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Martin C. Fischer

Martin C. Fischer
ETH Zurich | ETH Zürich · Department of Environmental Systems Science

PhD

About

86
Publications
8,965
Reads
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1,721
Citations
Introduction
Martin C. Fischer currently works at the Department of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zurich. Martin does research in Bioinformatics, Population Genetics and Evolutionary Biology.
Additional affiliations
January 2016 - present
ETH Zurich
Position
  • Senior Assistant
January 2015 - December 2015
ETH Zurich
Position
  • Fellow, Adaptation to a Changing Environment (ACE)
October 2010 - December 2014
ETH Zurich
Position
  • PostDoc Position

Publications

Publications (86)
Article
Full-text available
Natural genetic variation is essential for the adaptation of organisms to their local environment and to changing environmental conditions. Here we examine genome-wide patterns of nucleotide variation in natural populations of the outcrossing herb Arabidopsis halleri and associations with climatic variation among populations in the Alps. Using a po...
Article
Full-text available
Background Microsatellite markers are widely used for estimating genetic diversity within and differentiation among populations. However, it has rarely been tested whether such estimates are useful proxies for genome-wide patterns of variation and differentiation. Here, we compared microsatellite variation with genome-wide single nucleotide polymor...
Article
Full-text available
It has long been discussed to what extent related species develop similar genetic mechanisms to adapt to similar environments. Most studies documenting such convergence have either used different lineages within species or surveyed only a limited portion of the genome. Here, we investigated whether similar or different sets of orthologous genes wer...
Article
Full-text available
Genetic diversity is a fundamental component of biological diversity, and its conservation is considered key to ensure the long-term survival of natural populations and species. National and international legislation increasingly mandates a monitoring of genetic diversity. Examples are the United Nation’s Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Ai...
Article
Full-text available
Genetic diversity is one of the three main levels of biodiversity recognised in the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). Fundamental for species adaptation to environmental change, genetic diversity is nonetheless under‐reported within global and national indicators. When it is reported, the focus is often narrow and confined to domesticated o...
Book
One of the main challenges for conservation today is monitoring and understanding changes in biodiversity. Genetic diversity provides the foundation for biodiversity and is necessary for long-term survival, adaptation, and resilience not only for individuals, but also for populations, species, and entire ecosystems. Monitoring genetic diversity acr...
Article
It is generally accepted that the spatial distribution of neutral genetic diversity within a species’ native range mostly depends on effective population size, demographic history, and geographic position. However, it is unclear how genetic diversity at adaptive loci correlates with geographic peripherality or with habitat suitability within the ec...
Article
Full-text available
Variation in local herbivore pressure along elevation gradients is predicted to drive variation in plant defense traits. Yet, the extent of intraspecific variation in defense investment along elevation gradients, and its effects on both herbivore preference and performance, remain relatively unexplored. Using populations of Arabidopsis halleri (Bra...
Article
Full-text available
When plants adapt to local environments, strong signatures of selection are expected in the genome, particularly in high-stress environments such as trace metal element enriched (metalliferous) soils. Using Arabidopsis halleri, a model species for metal homeostasis and adaptation to extreme environments, we identifid genes, gene variants, and pathw...
Article
Natural selection results in populations that are adapted to their local environment. The eld of conservation genetics has so far mainly looked at neutral genetic variation that is not directly linked to local adaptation. However, it would be reasonable to know which populations are best adapted when it comes to conservation measures like re-introd...
Article
A simplistic view of the adaptive process pictures a hillside along which a population can climb: when ecological ‘demands’ change, evolution ‘supplies’ the variation needed for the population to climb to a new peak. Evolutionary ecologists point out that this simplistic view can be incomplete because the fitness landscape changes dynamically as th...
Article
Numerous landscape genomic studies have identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and genes potentially involved in local adaptation. Rarely, it has been explicitly evaluated whether these environmental associations also hold true beyond the populations studied. We tested whether putatively adaptive SNPs in Arabidopsis halleri (Brassicaceae...
Article
Full-text available
The lack of DNA sequence information for most non-model organisms impairs the design of primers that are universally applicable for the study of molecular polymorphisms in nuclear markers. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques nowadays provide a powerful approach to overcome this limitation. We present a flexible and inexpensive method to ide...
Article
Full-text available
Genetic adaptation to different environmental conditions is expected to lead to large differences between populations at selected loci, thus providing a signature of positive selection. Whereas balancing selection can maintain polymorphisms over long evolutionary periods and even geographic scale, thus leads to low levels of divergence between popu...
Article
Speciation is a fundamental evolutionary process, the knowledge of which is crucial for understanding the origins of biodiversity. Genomic approaches are an increasingly important aspect of this research field. We review current understanding of genome-wide effects of accumulating reproductive isolation and of genomic properties that influence the...
Article
Full-text available
Sequencing of pooled samples (Pool-Seq) using next-generation sequencing technologies has become increasingly popular, because it represents a rapid and cost-effective method to determine allele frequencies for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in population pools. Validation of allele frequencies determined by Pool-Seq has been attempted usin...
Data
Full-text available
Results for the three candidate genes LOS5/ABA3 (a,d,g), GPX3 (b,e,f) and ATGLR 3.6 (c,f,i). (a,b,c) represent pairwise FST values from highly differentiated sliding windows (lines) and SNPs (open circles).
Data
Description of the five topo-climatic factors used in the environmental association analyses of Arabidopsis halleri. Table S2 Average genome-wide FST of pairwise population comparisons in Arabidopsis halleri, and threshold for accepting strongly differentiated SNPs. Table S3 The 175 identified genes covering the highly differentiated SNPs that have...
Article
Full-text available
Oceanic islands have been a test ground for evolutionary theory, but here, we focus on the possibilities for evolutionary study created by offshore islands. These can be colonized through various means and by a wide range of species, including those with low dispersal capabilities. We use morphology, modern and ancient sequences of cytochrome b (cy...
Article
Adaptation to adverse environmental conditions such as high altitude requires physiological and/or morphological changes. Genome scans provide a means to identify the genetic basis of such adaptations without previous knowledge about the particular genetic variants or traits under selection. In this study, we scanned 3027 amplified fragment length...
Article
In the last decade, amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) have become one of the most widely used molecular markers to study the genetic structure of natural populations. Most of the statistical methods available to study the genetic structure of populations using AFLPs consider these markers as dominant and are thus unable to distinguish...
Article
Full-text available
Single locus studies might not resolve phylogenetic relationships and the evolutionary history of taxa. The analysis of multiple markers promises higher resolution, and congruence among loci may indicate that the phylogenies represent the underlying species history. Here, we examine the utility of a genome-wide approach based on amplified fragment...
Article
The distribution of biota from the temperate regions changed considerably during the climatic fluctuations of the Quaternary. This is especially true for many bat species that depend on warm roosts to install their nursery colonies. Surveys of genetic variation among European bats have shown that the southern peninsulas (Iberia and the Balkans) har...