Martin Heimann

Martin Heimann
Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry Jena | BGC · Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry

Professor

About

516
Publications
113,397
Reads
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47,972
Citations
Additional affiliations
June 1999 - present
September 1985 - May 1999
March 1982 - August 1985
University of California, San Diego
Position
  • Assisant Research

Publications

Publications (516)
Article
Full-text available
Observations of the atmospheric sources and sinks of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) in the pan-Arctic domain are extremely scarce, limiting our knowledge of carbon turnover in this climatically sensitive environment and the fate of the enormous carbon reservoirs conserved in the permafrost. Especially critical are the gaps in the high latit...
Article
Full-text available
The Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) Science Plan, released in 2015, addressed a need for a holistic system understanding and outlined the most urgent research needs for the rapidly changing Arctic-boreal region. Air quality in China, together with the long-range transport of atmospheric pollutants, was also indicated as one of the most crucial topic...
Article
Full-text available
Arctic warming is affecting snow cover and soil hydrology, with consequences for carbon sequestration in tundra ecosystems. The scarcity of observations in the Arctic has limited our understanding of the impact of covarying environmental drivers on the carbon balance of tundra ecosystems. In this study, we address some of these uncertainties throug...
Article
Full-text available
Many of the main biogeochemical cycles are reflected in the atmosphere by important greenhouse gases (GHG) or other gases. Among these are CO2, CH4, N2O, H2, CO and O2. Additional GHGs include also anthropogenically produced species, such as SF6. The spatio-temporal distribution of these species in the atmosphere provides valuable information on lo...
Article
Time series of wetland methane fluxes measured by eddy covariance require gap-filling to estimate daily, seasonal , and annual emissions. Gap-filling methane fluxes is challenging because of high variability and complex responses to multiple drivers. To date, there is no widely established gap-filling standard for wetland methane fluxes, with regar...
Preprint
Full-text available
Arctic warming is affecting snow cover and soil hydrology, with consequences for carbon sequestration in tundra ecosystems. The scarcity of observations in the Arctic has limited our understanding of the impact of covarying environmental drivers on the carbon balance of tundra ecosystems. In this study, we address some of these uncertainties throug...
Article
Full-text available
High quality atmospheric CO2 measurements are sparse in Amazonia, but can provide critical insights into the spatial and temporal variability of sources and sinks of CO2. In this study we present the first six years (2014‐2019) of continuous, high‐precision measurements of atmospheric CO2 at the Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO, 2.1◦S, 58.9◦W)....
Article
Full-text available
Climate change impacts the characteristics of the vegetation carbon-uptake process in the northern Eurasian terrestrial ecosystem. However, the currently available direct CO2 flux measurement datasets, particularly for central Siberia, are insufficient for understanding the current condition in the northern Eurasian carbon cycle. Here, we report da...
Article
Full-text available
Methane (CH4) emissions from natural landscapes constitute roughly half of global CH4 contributions to the atmosphere, yet large uncertainties remain in the absolute magnitude and the seasonality of emission quantities and drivers. Eddy covariance (EC) measurements of CH4 flux are ideal for constraining ecosystem-scale CH4 emissions due to quasi-co...
Article
Full-text available
Atmospheric observations of sources and sinks of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) in the pan-Arctic domain are highly sporadic, limiting our understanding of carbon turnover in this climatically sensitive environment and the fate of enormous carbon reservoirs buried in permafrost. Particular gaps apply to the Arctic latitudes of Siberia, cove...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) Science Plan, released in 2015, addressed a need for a holistic system understanding and outlined the most urgent research needs for sustainable development in the Artic-boreal region. Air quality in China and long-range transport of the atmospheric pollutants was also indicated as one of the most crucial topics o...
Article
Full-text available
Ecosystems play a fundamental role in climate change mitigation by photosynthetically fixing carbon from the atmosphere and storing it for a period of time in organic matter. Although climate impacts of carbon emissions by sources can be quantified by global warming potentials, the appropriate formal metrics to assess climate benefits of carbon rem...
Preprint
Full-text available
Methane (CH4) emissions from natural landscapes constitute roughly half of global CH4 contributions to the atmosphere, yet large uncertainties remain in the absolute magnitude and the seasonality of emission quantities and drivers. Eddy covariance (EC) measurements of CH4 flux are ideal for constraining ecosystem-scale CH4 emissions, including thei...
Article
Full-text available
In 2018, central and northern parts of Europe experienced heat and drought conditions over many months from spring to autumn, strongly affecting both natural ecosystems and crops. Besides their impact on nature and society, events like this can be used to study the impact of climate variations on the terrestrial carbon cycle, which is an important...
Article
Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) is increasing, which increases leaf‐scale photosynthesis and intrinsic water‐use efficiency. These direct responses have the potential to increase plant growth, vegetation biomass, and soil organic matter; transferring carbon from the atmosphere into terrestrial ecosystems (a carbon sink). A substant...
Article
Full-text available
Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems (EBUSs) are coastal hotspots of the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). However, estimates of their emissions suffer from large uncertainties due to their significant spatial and temporal heterogeneity. Here, we derive the first multiyear, monthly resolution N2O emissions from three of the four major EBUSs...
Preprint
Full-text available
Ecosystems play a fundamental role in climate change mitigation by taking up carbon from the atmosphere and storing it for a period of time in organic matter. Although climate impacts of carbon emissions can be quantified by global warming potentials, it is not necessarily clear what are appropriate formal metrics to assess climate benefits of carb...
Article
Full-text available
Changing amplitude of the seasonal cycle of atmospheric CO2 (SCA) in the northern hemisphere is an emerging carbon cycle property. Mauna Loa (MLO) station (20oN, 156oW), which has the longest continuous northern hemisphere CO2 record, shows an increasing SCA before the 1980s (P < 0.01), followed by no significant change thereafter. We analyzed the...
Article
Full-text available
Under the Paris Agreement progress of emission reduction efforts is tracked on the basis of regular updates to national Greenhouse Gas (GHG) inventories, referred to as bottom-up estimates. However, only top-down atmospheric measurements can provide observation-based evidence of emission trends. Today there is no internationally agreed, operational...
Article
Full-text available
Sparse data coverage in the Arctic hampers our understanding of its carbon cycle dynamics and our predictions of the fate of its vast carbon reservoirs in a changing climate. In this paper, we present accurate measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) dry air mole fractions at the new atmospheric carbon observation station...
Article
Full-text available
Ground-based atmospheric observations of CO2, δ(O2∕N2), N2O, and CH4 were used to make estimates of the air–sea fluxes of these species from the Lüderitz and Walvis Bay upwelling cells in the northern Benguela region, during upwelling events. Average flux densities (±1σ) were 0.65±0.4 µmol m−2 s−1 for CO2, -5.1±2.5 µmol m−2 s−1 for O2 (as APO), 0.6...
Article
Full-text available
We calibrated the JSBACH model with six different stomatal conductance formulations using measurements from 10 FLUXNET coniferous evergreen sites in the boreal zone. The parameter posterior distributions were generated by the adaptive population importance sampler (APIS); then the optimal values were estimated by a simple stochastic optimisation al...
Article
Full-text available
During the last decade, carbon cycle data assimilation systems (CCDAS) have focused on improving the simulation of seasonal and mean global carbon fluxes over a few years by simultaneous assimilation of multiple data streams. However, the ability of a CCDAS to predict longer-term trends and variability of the global carbon cycle and the constraint...
Article
This paper describes the formation of, and initial results for, a new FLUXNET coordination network for ecosystem-scale methane (CH 4 ) measurements at 60 sites globally, organized by the Global Carbon Project in partnership with other initiatives and regional flux tower networks. The objectives of the effort are presented along with an overview of...
Article
Full-text available
A crucial issue in atmospheric studies on greenhouse gas content involves assessing the representativeness (footprint) having influence on their concentrations measured by tall towers. In this study, the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model was used to estimate seasonal cumulative footprint climatology for greenhouse gases me...
Article
Full-text available
The sustainability of the vast Arctic permafrost carbon pool under climate change is of paramount importance for global climate trajectories. Accurate climate change forecasts therefore depend on a reliable representation of mechanisms governing Arctic carbon cycle processes, but this task is complicated by the complex interaction of multiple contr...
Article
Full-text available
Carbon balance of terrestrial ecosystems in the northern high latitudes (NHL) is sensitive to climate change. It remains uncertain whether current regional carbon uptake capacity can be sustained under future warming. Here the atmospheric CO 2 drawdown rate (CDR) between 1974 and 2014, defined as the CO 2 decrease in ppm over the number of days in...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Interannual variations in the global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2) growth rate are significantly influenced by fluctuations of carbon fluxes in tropical land areas such as the Amazon forest, which is subject to recurring droughts, rising temperatures and deforestation. Methane (CH 4) has large natural sources in Amazon's wetlands, as well as fr...
Preprint
Full-text available
Ground-based atmospheric observations of CO2, δ(O2/N2), N2O, and CH4 were used to make top-down estimates of the air–sea fluxes of these species from the Lüderitz and Walvis Bay upwelling cells in the northern Benguela region, during upwelling events. Average flux densities (±1σ) were 0.64 ± 0.4 μmol m−2 sec−1 for CO2, −5.1 ± 1.4 μmol m−2 sec−1 for...
Article
Full-text available
We calibrated the JSBACH model with six different stomatal conductance formulations using measurements from 10 FLUXNET coniferous evergreen sites in the Boreal zone. The parameter posterior distributions were generated by adaptive population importance sampler and the optimal values by a simple stochastic optimisation algorithm. The observations us...
Article
Full-text available
We estimated the CH4 budget in Finland for 2004–2014 using the CTE-CH4 data assimilation system with an extended atmospheric CH4 observation network of seven sites from Finland to surrounding regions (Hyytiälä, Kjølnes, Kumpula, Pallas, Puijo, Sodankylä, and Utö). The estimated average annual total emission for Finland is 0.6 ± 0.5 Tg CH4 yr−1. Sen...
Article
Warming temperatures are likely to accelerate permafrost thaw in the Arctic, potentially leading to the release of old carbon previously stored in deep frozen soil layers. Deeper thaw depths in combination with geomorphological changes due to the loss of ice structures in permafrost, may modify soil water distribution, creating wetter or drier soil...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents global land carbon fluxes for the period 1982–2010 (gross primary production, GPP, and net ecosystem exchange, NEE) estimated with the Max Planck Institute – Carbon Cycle Data Assimilation System (MPI-CCDAS v1). The primary aim of this work is to analyze the performance of the MPI-CCDAS when it is confronted with three different...
Article
Full-text available
The effect of aerosol loading on solar radiation and the subsequent effect on photosynthesis is a relevant question for estimating climate feedback mechanisms. This effect is quantified in the present study using ground-based measurements from five remote sites in boreal and hemiboreal (coniferous and mixed) forests of Eurasia. The diffuse fraction...
Article
Full-text available
Interannual variations in the large-scale net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere were estimated for 1957–2017 from sustained measurements of atmospheric CO2 mixing ratios. As the observations are sparse in the early decades, available records were combined into a ‘quasi-homogeneous’ dataset based on...
Preprint
Full-text available
Sparse data coverage in the Arctic hampers our understanding of its carbon cycle dynamics and our predictions of the fate of its vast carbon reservoirs in a changing climate. In this paper, we present accurate measurements of atmospheric CO 2 and CH 4 dry air mole fractions at the new atmospheric carbon observation station Ambarchik, which closes a...
Article
Full-text available
The effect of an aerosol loading on solar radiation and further on photosynthesis is a relevant question for estimating climate feedback mechanisms. This effect is quantified in the present study using ground-based measurements from five remote sites in boreal and hemiboreal (coniferous and mixed) forests of Eurasia. The diffuse fraction of global ra...
Article
The interannual variations in the characteristics of the seasonal cycle (annual and seasonal amplitudes, winter emission, dates of annual minimum and maximum, and phase) and in the growth rate of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration over Central Siberia are analyzed for the period from May 2009 to January 2016. The results are based on the cont...
Article
Full-text available
The response of the terrestrial net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 to climate variations and trends may crucially determine the future climate trajectory. Here we directly quantify this response on inter-annual timescales by building a linear regression of inter-annual NEE anomalies against observed air temperature anomalies into an atmospheric in...
Article
Full-text available
Unmanned aircraft systems (UASs) could provide a cost-effective way to close gaps in the observation of the carbon cycle, provided that small yet accurate analysers are available. We have developed a COmpact Carbon dioxide analyser for Airborne Platforms (COCAP). The accuracy of COCAP's carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements is ensured by calibration in...
Article
Full-text available
Atmospheric inversions are widely used in the optimization of surface carbon fluxes on a regional scale using information from atmospheric CO2 dry mole fractions. In many studies the prior flux uncertainty applied to the inversion schemes does not directly reflect the true flux uncertainties but is used to regularize the inverse problem. Here, we a...
Article
Full-text available
Optimized biogenic carbon fluxes for Europe were estimated from high-resolution regional-scale inversions, utilizing atmospheric CO2 measurements at 16 stations for the year 2007. Additional sensitivity tests with different data-driven error structures were performed. As the atmospheric network is rather sparse and consequently contains large spati...
Article
Full-text available
The response of the terrestrial Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) of CO2 to climate variations and trends may crucially determine the future climate trajectory. Here we directly quantify this response on interannual time scales, by building a linear regression of interannual NEE anomalies against observed air temperature anomalies into an atmospheric in...
Article
Full-text available
Aerosols produced by wildfires are a common phenomenon in boreal regions. For the Siberian taiga, it is still an open question if the effects of aerosols on atmospheric conditions increase net CO2 uptake or photosynthesis. We investigated the factors controlling forest net ecosystem productivity (NEP) and explored how clouds and smoke modulate radi...
Article
Full-text available
Wetlands are one of the most significant natural sources of methane (CH4) to the atmosphere. They emit CH4 because decomposition of soil organic matter in waterlogged anoxic conditions produces CH4, in addition to carbon dioxide (CO2). Production of CH4 and how much of it escapes to the atmosphere depend on a multitude of environmental drivers. Mod...
Article
Full-text available
Hydrologic conditions are a key factor in Arctic ecosystems, with strong influences on ecosystem structure and related effects on biogeophysical and biogeochemical processes. With systematic changes in water availability expected for large parts of the northern high-latitude region in the coming centuries, knowledge on shifts in ecosystem functiona...
Article
Full-text available
We present long-term (5-year) measurements of particulate matter with an upper diameter limit of ∼ 10 µm (PM10), elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in aerosol filter samples collected at the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory in the middle-taiga subzone (Siberia). The data are complemented with carbon mon...
Article
Full-text available
While approximately 338 million people in the Northern hemisphere live in regions that are regularly snow covered in winter, there is little hydro-climatologic knowledge in the cities impacted by snow. Using observations and modelling we have evaluated the energy and water exchanges of four cities that are exposed to wintertime snow. We show that t...
Article
Permafrost landscapes in northern high latitudes with their massive organic carbon stocks are an important, poorly known, component of the global carbon cycle. However, in light of future Arctic warming, the sustainability of these carbon pools is uncertain. To a large part, this is due to a limited understanding of the carbon cycle processes becau...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Unmanned aerial systems (UAS) could provide a cost-effective way to close gaps in the observation of the carbon cycle, provided that small yet accurate analysers are available. We have developed a COmpact Carbon dioxide analyser for Airborne Platforms (COCAP). The accuracy of COCAP's carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements is ensured by calibrat...
Article
Full-text available
The MEthane Remote sensing Lidar missioN (MERLIN) aims at demonstrating the spaceborne active measurement of atmospheric methane, a potent greenhouse gas, based on an Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) nadir-viewing LIght Detecting and Ranging (Lidar) instrument. MERLIN is a joint French and German space mission, with a launch currently...