Martin Hagger

Martin Hagger
University of California, Merced | UCM · Department of Psychology

PhD

About

580
Publications
529,450
Reads
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26,323
Citations
Introduction
I am Professor of Health Psychology in the Department of Psychological Sciences, University of California, Merced, USA and Professor of Behavior Change in the Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Jyväskylä, Finland. My research applies social cognition and motivational theories to predict, and to intervene and change, diverse health behaviors.
Additional affiliations
July 2019 - present
University of California, Merced
Position
  • Professor
January 2015 - present
University of Jyväskylä
Position
  • Professor
April 2011 - June 2019
Curtin University
Position
  • Professor
Education
January 2011 - May 2014
University of Jyväskylä
Field of study
  • Sport and Health Sciences
December 1999 - November 2001
The Open University (UK)
Field of study
  • Psychology
October 1994 - November 1999
Loughborough University
Field of study
  • Exercise Psychology

Publications

Publications (580)
Article
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Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of research play an important role in summarizing current knowledge on the efficacy of the behavior change techniques and mechanisms of action that comprise behavioral interventions. The current reviews in the science of behavior change (SOBC) special issue represent a ‘step change’ in evaluating current evidenc...
Article
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Objective: To conduct a meta-analysis of studies examining the determinants of behaviors performed by parents to promote the health of their child, termed "parent-for-child health behaviors," based on an extended theory of planned behavior. Specifically, the study aimed to meta-analyze correlations among theory of planned behavior constructs, plan...
Article
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Causality orientations theory, a key sub-theory of self-determination theory, identifies three distinct causality orientations: autonomy, control, and impersonal orientation. The theory proposes generalized effects of the orientations on motivation and behavior. We meta-analyzed studies (k=83) testing relations between causality orientations, forms...
Article
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The common sense model of illness self-regulation outlines the dynamic processes by which individuals perceive, interpret, respond, and adjust, psychologically and behaviorally, to health threats and illness-related information. An extended version of the model is proposed, which formally operationalizes existing processes in the model and specifie...
Article
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Objective. According to the theory of planned behavior, individuals are more likely to act on their behavioral intentions, and report intentions aligned with their attitudes and subjective norm, when their perceived behavioral control (PBC) is high. We tested these predictions meta-analytically by estimating the moderating effect of PBC on the atti...
Article
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Background Identification of widespread biases present in reported research findings in many scientific disciplines, including psychology, such as failures to replicate and the likely extensive application of questionable research practices, has raised serious concerns over the reliability and trustworthiness of scientific research. This has led to...
Article
Background: Use of Neuro-Enhancement Substances (NES) such as prescription drugs, illicit drugs, or alcohol to improve cognition, prosocial behavior, and performance is increasing among students. Aims: The study applied a multi-theory, integrated theoretical model to identify motivational and social cognition determinants of NES use among students....
Preprint
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The aim of this study was to explore health perceptions and priorities. Using a photo elicitation method, participants (N=50) were asked to answer the question: ‘What does it mean to choose health’. Data (original photographs, accompanied by captions) were collected online. We generated and interpreted the main themes associated with common percept...
Article
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The aim of the current study was to test the long-term predictive validity of the trans-contextual model in accounting for variance in adolescents’ out-of-school physical activity measured by self-report and accelerometer based-devices over a one-year period. Secondary school students (N = 265) aged 11 to 15 years completed a three-wave survey on t...
Article
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Background The objective of this study was to (1) qualitatively identify the perceived determinants of physical activity among women who have experienced severe preeclampsia, and (2) examine whether these determinants are consistent with the overarching processes outlined in the integrated behavior change (IBC) model, a novel model that describes p...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic has had unprecedented health, economic, and social consequences worldwide. Although contact reductions and wearing face coverings have reduced infection rates, and vaccines have reduced illness severity, emergence of new variants of the coronavirus that causes COVID-19, and the shift from pandemic to endemic patterns of infect...
Article
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Vaccines are highly effective in minimizing serious cases of COVID-19 and pivotal to managing the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite widespread availability, vaccination rates fall short of levels required to bring about widespread immunity, with low rates attributed to vaccine hesitancy. It is therefore important to identify the beliefs and concerns assoc...
Article
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Achieving broad immunity through vaccination is a cornerstone strategy for long‐term management of COVID‐19 infections, particularly the prevention of serious cases and hospitalizations. Evidence that vaccine‐induced immunity wanes over time points to the need for COVID‐19 booster vaccines, and maximum compliance is required to maintain population‐...
Article
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While there is good evidence supporting the positive effect of planning strategies like implementation intentions on the relationship between intention and behavior, there is less evidence on the moderating role of individual differences in planning capacity on this effect. This study aimed to examine the role of individual differences in planfulne...
Article
Background: Given the limited research on behavioral determinants of using virtual exercise machines to engage in exercise during the COVID-19 pandemic, this study applied an integrated behavior change model to identify behavioral determinants using these machines. Method: Adult owners of livestreaming virtual exercise equipment (N = 123) comple...
Article
Objective The purpose of the present study was to investigate the associations between personality traits of extraversion and neuroticism, autonomous motivation, and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) constructs with leisure-time physical activity. The study examined whether autonomous motivation and the TPB constructs mediate the association bet...
Article
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The sheer volume of available research and shifts toward evidence-based practice has led researchers and practitioners in sport and exercise psychology to rely increasingly on meta-analyses to summarize current knowledge, provide future research directions, and inform policy and practice. These issues highlight the imperative of precision and integ...
Article
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Introduction Efficacy tests of physical activity interventions indicate that many have limited or short-term efficacy, principally because they do not sufficiently build on theory-based processes that determine behaviour. The current study aims to address this limitation. Methods and analysis The efficacy of the 8-week intervention will be tested...
Article
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Objective: This study tested effects of changes in the psychological constructs of the trans-contextual model (TCM) on changes in adolescents’ outside of school moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (PA) measured using self-report and accelerometer-based device. Design: A three-wave longitudinal design was used. High school students (N=331) comple...
Article
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We tested a dual process model incorporating constructs that reflect both performing the target behaviour (behaviour directed habit) and habits that run counter to the target behaviour (opposing behaviour habit) in accounting for variance in two health behaviours: eating the recommended serves of fruits and vegetables a day and restricting sugar-sw...
Article
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The adoption of carbohydrate-restrictive diets to improve health is increasing in popularity, but there is a dearth of research on individuals who choose to severely restrict or entirely exclude carbohydrates. The present study investigated the beliefs and experiences of individuals following a diet that severely limits, or entirely excludes, dieta...
Article
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The present study aimed to examine effects of motivational and social cognition constructs on children’s leisure-time physical activity participation alongside constructs representing implicit processes using an extended trans-contextual model. The study adopted a correlational prospective design. Secondary-school students ( N = 502) completed self...
Preprint
Full-text available
BACKGROUND Digital health promotion programs tailored to the individual are a potential cost-effective and scalable solution to enable self-management and provide support to people with excess body weight. However, solutions that are personalised, theory- and evidence- based and widely accessible are still limited. OBJECTIVE This study aimed to de...
Preprint
Objective: We aimed to test the efficacy of a theory-based intervention to promote the avoidance of touching one’s face with unwashed hands to reduce the spread of COVID-19. Methods: We tested effects of an intervention employing imagery, persuasive communication, and planning techniques in two pre-registered studies adopting randomized controlled...
Article
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Purpose Previous research has not examined the utility of the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) to predict physical activity (PA) change in cancer survivors. The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy of a HAPA-based model in predicting temporal change in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in cancer survivors. Methods Part...
Article
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The current study tested the effects of an intervention based on the trans‐contextual model (TCM) on secondary school PE students’ sport injury prevention behaviour, and on theory‐based motivational and social cognition mediators. Participants were PE students (N=1,168; Mage=13.322±1.045, range=12 to 16; female=51.721%) who participated in a 3‐mont...
Article
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Objective: We applied an integrated social cognition model to predict physical distancing behavior, a key COVID-19 preventive behavior, over a four-month period. Design: A three-wave longitudinal survey design. Methods: Australian and US residents (N=601) completed self-report measures of social cognition constructs (attitude, subjective norm, mora...
Article
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Most coaches and instructors would like to teach more than just sport skills to their athletes and children. However, to promote athletes’ or children’s holistic development and teach them to take responsibility and lead, requires the coaches and instructors to first master the skills themselves. Therefore, feasible, high quality leadership trainin...
Article
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Current research funding models for health psychologists tend to be biased toward support for large-scale ‘definitive’ behavioural trials. This approach emphasizes rigorous tests of one or more key questions, but, unintentionally, may lead to the funding of interventions that are based on myriad untested assumptions. We propose that future funding...
Chapter
The Handbook of Psychological Perspectives on Alcohol provides a wide ranging treatment of psychological research applied to alcohol consumption in multiple social contexts authored by an eminent cast of contemporary international researchers. This chapter summarises the main messages arising from the Handbook, reflects on what is currently known d...
Article
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We propose that perceptions of auditory loudness and interpersonal closeness are bidirectionally related. Across 12 experiments (total N = 2,219; 10 preregistered; with Singaporean, British, U.S. American, and Australian participants), we demonstrated that louder audio made people feel physically (Study 1a) and socially (Study 1b) closer to others,...
Preprint
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Building on self-determination theory (SDT), this prospective study aimed to examine the effects of perceived psychological need support and autonomous motivation on parents’ adherence to COVID-19 preventive behaviors for their children. Participants were 689 US parents or legal caregivers of 3-to-8 year-old children. They completed an online surve...
Book
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This Handbook provides a broad and comprehensive overview of psychological research on alcohol consumption. It explores the psychological theories underpinning alcohol use and misuse, discusses the interventions that can be designed around these theories, and offers key insight into future developments within the field. A range of international ex...
Book
Full-text available
This Handbook provides a broad and comprehensive overview of psychological research on alcohol consumption. It explores the psychological theories underpinning alcohol use and misuse, discusses the interventions that can be designed around these theories, and offers key insight into future developments within the field. A range of international ex...
Preprint
Full-text available
We propose that perceptions of auditory loudness and interpersonal closeness are bidirectionally related. Across 12 experiments (total N = 2219; 10 preregistered; with Singaporean, British, U.S. American, Indian, and Australian participants), we demonstrated that louder audio made people feel physically (Study 1a) and socially (Study 1b) closer to...
Article
Full-text available
Background Theory suggests that implicit beliefs are more likely to be associated with spontaneous, impulsive health behaviors (e.g., smoking, snacking), while controlled, consciously accessible beliefs are more likely to be associated with behaviors that require deliberation and reasoned decision-making (e.g., physical activity, healthy food selec...
Article
We tested the efficacy of a novel implementation imagery intervention (N = 460) in promoting safer intentions regarding driving into floodwater post-intervention, and at a four-week follow-up using a pre-registered randomized controlled design. Results showed that the intervention reduced intentions and subjective norms regarding driving into flood...
Article
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Background: Engaging in exercise behaviour regularly requires a repeated investment of resources to reap the health benefits. An individual's self-control resources, when performing a behaviour can be perceived as being recharged or depleted. The investigation on how self-control beliefs resources predict exercise behaviour is very limited in the...
Article
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Background Identifying psychological correlates of children’s physical activity intentions may signpost potentially modifiable targets for interventions aimed at promoting physical activity participation. School recess and leisure-time outside of school are appropriate contexts in which such interventions may be delivered. However, few studies have...
Article
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The aim of the present study was to test the validity of the Brief Self-Control Scale (BSCS; Tangney, Baumeister and Boone 2004) including its dimensional structure based on competing one- and two-factor models, discriminant validity from the conceptually-related self-discipline construct, invariance across multiple samples from different national...
Article
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Introduction Beliefs about the consequences of stress, stress mindsets, are associated with health and performance outcomes under stress. This article reports the development and examination of the psychometric properties of a measure of stress mindset: The Stress Control Mindset Measure (SCMM). The measure is consistent with theory on mindsets abo...
Article
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The current study aimed to predict secondary school students' motivation toward sport injury prevention in 'in-school' and 'out-of-school' contexts, and their sport injury prevention behaviour at 3-month follow-up using the trans-contextual model (TCM). Hong Kong secondary school students (N = 1,566; mean age = 13.34 years, range = 11 to 19; female...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Low adherence to post-surgery rehabilitation programs among anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction patients is frequently reported. It is important to develop effective interventions that promote adherence to treatment and rehabilitation in ACL ruptured patients. OBJECTIVE This study aimed to assess effects of a theory-based sm...
Article
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We conducted a preregistered multi-laboratory project (k = 36; N = 3531) to assess the size and robustness of ego depletion effects using a novel replication method, termed the paradigmatic replication approach. Laboratories implemented one of two procedures that intended to manipulate self control and tested performance on a subsequent measure of...
Article
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Background: Previous research has documented that unemployed individuals who engage in recreational activities, either alone or with others, experience higher levels of mental health and psychological well-being relative to those who do not engage in recreational activities. Aims: In this study, we examined whether engagement in health promoting ac...
Article
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Introduction Digital behavioural weight loss interventions have the potential to improve public health; however, these interventions are often not adequately tailored to the needs of the participants. This is the protocol for a trial that aims to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the Choosing Health programme as a means to promo...
Article
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The article describes a position statement and recommendations for actions that need to be taken to develop best practices for promoting scientific integrity through open science in health psychology endorsed at a Synergy Expert Group Meeting. Sixteen Synergy Meeting participants developed a set of recommendations for researchers, gatekeepers, and...
Article
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The salutogenic model of health proposes that sense of coherence, a multi-dimensional construct representing individuals’ perceptions that their environment is comprehensible, manageable, and meaningful, is a key determinant of stress management and well-being. Generalized resistance resources such as preventive health orientation, material resourc...
Article
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Background: This study examined the social cognition determinants of social distancing behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic in samples from Australia and US guided by the health action process approach (HAPA). Methods: Participants (Australia: N=495, 50.1% women; US: N=701, 48.9% women) completed HAPA social cognition constructs at an initial time...
Article
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Background: Inadequate physical activity in young people is associated with several physical and mental health concerns. Physical education (PE) is a potentially viable existing network for promoting physical activity in this population. However, little research has been conducted on whether PE teachers can influence students' engagement in leisur...
Article
Objective: Interventions to increase physical activity (PA) in cancer survivors have often adopted a 'one-size-fits-all' approach, and may benefit from being tailored to psychological constructs associated with behavior. The study objective was to investigate the exercise preferences and psychological constructs related to PA among cancer survivor...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Social distancing is a key behavior to minimize COVID-19 infections. Identification of potentially modifiable determinants of social distancing behavior may provide essential evidence to inform social distancing behavioral interventions. Purpose: The current study applied an integrated social cognition model to identify the determina...
Chapter
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Researchers and practitioners in health contexts are interested in breaking “bad” habits and promoting health‐promoting habits. Habits are impulse‐driven behavioral responses that occur beyond an individual's awareness. Dual‐process theories of health behavior conceptualize habit as part of an “impulsive” pathway to action in which behavior is a fu...
Article
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Objectives Rates of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) infections have rapidly increased worldwide and reached pandemic proportions. A suite of preventive behaviours have been recommended to minimize risk of COVID‐19 infection in the general population. The present study utilized an integrated social cognition model to explain COVID‐19 preve...
Article
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‘Shelter in place’ and ‘lockdown’ orders implemented to minimize the spread of COVID-19 have reduced opportunities to be physically active. For many, the home environment emerged as the only viable option to participate in physical activity. Previous research suggests that availability of exercise equipment functions as a determinant of home-based...
Book
Social problems in many domains, including health, education, social relationships, and the workplace, have their origins in human behavior. The documented links between behavior and social problems have compelled governments and organizations to prioritize and mobilize efforts to develop effective, evidence-based means to promote adaptive behavior...
Chapter
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The Handbook of Behavior Change adopts a theory- and evidence-based approach to scientific inquiry into, and the practice of, behavior change. Drawing from multiple disciplines and perspectives, the handbook provides comprehensive coverage of topics in three parts: Part I covers a selection of the most prominent theories that have been commonly app...
Chapter
Many problems observed in today’s society can be linked, directly or indirectly, to human behavior. Problems with roots in, or links with, behavior include debilitating illnesses and chronic conditions (e.g., cardiovascular disease, cancers, obesity, sexually transmitted infections), global pandemics of communicable diseases (e.g., SARS, H1N1, COVI...
Chapter
Imagery or “visualization” involves a person imagining or rehearsing future events, actions, or tasks, usually with the person performing the imagery imagining themselves actually performing an action or task. It has been used as a strategy to change behavior in many contexts and groups, and its effects on behavior change have been supported by an...
Chapter
A vast number of theories have been applied to predict behavior. The theories can be useful in identifying the potentially changeable factors or constructs that can be reliably related to behavior through various processes and can be targeted in behavior change interventions. Making sense of the numbers of theories and their constituent constructs...
Chapter
According to self-determination theory, it is the quality rather than the quantity of motivation that counts when it comes to behavior change. The theory distinguishes between two general classes of motivation: autonomous and controlled. People are autonomously motivated when they feel that they have freely chosen or endorsed their actions, while p...
Preprint
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Background: While predominant dietary guidelines promote foods low in fat and high in carbohydrates, evidence links high carbohydrate consumption to adverse health effects in populations that are metabolically challenged by (pre)diabetes or metabolic syndrome. An increasing number of people report eating diets that limit carbohydrates. These diets...
Article
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Grounded in self-determination theory (SDT), this cross-sectional study tested relations of students’ perceptions of autonomy-supportive and controlling behaviour from teachers in physical education with students’ health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and the potential role of students’ perceived need satisfaction and need frustration as a mediat...
Preprint
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Lack of participation in health promoting behaviors and participation in behaviors that contribute to health risks have been linked to health disparities observed among individuals from disadvantaged backgrounds. This chapter presents a basic process model to summarize the effects of socio-structural variables linked to health disparities – socio-e...
Article
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Purpose: We tested the effects of an autonomy-supportive intervention in physical education (PE) on high-school students’ autonomous motivation in PE, and their autonomous motivation, intentions, and physical activity (PA) behavior in a leisure time guided by the trans-contextual model. Method: PE classes in two schools were assigned to receive eit...
Article
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Objective: Observed variation in health behavior may be attributable to socio-structural variables that represent inequality. We tested the hypothesis that variability related to socio-structural variables may be linked to variation in social cognition determinants of health behavior. A proposed model in which effects of socio-structural variables...
Article
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Study quality is emerging as an essential component of evidence syntheses and allows practitioners and policymakers to make informed decisions based on the quality of the evidence reviewed. Study quality is typically assessed by checklists of pre-determined quality criteria. Few study quality checklists have been systematically evaluated, and none...