Martin Jakob

Martin Jakob
TEP Energy · Energy modeling, research and advice

PhD (Energy economics); Dipl. Phys-Ing.
Focusing on the decarbonisation of the built environment adopting a spatial approach to tap renewable energy sources.

About

89
Publications
28,100
Reads
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1,457
Citations
Introduction
How to achieve decarbonisation of the built environment is a challenge for policy makers, authorities, building owners, municipalities, and particularly energy utilities. To support these stakeholders with innovative methods and models at various scales, taking into account technological, economic, and policy aspects (TEP), is inspiring me.
Additional affiliations
January 2018 - present
CUES
Position
  • Affiliate
Description
  • Senior science-to-market project manager.
August 2008 - present
TEP Energy
Position
  • Executive
Description
  • Executive partner, responsible for project acquisition, business development, methological advancement.
December 2000 - July 2008
ETH Zurich
Position
  • Senior Researcher
Education
May 2003 - July 2008
ETH Zurich
Field of study
  • Energy economics
October 1985 - December 1989

Publications

Publications (89)
Article
Buildings are responsible for 38% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and, therefore, pathways to reduce their impact are crucial to achieve climate targets. Building stock energy models (BSEMs) have long been used as a tool to assess the current and future energy demand and environmental impact of building stocks. BSEMs have become more and m...
Conference Paper
Uncertainty Analysis (UA) and Sensitivity Analysis (SA) offer essential tools to determine the limits of inference of a model and explore the factors which have the most effect on the model outputs. However, despite a wellestablished body of work applying UA and SA to models of individual buildings, a review of the literature relating to energy mod...
Technical Report
Full-text available
With an online survey, the most important parameters for estimating electricity consumption (installed capacity, PUE, utilisation) and energy efficiency measures (e.g. system temperatures, airflow, type of storage and back-up systems) are collected from three different segments: data centre service providers (segment A), in-house data centres and s...
Chapter
Full-text available
Demand side management (DSM) is seen as a promising, cost-effective measure to cope with high shares of intermittent renewable energy in the electricity grid system. As the regulatory framework in Europe is changing in favor of opening up new market opportunities for DSM, the question is answered, which potentials are effectively available in the t...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter summarizes insights and measures to decarbonize the European energy system until the year 2050, as analyzed in the previous 15 chapters, and emphasizes the considerable efforts required to coordinate and govern the targeted energy transition. With increasing aspiration regarding the targeted climate policy the more marked are the requi...
Chapter
Ambitionierte Energie- und Klimaziele sind in Städten und Gemeinden nur durch eine integrierte ämter- und akteursübergreifende Planung und Umsetzung (smarte Planungsprozesse und virtuelle Organisation) zu erreichen. Die zahlreichen relevanten städtischen Akteure, die ihren themenspezifischen Strategie- und Umsetzungsaufgaben oft ohne Blick für das...
Book
Full-text available
This open access book analyzes the transition toward a low-carbon energy system in Europe under the aspects of flexibility and technological progress. By covering the main energy sectors – including the industry, residential, tertiary and transport sector as well as the heating and electricity sector – the analysis assesses flexibility requirements...
Article
Full-text available
In light of the Swiss government's reduction targets for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions under the Paris Agreement, this article investigates how and with which policy measures these reduction targets can be met for the Swiss residential building sector. The paper applies an agent-based building stock model to simulate the development of the Swiss r...
Article
Models that represent the energy use of the building stock at scale under various scenarios of technology deployment have become essential tools for the development and assessment of such strategies. Within the past decade, the capabilities of building stock energy models have improved considerably, while model transferability and sharing has incre...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The Swiss Heating Initiative (WIS, from its German title Wärmeinitiative Schweiz ) is an economic alliance of different actors in the sustainable heating and cooling sector. The WIS addresses the decarbonization of the heating sector by 2050. Spatial potential analyzes, the Swiss building stock model (GPM), and the FORECAST model are used to study...
Article
Full-text available
With regard to residential energy use in the European Union (EU), most studies consider potential adopters of the technology (e.g., private owners) as being the sole decision-makers in the technology selection. However, during an integrated decision-making process (e.g., a construction project) multiple stakeholders will interact, influencing each...
Article
Full-text available
Buildings are responsible for a large share of the energy demand and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Europe and Switzerland. Bottom-up building stock models (BSMs) can be used to assess policy measures and strategies based on a quantitative assessment of energy demand and GHG emissions in the building stock over time. Recent developments in BSM-r...
Chapter
In this chapter the market development and the techno-economic learning are investigated for two competing technologies to assess their relative dynamics in terms of techno-economic performance: heat pump (HP) as an exemplary technology to tap renewable energy sources and (condensing) gas boilers as the reference system. Long-term historical data...
Conference Paper
Building-Stock Energy Models (BSEMs) are emerging as a powerful tool for cities and regions seeking to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate the effects of changing climates for their populations. The potential influence of such model results coupled with the scale and complexity of the environments they aim to represent means it is essentia...
Article
Full-text available
In Europe, the final energy demand and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of residential and commercial building stocks account for approximately 40% of energy and emissions. A building stock model (BSM) is a method of assessing the energy demand and GHG emissions of building stocks and developing pathways for energy and GHG emission reduction. The mos...
Technical Report
Full-text available
In Europe, there is a clear long-term objective to decarbonise the energy system, but it is currently unclear how this will be achieved in the heating and cooling (H&C) sector. The Heat Roadmap Europe 4 (HRE4) project will enable new policies and prepare the ground for new investments by creating more certainty regarding the changes that are requir...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The brochure provides a detailed breakdown of the energy demand for heating and cooling in 2015 with figures ranging from the share of energy carriers, end-uses, subsectors to types of process heat by temperature level. As such, it presents selected results of forthcoming publications of the Heat Roadmap Europe project. The brochure was designed by...
Presentation
Full-text available
Identify how 14 EU countries can cost-effectivey decarbonise their heating and cooling sectors by quantifying the impact of various alternatives
Method
Full-text available
Being able to develop successful design strategies for a green energy sector requires a detailed grasp of regional electricity demand. In this context, it is essential for electricity suppliers and the public sector to understand local aspects. Interesting questions concern topics like the better integration of decentralized generation and demand s...
Method
Full-text available
How energy demand develops not only influences the success of the sustainable energy transition and the share of renewable energies, it is also critical for using and planning new generation capacities. Energy demand is influenced simultaneously by many different factors: Alongside weather and climate, these include economic development, the diffus...
Method
Full-text available
As power generation from renewable energies is increasing, more flexibility is needed in future to guarantee a stable electricity supply. Besides storage expansion and grid reinforcement, load management is a relevant measure to continually ensure the balancing of power supply and demand. However, assessing the potentials of load management so far...
Method
Full-text available
The electricity generation market has been subject to major changes for years. As a result, attention has increasingly been drawn to the greater changes taking place on the demand side as well. Examples include the current switch from conventional light bulbs to highly efficient LEDs, shifts in industrial processes towards secondary production, the...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The main objective of work package 2 is the assessment of the heat and cooling supply technologies currently installed in Europe. The assessment is split into two parts. Firstly, the technology stock is assessed and described in detail including installed capacities, the number of installed units and their age distribution. Secondly, technical and...
Technical Report
Full-text available
The report one assesses the status-quo of energy demand for heating and cooling in the European countries in the year 2012. The main goal of the WP is the calculation of a consistent European end-use energy balance for heating and cooling. In contrast to classical energy balances that show sectors and energy carriers, end- use energy balances als...
Article
Full-text available
In order to decarbonise the energy system, alternative transition pathways were assessed in recent years that agree on the crucial role of the heating sector, due to its potential to increase the renewable-based share of energy demand and to improve energy efficiency. Simultaneously, the increasing share of fluctuating renewable energy sources (RES...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Ecodesign Directive (EDD) is a key instrument of the EU’s energy policy framework and is expected to have a substantial impact on energy efficiency and energy demand in the European economy. We have conducted a model-based ex-ante assessment of the energy savings induced by the EDD until 2020 and 2030 for the sectors industry, tertiary and hou...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In recent years extensive empirical investigations have been made about building retrofit activities and behavior in the residential sector. However such empirical data has been available much less in the non-residential sector so far. Therefore, an empirical study has been carried out by the authors in order to investigate the situation of office...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Energy efficiency is regarded as one of the most important measures to secure a reliable, environmentally compatible and economical energy supply. Hence, better understanding of electricity consumption is required. This includes both disaggregations regarding subsectors and energy services and regarding temporal resolution. Insights into hourly ele...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In recent years extensive empirical investigations have been made about building retrofit activities and behavior in the residential sector. However such empirical data has been available much less in the non-residential sector so far. Therefore, an empirical study has been carried out by the authors in order to investigate the situation of office...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The building stock is one of the most important energy consumers worldwide. Therefore, a number of energy reduction targets and regulations exist for the building sector. Different building stock models have been developed in order to investigate the potentials of energy-efficiency and changes in energy supply in the building stock. However, these...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The building sector is responsible for both direct and indirect energy consumption and related local and global environmental impacts. Apart from building envelope retrofit measures as such, a wide variety of options is available for building owners and policy makers to mitigate these impacts. A comprehensive calculation tool was developed to asses...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The building stock has a decisive impact on energy consumption, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and sustainable development of urban areas. In previous studies the authors have assessed these impacts by applying a bottom up building stock model (BSM) including construction components and energy systems for different development scenarios. The goal o...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Ex-ante evaluation is important to effectively design policy measures. The paper addresses the electricity demand of the tertiary sector in Europe which is one of most strongly growing. Different scenarios which are characterized by different levels of policy measures and programmes are analysed by using hybrid techno-economic bottom-up model. It d...
Book
Full-text available
Europaweit spielt die Erhöhung der Energieeffizienz im Gebäudebereich eine Schlüsselrolle, um die langfristigen Energiesparziele und Treibhausgasreduktionsziele zu erreichen. In Bezug auf die Lebensdauer eines Gebäudes ist der in der vorliegenden Studie betrachtete Zeithorizont bis 2020 zwar als relativ kurz zu bezeichnen. Es ist jedoch wichtig, fr...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This project develops a heat demand and supply concept for the City of Zurich within the framework of the 2000 Watt society. Heat and electricity demand and supply were simulated with a building stock model that aggregates buildings that are similar by type, construction period, usage, and location, etc. by using building specific information of an...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Overview In this analysis we have favored relatively simple econometric specifications because we contend that such models allow relatively clear and unambiguous interpretations. In particular we focus on a binary logit model that considers two decision outcomes, namely, energy-saving renovation and a base outcome that includes no renovation as wel...
Article
Full-text available
Switzerland declared the notion of the 2000 Watt society as their leitmotif towards a sustainable development in terms of energy and greenhouse gas emissions. This implies that worldwide, no more than 17,520 kWh of total primary energy and 1 ton CO2-equivalent are to be consumed per capita and year for all services. Thus, in order to meet the targe...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The paper assesses different scenarios which are characterized by different levels of policy measures and programmes regarding the future electricity demand of the tertiary sector in Europe using a detailed bottom-up model. The model is designed and being developed by the authors and is implemented to forecast the electricity demand for different s...
Chapter
Full-text available
Authors’ Summary. The development and introduction of heat pumps provides an interesting illustration of policy influence and effectiveness in relation to energy technology innovation. Heat pumps have been supported by several countries since the 1970s as a strategy to improve energy efficiency, support energy security, reduce environmental degrada...
Book
Full-text available
Insgesamt zeigen die Ergebnisse auf, dass sich die bisher in der Energiepolitik und bei den Konsumenten stark verbreitete Auffassung vom „CO2-freien Schweizer Strom“ nicht aufrechterhalten lässt. Die CO2-Intensität des Absatzes des Stroms an Schweizer Endkunden beträgt aufgrund der durchgeführten Analysen in der Durchschnittsbetrachtung derzeit zwi...
Book
Full-text available
Jahresbilanz des Stromverbrauchs: 6 Mio. Tonnen CO2 Die Produktion des in der Schweiz verbrauchten Stroms belastet unsere Umwelt mit sieben Mal mehr Kohlendioxid (CO2). Wie die Studie „CO2-Intensität des Stromabsatzes an Schweizer Endkunden“ renommierter Schweizer Wissenschaftler belegt, verursacht die Produktion des effektiv in der Schweiz verbra...
Article
Full-text available
This report elaborates two 2-degree scenarios (450 ppm and 400ppm) for Europe until 2050. The research is embedded into a larger framework of a global analysis of climate mitigation policy carried out by the European ADAM project. Our analysis constitutes basically a techno-economic analysis of all GHG emitting sectors in Europe with the objective...
Article
This paper uses a choice experiment to evaluate the consumers' willingness to pay for energy-saving measures in Switzerland's residential buildings. These measures include air renewal (ventilation) systems and insulation of windows and facades. Two groups of respondents consisting respectively of 163 apartment tenants and 142 house owners were aske...
Article
Full-text available
Architects, planners and investors are faced with numerous trade-offs and interactions between energy demand, life cycle costs and comfort when designing new and retrofitting existing office buildings. These trade-offs include not only the well known ones between energy-efficiency and investment costs, but also between different types of energy ser...
Article
Full-text available
Building renovation is one of the key factors to foster energy-efficiency in the building sector. However with regard to the long-term policy goals such as the Kyoto-Protocol and the IPCC recommendations the past and current rates of such renovations have been too low in most European countries including Switzerland. To identify the most important...
Article
To estimate the impact of climate change on the tertiary sector on the European level, its energy demand is modeled for 29 European (EU27+2) countries for two different scenarios, namely a base case scenario with past climate conditions and warmer climate (WC) with T increase between about 1.5°C and 3°C, depending on country and month. A bottom-up...
Article
Full-text available
So far, in most European countries, the amount of energy required for heating is greater by far than the energy used for space cooling on a national basis – even in the service sector. But due to higher internal loads, the proliferation of fashionable glass facades, thermal insulation, and rising standards of comfort, the cooled floor area is stead...
Article
Full-text available
Collateral impacts of LULUCF projects, especially those concerning social and environmental aspects, have been recognised as important by the Marrakech Accords. The same applies to the necessity of assessing and, if possible, of quantifying the magnitude of these impacts. This article aims to define, clarify and structure the relevant social, econo...
Article
Full-text available
Key elements of present investment decision-making regarding energy efficiency of new buildings and the refurbishment of existing buildings are the marginal costs of energy efficiency measures and incomplete knowledge of investors and architects about pricing, co-benefits and new technologies. This paper reports on a recently completed empirical st...
Article
Full-text available
Collateral impacts of LULUCF projects, especially those concerning social and environmental aspects, have been recognised as important by the Marrakech Accords. The same applies to the necessity of assessing and, if possible, of quantifying the magnitude of these impacts. This article aims to define, clarify and structure the relevant social, econo...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper we develop an economic model that explains the decision-making process of an industrial firm under uncertainty. The decision is between making an irreversible investment in a co-generation system, or to invest in a conventional heat-only generation system and to purchase all electricity from the grid. We also study the energy policy i...
Article
Full-text available
Der Anteil des Wohngebäudesektors am gesamtschweizerischen Endenergieverbrauch beträgt etwa 27%. Es bestehen grosse technologische Potenziale zur Reduktion des Energieverbrauches und zu Energieeffizienzsteigerungen bei Wohngebäuden. Untersuchungen zum Erneuerungsver-halten haben aber gezeigt, dass diese Potenziale zurzeit viel zuwenig genutzt werde...
Article
The main airflow and contaminant paths or the spatial distribution of the age of air (or contaminant) in a room are of great interest in estimating venrilation efficiency. A simple meusurement method is presented which consists of injecting one or more tracer gases at locations of interest and analysing the concentration at several other locations,...
Article
Full-text available
Energy efficiency potentials of building envelopes are significant and still largely untapped. Increasing concerns of policy-makers about non-sustainable energy use and climate change spur a growing research interest in this area. This paper fills part of the existing knowledge gap by focusing on experience curve aspects of energy efficiency measur...