Martin P. Girardin

Martin P. Girardin
Natural Resources Canada | NRCan · Canadian Forest Service

About

136
Publications
37,202
Reads
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4,644
Citations
Additional affiliations
December 2005 - May 2016
Natural Resources Canada
Position
  • Research scientist, Dendrochronology lab
January 1999 - January 2001
Université du Québec à Montréal
Position
  • Master's Student

Publications

Publications (136)
Article
Full-text available
Exceptionally large areas burned in 2014 in central Northwest Territories (Canada), leading members of the Tłıchǫ First Nation to characterize this year as 'extreme'. Top-down climatic and bottom-up environmental drivers of fire behavior and areas burned in the boreal forest are relatively well understood, but not the drivers of extreme wildfire ye...
Article
Significance The reduction of freeze exposure with winter warming has consequences for carbon sequestration by northern forests. Quantifying the impact of these changes on tree growth is, however, challenging because of among- and within-tree species variability in freeze tolerance and phenological cues. Here, we provide a comprehensive assessment...
Article
Full-text available
Increasing air temperatures and changing precipitation patterns due to climate change can affect tree growth in boreal forests. Periodic insect outbreaks affect the growth trajectory of trees, making it difficult to quantify the climate signal in growth dynamics at scales longer than a year. We studied climate-driven growth trends and the influence...
Article
Full-text available
Few records of spring paleoclimate are available for boreal Canada, as biological proxies recording the beginning of the warm season are uncommon. Given the spring warming observed during the last decades, and its impact on snowmelt and hydrological processes, searching for spring climate proxies is receiving increasing attention. Tree‐ring anatomi...
Article
Full-text available
Sedimentary charcoal records are widely used to reconstruct regional changes in fire regimes through time in the geological past. Existing global compilations are not geographically comprehensive and do not provide consistent metadata for all sites. Furthermore, the age models provided for these records are not harmonised and many are based on olde...
Article
As a result of extreme weather conditions associated with anthropogenic climate change, fire regimes are expected to continue to change in the boreal forest over the 21st century and beyond. Consequently, changes in ecological attributes like stand composition, tree density and forest carbon stock can be expected. In the present study, we used an a...
Article
Full-text available
Tree-ring time series provide long-term, annually resolved information on the growth of trees. When sampled in a systematic context, tree-ring data can be scaled to estimate the forest carbon capture and storage of landscapes, biomes, and-ultimately-the globe. A systematic effort to sample tree rings in national forest inventories would yield unpre...
Article
Full-text available
Many modelling approaches have been developed to project climate change impacts on forests. By analyzing “comparable” yet distinct variables (e.g., productivity, growth, dominance, biomass, etc.) through different structures, parameterizations and assumptions, models can yield different outcomes to rather similar initial questions. This variability...
Article
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The boreal forest represents the terrestrial biome most heavily affected by climate change. However, no consensus exists regarding impacts of these changes on the growth of tree species therein. Moreover, assessments of young tree responses in metrics transposable to forest management remain scarce. Here, we assessed the impacts of climate change o...
Article
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There is a pressing need for a better understanding of changing forest fire regimes worldwide, especially to separate the relative effects of potential drivers that control burned areas. Here we present a meta-analysis of the impacts of climate fluctuation and Euro-Canadian settlement on burned areas from 1850 to 1990 in a large zone (> 100,000 km2...
Poster
Full-text available
Very large wildfires (several thousand hectares) are increasingly frequent in the Northwest Territories (NWT), Canada, leading to exceptionally large areas burned during some years, such as in 2014. Crown fires spreading over very large areas affect socio-economic, cultural and traditional activities of human societies, including Indigenous peoples...
Preprint
Full-text available
Sedimentary charcoal records are widely used to reconstruct regional changes in fire regimes through time in the geological past. Existing global compilations are not geographically comprehensive and do not provide consistent metadata for all sites. Furthermore, the age models provided for these records are not harmonised and many are based on olde...
Article
Full-text available
Under climate change, modifications on plants’ growth are expected to be the strongest at species margins. Therein, tree acclimation could play a key role as migration is predicted to be too slow to track shifts of bioclimatic envelops. A requirement is, however, that intra-population genetic diversity be high enough for allowing such adaptation of...
Article
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An increase in frequency, intensity and duration of drought events affects forested ecosystems. Trees react to these changes by adjusting stomatal conductance to maximize the trade-off between carbon gains and water losses. A better understanding of the consequences of these drought-induced physiological adjustments for tree growth could help infer...
Article
Full-text available
Forest monitoring studies show contrasting trends in tree growth rates since the mid-twentieth century. However, due to their focus on annual and decadal dynamics, they provide limited insight into the effects of long-term climatic variability on tree growth. Here, we relied on a large tree-ring dataset (∼2,700 trees) of two common North American s...
Article
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Assisted gene flow between populations has been proposed as an adaptive forest management strategy that could contribute to the sequestration of carbon. Here we provide an assessment of the mitigation potential of assisted gene flow in 46 populations of the widespread boreal conifer Picea mariana, grown in two 42-year-old common garden experiments...
Article
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As boreal forests face significant threats from climate change, understanding evolutionary trajectories of coniferous species has become fundamental to adapting management and conservation to a drying climate. We examined the genomic architecture underlying adaptive variation related to drought tolerance in 43 populations of a widespread boreal con...
Article
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Understanding the magnitude and cause of variation in tree growth and forest productivity is central to sustainable forest management. Measurements of annual growth rings allow assessments of individual tree, tree population and forest ecosystem vulnerabilities to drought stress or other changing forest disturbance regimes (insects, diseases, fire)...
Article
The north-central Canadian boreal forest experienced increased occurrence of large and severe wildfires caused by unusually warm temperatures and drought events during the last decade. It is, however, difficult to assess the exceptional nature of this recent wildfire activity, as few long-term records are available in the area. We analyzed macrosco...
Article
Full-text available
Wildland fire is the most important disturbance in the boreal forests of eastern North America, shaping the floral composition, structure and spatial arrangement. Although the long-term evolution of the frequency and quantity of burned biomass in these forests can be estimated from paleo-ecological studies, we know little about the evolution of fir...
Article
Full-text available
Climate change is projected to increase fire severity and frequency in the boreal forest, but it could also directly affect post-fire recruitment processes by impacting seed production, germination, and seedling growth and survival. We reviewed current knowledge regarding the effects of high temperatures and water deficits on post-fire recruitment...
Article
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The carbon isotope ratio (δ13C) in tree rings is commonly used to derive estimates of the assimilation‐to‐stomatal conductance rate of trees, i.e. intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE). Recent studies have observed increased iWUE in response to rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations (Ca), in many different species, genera and biomes. However, increa...
Article
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Drought intensity and frequency are increasing under global warming, with soil water availability now being a major factor limiting tree growth in circumboreal forests. Still, the adaptive capacity of trees in the face of future climatic regimes remains poorly documented. ●Using 1,481 annually resolved tree‐ring series from 29 year‐old trees, we ev...
Article
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Climate changes are expected to progressively increase extreme wildfire frequency in forests. Finding past analogs for periods of extreme biomass burning would provide valuable insights regarding what the effects of warming might be for tree species distribution, ecosystem integrity, atmospheric greenhouse gas balance, and human safety. Here, we us...
Article
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The claim that changes in atmospheric composition and climate have enhanced the growth rate of trees is prevalent in science, yet it is not supported by many recent tree ring studies. In this study, we analyzed historical time trends in stemwood biomass growth derived from black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP) trees at 248 plots across Canada. T...
Article
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In many boreal regions of Russia the past natural variability of forest fire activity remains largely undocumented, preventing accurate assessment of the impact of current climate warming on forest ecosystem dynamics. This study aims to reconstruct the Holocene fire history of the northern Ural mountain foothills, in the Komi Republic, based on ana...
Article
Full-text available
Currently, there is no consensus regarding the way that changes in climate will affect boreal forest growth, where warming is occurring faster than in other biomes. Some studies suggest negative effects due to drought‐induced stresses, while others provide evidence of increased growth rates due to a longer growing season. Studies focusing upon the...
Article
Full-text available
Context The Canadian boreal forest provides valuable ecosystem services that are regionally and globally significant. Despite its importance, the future of the Canadian boreal forest is highly uncertain because potential impacts of future climate change on ecosystem processes and biomass stocks are poorly understood. Objectives We investigate how...
Preprint
Full-text available
Context. The Canadian boreal forest provides valuable ecosystem services that are regionally and globally significant. Despite its importance, the future of the Canadian boreal forest is highly uncertain because potential impacts of future climate change on ecosystem processes and biomass stocks are poorly understood. Objectives. We investigate ho...
Article
Full-text available
Due to anthropogenic emissions and changes in land use, trees are now exposed to atmospheric levels of [ CO2 ] that are unprecedented for 650,000 y [Lüthi et al. (2008) Nature 453:379–382] (thousands of tree generations). Trees are expected to acclimate by modulating leaf–gas exchanges and alter water use efficiency which may result in forest produ...
Article
Full-text available
Energy and water limitations of tree growth remain insufficiently understood at large spatiotemporal scales, hindering model representation of interannual or longer-term ecosystem processes. By assessing and statistically scaling the climatic drivers from 2710 tree-ring sites, we identified the boreal and temperate land areas where tree growth duri...
Article
The demand for large-scale and long-term information on tree growth is increasing rapidly as environmental change research strives to quantify and forecast the impacts of continued warming on forest ecosystems. This demand, combined with the now quasi-global availability of tree-ring observations, has inspired researchers to compile large tree-ring...
Article
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In view of the economic, social and ecological importance of Canada's forest ecosystems, there is a growing interest in studying the response of these ecosystems to climate change. Accurate knowledge regarding growth trajectories is needed for both policy makers and forest managers to ensure sustainability of the forest resource. However, results o...
Article
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The growth of high-latitude temperature-limited boreal forest ecosystems is projected to become more constrained by soil water availability with continued warming. The purpose of this study was to document ongoing shifts in tree growth sensitivity to the evolving local climate in unmanaged black spruce (Picea mariana (Miller) B.S.P.) forests of eas...
Article
1.As major alterations are occurring in climate and pest ranges, it is imperative to evaluate their combined contribution to tree mortality in order to propose mitigation measures and limit losses in forest productivity. The objective of this study was to explore the association between declines in tree growth resulting from climatic and biotic (sp...
Data
Table S4 Detailed results of the genotype–phenotype association (GPA) analysis with tassel when excluding the two populations from the southern group
Data
Fig. S1 Monthly mean temperature, drought code, minimum temperature and precipitation in 2002 and 2003 at Valcartier, compared to interannual variability during the 1993–2014 period. Fig. S2 Spring mean temperature and August drought code in 2003, and number of days with minimum temperature below zero in October 2002 at Valcartier, compared to int...
Data
Table S3 Detailed results of the genotype–phenotype association (GPA) analysis with tassel
Article
Full-text available
Wildland fires are the main natural disturbance shaping forest structure and composition in eastern boreal Canada. On average, more than 700 000 ha of forest burns annually and causes as much as CAD 2.9 million worth of damage. Although we know that occurrence of fires depends upon the coincidence of favourable conditions for fire ignition, propaga...
Article
Full-text available
The mid-20th century changes in North Atlantic Ocean dynamics, e.g. slow-down of the Atlantic meridional overturning thermohaline circulation (AMOC), have been considered as early signs of tipping points in the Earth climate system. We hypothesized that these changes have significantly altered boreal forest growth dynamics in northeastern North Ame...
Article
Full-text available
Local adaptation in tree species has been documented through a long history of common garden experiments where functional traits (height, bud phenology) are used as proxies for fitness. However, the ability to identify genes or genomic regions related to adaptation to climate requires the evaluation of traits that precisely reflect how and when cli...
Article
Full-text available
Wildland fires are the main natural disturbance shaping forest structure and composition in eastern boreal Canada. On average, more than 700 000 ha of forest burns annually, and causes as much as C$ 2.9 million worth of damage. Although we know that occurrence of fires depends upon the coincidence of favourable conditions for fire ignition, propaga...
Poster
Full-text available
Source de multiples bienfaits et services, la forêt boréale canadienne a de l’importance sur le plan économique, écologique et social. Les changements climatiques menacent la pérennité de cet écosystème, laissant planer le doute sur les possibilités forestières futures. Les hausses de températures, associées à des extrêmes climatiques plus fréquent...
Article
The length of the fire cycle is a critical factor affecting the vegetation cover in boreal and temperate regions. However, its responses to climate change remain poorly understood. We reanalyzed data from earlier studies of forest age structures at the landscape level, in order to map the evolution of regional fire cycles across Eastern North Ameri...
Article
Forest fire activity is projected to increase with climate change in Canada, but vegetation feedbacks are usually not considered. Using new information on selectivity or avoidance of fire related to stand age and composition, we ran simple simulation models that consider changes in the regional age matrices induced by fire and harvesting to project...
Article
Full-text available
Wildfire activity is projected to increase under global warming in many parts of the world. Knowledge of the role of these disturbances in shaping the composition of boreal forests is needed to better anticipate their future impacts. Here, we investigate the incidence of wildfire activity (burned biomass, frequency and size) on multi-millennia vege...