Martin Eisend

Martin Eisend
Europa-Universität Viadrina Frankfurt (Oder) · Department of Management & Marketing (M & M)

Dr.

About

250
Publications
192,958
Reads
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5,255
Citations
Additional affiliations
June 2016 - June 2016
Wirtschaftsuniversität Wien
Position
  • Professor
February 2016 - March 2016
Macquarie University
Position
  • Professor
November 2015 - December 2015
University of Amsterdam
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (250)
Article
Advertisers have begun to acknowledge that an increasing number of consumers do not support the traditional gender binary, believing that gender is dynamic and lies on a continuum. Changing views, practices, and findings regarding gender are not well addressed in current advertising research due to a lack of knowledge regarding newer gender termino...
Article
Many advertising constructs vary considerably in how they are defined and operationalized—variations which result from changes in definitions and operationalizations over time and between studies. These changes undermine the comparability of empirical insights, challenge the integration of insights into an existing body of knowledge, and thereby im...
Article
Full-text available
Research on advertising containing negative information, such as two-sided messages, has neglected the potential of including humor in the advertisements, although both theory and practical examples suggest that humor might help to sell negative information. This paper presents the results from three studies that showed that humor can increase the...
Article
Full-text available
Article
Persuasion knowledge development leads to better coping with marketplace persuasion, better consumer decision-making, and adds to consumer well-being. While significant knowledge exists on the impact that individual factors (e.g., age) and cues (e.g., sponsorship disclosure messages) have on consumers’ persuasion knowledge development, little is kn...
Article
Full-text available
As companies increasingly communicate CSR initiatives through social media, viral message propagation has become a crucial prerequisite for CSR success. Evidence from two experimental studies, one based on a national representative online sample, shows that social media peers’ endorsement of a CSR message in terms of number of shares, likes and pos...
Article
Full-text available
With global geo-political changes, marketers have increasingly employed advertisements featuring ethnic and religious minority endorsers. Researchers have examined the effects of this practice, where endorsers’ ethnicity and religious associations are interlinked. The present research disentangles the potential effects of these two factors and test...
Article
Full-text available
Since the introduction of the persuasion knowledge model more than 25 years ago, many research studies have investigated how consumers’ persuasion knowledge affects their reactions to persuasion attempts. While most results have shown that persuasion knowledge increases coping responses and leads to less favorable evaluations of marketer actions, t...
Article
Full-text available
Although marketers have been using various message tactics to breathe life into their brands, the concepts of animism and animistic cues, particularly in social media marketing, have received little theoretical and empirical attention. Therefore, we conducted two studies to uncover what drives animistic thinking on social media, how animism is link...
Article
Full-text available
Advergames are generally believed to be an effective advertising format due to their gamified and engaging nature. The empirical evidence for this, however, is inconclusive, with several studies reporting nonsignificant or contradicting results. The current study aimed to address this research gap by providing a meta-analysis of five advergame effe...
Article
This study uses evolutionary psychology to examine how the use of disease appeals affects unhealthy behavioural intentions among consumers with different life-history strategies (LHS). Do they invest more resources in survival (slow strategists) or more resources in reproduction (fast strategists)? The results of two experimental studies indicate t...
Article
Full-text available
The increasing visibility of homosexuality in society, combined with the lesbian and gay community's considerable buying power, has triggered marketers and researchers' interest in understanding homosexual consumers' consumption patterns. Prior research on whether homosexual consumers behave differently from heterosexual consumers has yielded mixed...
Article
This study proposes an ideal, four-stage model of construct evolution (emergence → conceptualization → competition → consensus) to explain construct development over time. An in-depth analysis of conceptualizations of two constructs, market orientation (MO) and customer-based brand equity (CBBE), however, reveals different evolutionary stages and t...
Article
Mini-film advertising (MA) uses narratives to deliver hidden brand messages in 3-to 10-min online videos. It addresses online users to gain their attention and to build brand exposure on the inter-net. The current study investigates experimentally the effects of MA on consumer digital engagement. The findings demonstrate that digital engagement inc...
Article
Full-text available
Despite noteworthy advances in theory and retail practice, the extant scholarship on customer privacy concerns is scattered across a wide range of academic domains and remains fragmented, in terms of both conceptual breadth and empirical results. This lack of convergence creates a pertinent need for a comprehensive synthesis to guide to further the...
Article
Full-text available
Although creativity is often considered a key success factor in advertising, the marketing literature lacks a systematic empirical account of when and how advertising creativity works. The authors use a meta-analysis to synthesize the literature on advertising creativity and test different theoretical explanations for its effects. The analysis cove...
Article
Full-text available
The amount of literature on the effects of disclosing sponsored content has increased greatly in recent years. Although the literature provides valuable insights into the effects of disclosing sponsored content, several research gaps remain, such as inconclusive findings, boundary conditions, and the mechanisms that explain how disclosures work. Th...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to apply cultivation theory to social network sites by investigating how Facebook uses cultivates users' ethnic diversity perceptions and attitudes. Design/methodology/approach The authors’ investigations include an online and offline survey study with 476 Facebook users and a follow-up experiment with 75 indiv...
Chapter
Noch immer gibt es große Hürden für einen Bildungsaufstieg - nach wie vor stammt nur eine Minderheit der Professor*innen aus der Arbeiterklasse. Was bedeutet es diesen Aufsteiger*innen, eine Professur erreicht zu haben? Wie erleben sie die Universität und das Versprechen der Chancengleichheit? Und wie haben ihre eigenen Aufstiegserfahrungen sie als...
Conference Paper
Rising support for the LGBT community, paired with the considerable buying power of this group, has triggered increasing interest from marketers in the gay and lesbian market. Several companies have developed advertising with homosexual imagery to better target this group, thereby risking alienating most heterosexual consumers. The findings on the...
Conference Paper
Increased societal diversity in Western societies led to increased public interest in minorities-especially ethnic and religious minorities. While negative images in media dominate, marketing scholars and marketers identified the opportunities addressing minority consumer offers. Past research that investigated the effects of ethnic minorities and...
Article
Full-text available
Rising support for the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community, paired with the considerable buying power of this group, has triggered increasing interest from marketers in the gay and lesbian market. Many companies have developed advertising with homosexual imagery to better target this group as well as the mainstream market. The...
Article
Full-text available
Rising support for the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community, paired with the considerable buying power of this group, has triggered increasing interest from marketers in the gay and lesbian market. Many companies have developed advertising with homosexual imagery to better target this group as well as the mainstream market. The...
Article
Although prior research is congested with constructs intended to capture consumers’ dispositions toward globalization and global/local products, their effects appear to replicate with difficulty while little is known about the underlying theoretical mechanisms. This investigation revisits the relationship between prominent consumer dispositions (co...
Article
Using another media screen while watching television has become a part of people’s daily routines. The topic of multiscreening has thus received increased attention from advertising scholars in recent years. To gain a better theoretical understanding of the circumstances under which multiscreening effects occur and to offer practical guidelines to...
Article
Full-text available
Many studies have investigated why users engage in digital piracy. The theoretical explanations are particularistic, and the empirical findings are fragmented, sometimes divergent, and reveal unexplained variations of effects. Managers and academics have thus had little guidance on how to explain and combat digital piracy. To help fill this gap, th...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we rely on evolutionary psychology to examine how the use of spontaneous versus canned humor affects response to advertising among male and female consumers. The results of three experimental studies indicate that response to advertising varies as a function of the type of humor employed and the gender of the message recipient: women...
Conference Paper
In this paper, we rely on evolutionary psychology to examine how the use of lethal (threatening survival) versus reproductive (threatening reproduction) disease appeals affects smoking intention among consumers with different life history strategies. The results of two experimental studies indicate that smoking intention varies as a function of the...
Article
Research on gender roles in advertising revolves around three main topics: the assessment and occurrence of gender roles, the advertising effectiveness of gender roles, and the social effects of gender roles on consumers and society. The current knowledge of each topic reveals several gaps. To fill these gaps and increase the general knowledge rega...
Article
While burgeoning research has shown the relevance of dynamic capabilities in terms of managers identifying and pursuing business opportunities, much less is known about the role of involving employees without managerial status in those activities. In this paper, we examine the impact of employee participation on the enactment of dynamic capabilitie...
Article
Does the counterfeiting of branded products benefit or harm the original products? As prior research does not converge to a single answer to this question, this study undertakes a meta-analysis of previous research that accumulates 460 effect sizes from 108 independent studies. The meta-analytic results show that experience with counterfeit products...
Article
Full-text available
Acquisition and purchase of counterfeit and pirated products are illicit and morally-questionable consumer behaviors. Nonetheless, some consumers engage in such illicit behavior and seem to overcome the moral dilemma by justification strategies. The findings on morality effects on consumer responses to counterfeit and pirated products are diverse,...
Chapter
Based on hypotheses, theories can be examined empirically (see Sect. 5.2). This chapter illustrates the nature of hypotheses and the procedure for testing them empirically. The chapter specifically addresses the increasingly important relationship between significance tests and effect sizes in research, as well as the problem of post hoc hypothesis...
Chapter
From time to time, scandals triggered by the unethical behavior of scientists (e.g. plagiarism or falsification of data) generate significant notoriety, even grabbing the attention of the public at large. Often associated with this is the deterioration of trust in science. The scientists who are responsible for the scandals typically suffer from se...
Chapter
For a long time, the theory building process was not part of philosophy of science considerations, because of the assumption that it was primarily about systematic, barely accessible creative and psychological processes (see Sect. 4.2). Nowadays, this area is still less developed than other parts of epistemology. Nonetheless, Sect. 4.3 presents thr...
Chapter
The investigation of causal relationships is of central concern to science. The proof of causality requires a number of typical features and conditions. There are different types of causal relationships, in particular direct, indirect, and moderated causal relationships. The investigation of causal relationships is typically carried out in the cont...
Chapter
Assessments of research methods and recommendations for scientific work obviously depend on assumptions about the chances and limits of scientific knowledge, as well as on the aims and conditions of scientific research. In the course of the history of science and the development of marketing research, there have been various views on the philosophy...
Chapter
This chapter deals with the means to evaluate theories and to (preliminarily) accept or reject them. For this purpose, the different criteria that are used are briefly presented in Sect. 5.1. The chapter mainly focuses on different aspects of empirical tests of a theory. The “classical” path of forming and testing of theory-based hypotheses is pres...
Chapter
An essential element of scientific realism is the frequent and long-term corroboration of statements based on empirical tests. From an empirical perspective, it is about the question of generalizability, and to what extent empirical findings on the same statement found in various other studies are confirmed. The current chapter deals with approache...
Chapter
Testing theories requires appropriate methods. First, the concepts of a theory must be made measurable; that is, they have to be operationalized (➔ operationalization) before they can measure corresponding parts of reality (➔ measurement). Only if the transfer of a theory’s elements into measurable variables succeeds are the results of a study mean...
Chapter
Scientific findings are systematized and summarized mainly by theories. Theories are thus the basis for innumerable practical applications and serve to preserve and communicate knowledge as well as to develop understanding. This constitutes their central importance for all scientific disciplines. The first section describes what a theory is. This i...
Book
This textbook describes and explains the fundamentals of applying empirical methods for theory building and theory testing in marketing research. The authors explain the foundations in philosophy of science and the various methodological approaches to readers who are working empirically with the purpose of developing and testing theories in marketi...
Article
The present study aims to explore the moderating effect of cultural values on responses to male and female gender role stereotyping in advertising. Based on an experiment in Sweden (n = 507) and Germany (n = 506), we test the impact of respondents’ masculinity, power distance, assertiveness values and feminine role orientation on ad attitudes and b...
Chapter
Religion is becoming increasingly important in public discussions. In Western media, negative stereotypical depictions of the Islam and its members dominate. Muslims are often associated with low-paid jobs, violence and criminality, and women’s oppression (el-Aswad, 2013; Hoffmann, 2013). This discourages marketers to include Muslims in advertising...
Chapter
Humor in der Marketingkommunikation ist weit verbreitet. Unternehmen setzen Humor ein, um ihre Zielgruppen positiv in ihrem Verhalten gegenüber den Angeboten des Unternehmens zu beeinflussen. Der Einsatz von Humor in der Kommunikation bietet dabei Chancen, aber auch einige Risiken. Der Beitrag gibt umfassende Handlungsempfehlungen wie Humor in der...
Conference Paper
Many societies are nowadays facing increasing ethnic, racial, and cultural diversity. Market-ers therefore develop ethnically targeted advertising messages and scholars study the effects of these messages on different ethnic consumer groups. Extant academic literature has pro-vided inconclusive findings regarding the differential influence of ethni...
Conference Paper
Researchers investigating the effects of humor in advertising have mostly applied experimental studies using either fictitious or real brands. Both types of stimuli can lead to biased results, but the effects have not been examined so far. The current study tests experimentally the effect of real versus fictitious brands in advertising using humor....
Conference Paper
By relying on evolutionary psychology, we examine how the use of spontaneous versus canned humor affects attitude toward the ad among female and male consumers. The results indicate that attitude toward the ad varies as a function of the employed humor type and the gender of the message recipient. Further, the interactive effect is mediated by perc...
Conference Paper
The literature on the effects of disclosing sponsored content mushroomed in the past five years. However, a systematic quantitative overview of sponsorship disclosure effects is lack-ing. This paper offers a first-time quantitative synthesis of sponsorship disclosure effects and their magnitudes. A total of 51 papers that use 47 distinct data sets,...
Conference Paper
Multiscreening has become part of people’s daily routines. Simultaneously, it has received increased attention by adverting scholars. In order to advance the field of multiscreening and advertising, and to provide practical guidelines for practitioners, the current study synthesizes the results of previous research in a meta-analysis. The results s...
Conference Paper
While we know a lot about how consumers develop persuasion knowledge and how they react to persuasive attempts by marketers, we do not know whether and how marketers and ad-vertisers react to consumers’ persuasion knowledge. Does consumers’ persuasion knowledge affect marketers’ actions, particularly their efforts and investments in advertising? Do...
Article
Academic researchers tend to use multiple items to measure a construct reliably, whereas practitioners tend to use single-item measures. But when constructs such as brand attitude, attitude toward the advertisement, and attitude toward behaviors are double concrete—with a clear, singular meaning in which the object being rated also is clear and sin...
Article
Humor is an everyday phenomenon in human communication that has garnered quite a bit of attention from researchers, particularly its role as a powerful communication and persuasion tool in advertising. Prior reviews have outlined the state of research of humor in advertising and showed that some findings deserve further explanations. This paper mak...
Book
This book addresses challenges and opportunities in research and management related to new advertising and consumer practices in a converging media society. It specifically relates to the increasing power of consumers in the (digital) marketing process and discusses the challenges this may bring to advertisers. Advances in Advertising Research are...
Article
Full-text available
Although numerous previous studies have investigated consumer demographics and psychographics as determinants of counterfeit purchases, their findings are diverse and fragmented. In conceptually referring to the brand signals that help consumers build their identities, the present meta-analysis synthesizes the influence of consumer demographics and...
Chapter
Ein wesentliches Element des wissenschaftlichen Realismus ist die oftmalige und langfristige Bewährung von Aussagen aufgrund empirischer Tests. Aus einer empirischen Perspektive geht es dabei um die Frage der Generalisierung, also inwieweit sich empirische Befunde zur gleichen Aussage, die in verschiedenen Studien ermittelt wurden, bestätigen. Im v...
Chapter
Über lange Zeit hat man den Prozess der Theoriebildung aus dem Bereich wissenschaftstheoretischer Überlegungen weitgehend ausgeklammert, weil man davon ausging, dass es hier in erster Linie um systematischer Analyse kaum zugängliche kreative und psychologische Prozesse gehe (siehe Abschn. 4.2). Nun ist dieses Gebiet immer noch deutlich weniger entw...
Chapter
Anhand von Hypothesen lassen sich Theorien empirisch prüfen (siehe Abschn. 5.2). Nachstehend werden das Wesen von Hypothesen und die Vorgehensweise bei der Überprüfung von Hypothesen, den empirischen Tests, dargestellt. Dabei wird insbesondere auch auf die in der Wissenschaft immer wichtiger werdende Beziehung zwischen Signifikanztests und Effektst...
Chapter
Einschätzungen von Forschungsmethoden und Empfehlungen für wissenschaftliche Arbeit sind natürlich entscheidend abhängig von Annahmen über Möglichkeiten und Grenzen wissenschaftlicher Erkenntnis sowie von Zielen und Bedingungen wissenschaftlicher Forschung. Im Lauf der Wissenschaftsgeschichte und auch der Entwicklung der Betriebswirtschaftslehre ga...
Chapter
Zum Testen von Theorien bedarf es geeigneter Methoden. Dabei müssen zunächst die Konzepte einer Theorie messbar gemacht werden, d. h. sie müssen operationalisiert werden (→ Operationalisierung), bevor man entsprechende Teile der Realität messen kann (→ Messung). Nur wenn die Übersetzung der Theorie in messbare Variablen gelingt, sind Untersuchungse...
Chapter
Von Zeit zu Zeit erregen Wissenschafts-Skandale, die durch unethisches Verhalten von Wissenschaftlern und Wissenschaftlerinnen – z. B. Plagiate bei Promotionen oder Fälschung von Daten – verursacht sind, erhebliches Aufsehen auch in der breiteren Öffentlichkeit. Damit verbunden ist oft eine Beeinträchtigung des Vertrauens gegenüber der Wissenschaft...
Chapter
Wissenschaftliche Erkenntnisse werden hauptsächlich in Theorien systematisiert und zusammengefasst. Theorien sind somit die Basis für unzählige praktische Anwendungen und dienen der Bewahrung und Kommunikation von Wissen sowie der Entwicklung von Verständnis. Vor diesem Hintergrund ist ihre zentrale Bedeutung für alle wissenschaftlichen Disziplinen...
Chapter
Im vorliegenden Kapitel geht es um Möglichkeiten, Theorien zu beurteilen und diese (zumindest vorläufig) zu akzeptieren oder abzulehnen. Dafür werden unterschiedliche Kriterien herangezogen, die im Abschn. 5.1 kurz vorgestellt werden. Im Mittelpunkt dieses Buches stehen natürlich Aspekte der empirischen Bewährung einer Theorie. Der „klassische“ Weg...
Chapter
Die Untersuchung von Kausalbeziehungen ist ein zentrales Anliegen der Wissenschaft. Für das Vorliegen von Kausalität ist eine Reihe von typischen Merkmalen und Bedingungen erforderlich. Man unterscheidet unterschiedliche Arten von Kausalbeziehungen, insbesondere direkte, indirekte und moderierte Kausalbeziehungen. Die Untersuchung von Kausalbeziehu...
Article
This research addresses the role of warm glow as an antecedent of proenvironmental behavior in a comparative study of the behavioral effects of warm glow and altruistic personality traits and values. So far the influences of altruism and warm glow have not been analyzed simultaneously. Two online surveys with representative population samples show...
Article
Meta-analyses have become increasingly popular in many fields of the social sciences, including advertising research. The results of meta-analyses attract substantial interest from both scholars and practitioners, as indicated by high citation numbers and widespread dissemination in the media. By summarizing results drawn from a set of studies conc...
Book
Im Mittelpunkt dieses Lehrbuches stehen die wissenschaftstheoretischen Grundlagen und die Schlussweisen bei der Anwendung empirischer Methoden für Entwurf und Prüfung betriebswirtschaftlicher Theorien. Die Autoren stellen diese Grundlagen klar und verständlich dar. Das soll dabei helfen, mit empirisch ausgerichteten wissenschaftlichen Arbeiten, Bei...
Article
Prior meta-analyses have found evidence for differences in the third-person effect across message types, indicating that the third-person effect is a communication context-specific phenomenon. These meta-analyses do not explain why effects of the perceptual hypothesis in advertising are smaller when compared to communication in general; they do not...
Book
This book addresses challenges in research and management pertaining to the media, contents, and audiences in our current era of (dis)engagement. These challenges relate to the evidence pointing to increasing/decreasing interactions between actors in social, cultural, and economic systems. Advances in Advertising Research are published by the Europ...
Conference Paper
We investigate the influence of sexualized humor in advertising with heterosexual and homo-sexual endorsers on ad and brand attitudes of heterosexual and homosexual consumers. While the humor effects for heterosexual men are in line with prior research, the effects reverse for homosexual male and female consumers who react more negatively to humoro...
Conference Paper
We refer to humor’s biological evolution as an explanation for cross-cultural variations in humor’s use and effects in advertising. Humor’s function as fitness signal and interest indicator suggests that the use and effects of humor are stronger for mating individuals. We provide evidence for this predication in two studies showing that the effect...
Conference Paper
Past studies show ambiguous results concerning the effects of stereotyping of minorities in adver-tising. Stereotypical depictions can have positive consequences, but can also be perceived as of-fending. By providing a new moderating variable – news valence – this study tries to explain how stereotyping can influence advertising effectiveness. The...
Article
Relationship marketing effectiveness varies across different markets, but prior research has provided limited evidence on cultural variations of the effects of relationship variables such as switching costs. The authors develop and test a theoretical framework that explains how culture moderates the relationship between perceived switching costs an...