain barrier (BBB) are coated with glycocalyx, on the luminal side, and with the basement membrane and astrocyte endfeet, on the abluminal side. However, it is unclear how exactly the glycocalyx and extravascular structures contribute to BBB properties. We used two-photon microscopy in anesthetized mice to...
Article
Key points summary: GABA is an essential molecule for sensory information processing. It is usually assumed to be released by neurons. Here we show that in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, astrocytes respond to glutamate by releasing GABA. Our findings suggest a novel role for astrocytes in somatosensory information processing. Abstract: Astr...
Article
Spreading depolarization is assumed to be the mechanism of migraine with aura, which is accompanied by an initial predominant hyperaemic response followed by persistent vasoconstriction. Cerebral blood flow responses are impaired in patients and in experimental animals after spreading depolarization. Understanding the regulation of cortical blood v...
Article
Full-text available
Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is regulated by the activity of neurons and astrocytes. Understanding how these cells control activity-dependent increases in CBF is crucial to interpreting functional neuroimaging signals. The relative importance of neurons and astrocytes is debated, as are the functional implications of fast Ca2+ changes in astrocytes ve...
Article
Objective: Familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 (FHM1) is a subtype of migraine with aura caused by a gain-of-function mutation in the pore-forming α1 subunit of CaV 2.1 (P/Q-type) calcium channels. However, the mechanisms underlying how the disease is brought about and the prolonged aura remain incompletely understood. Methods: In the anesthetiz...
Article
Higher cognitive functions depend critically on synchronized network activity in the gamma range (30–100 Hz), which results from activity of fast-spiking parvalbumin-positive (PV) interneurons. Here, we examined synaptic activity in the gamma band in relation to PV interneuron activity, stimulation-induced calcium activity in neurons and astrocytes...
Article
Full-text available
Reliable detection of calcium waves in multiphoton imaging data is challenging because of the low signal-to-noise ratio and because of the unpredictability of the time and location of these spontaneous events. This paper describes our approach to calcium wave detection and reconstruction based on a modified multiscale vision model, an object detect...
Article
Full-text available
Neural activity regulates local increases in cerebral blood flow (ΔCBF) and the cortical metabolic rate of oxygen (ΔCMRO2) that constitutes the basis of BOLD functional neuroimaging signals. Glutamate signaling plays a key role in brain vascular and metabolic control; however, the modulatory effect of GABA is incompletely understood. Here we perfor...
Article
Brain's electrical activity correlates strongly to changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO(2)). Subthreshold synaptic processes correlate better than the spike rates of principal neurons to CBF, CMRO(2) and positive BOLD signals. Stimulation-induced rises in CMRO(2) are controlled by the ATP turnover, wh...
Article
We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) to study the negative blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal and its underlying blood flow changes in healthy human subjects. This was combined with psychophysiological measurements to test that the negative BOLD signal is associated with functional...
Article
Electrical stimulation of the infraorbital nerve was used to examine the coupling between neuronal activity and cerebral blood flow (CBF) in rat somatosensory cortex by laser Doppler flowmetry and extracellular recordings of field potentials.The relationship between field potential (FP) and CBF amplitudes was examined as a function of the stimulus...

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Projects (2)
Project
We investigate brain drug delivery using primary and immortalized cell culture models. Special focus is on receptor systems, uptake and efflux transporters.