Martin J Dorahy

Martin J Dorahy
University of Canterbury | UC · Department of Psychology

About

143
Publications
102,295
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3,902
Citations
Additional affiliations
January 2005 - January 2009
Queen's University Belfast
Position
  • Research Tutor; clinical supervisor

Publications

Publications (143)
Article
Previous research has shown that the relationship between childhood abuse and the presence of auditory hallucinations is mediated by dissociation, specifically depersonalization and absorption. The current study assessed dissociation as a mediator of the relationship between childhood abuse and auditory hallucination frequency, characteristics and...
Article
Full-text available
The Christchurch mosque shootings on March 15th, 2019 was the deadliest incident of mass violence in New Zealand for over a century. The present study investigated the psychological impact of these terrorist attacks targeting a specific minority community on the psychological functioning of the wider New Zealand population by examining changes in t...
Article
Two studies employed a dissociative detachment induction technique to examine if experiences of dissociation increased acute shame feelings. Study 1 recruited college participants, while Study 2 enlisted adults attending treatment for childhood sexual abuse. Two hypotheses were explored: (1) more shame would be reported following a dissociative det...
Article
Full-text available
Objective The present review aimed to examine the relationship between attachment styles and posttraumatic growth in adults exposed to traumatizing events. Method A systematic literature search resulted in the inclusion of 14 studies in the review. Four correlational meta-analyses of the relationship between the attachment styles of secure, dismis...
Article
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Amnesia is a core diagnostic criterion for Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID), however previous research has indicated memory transfer. As DID has been conceptualised as being a disorder of distinct identities, in this experiment, behavioral tasks were used to assess the nature of amnesia for episodic 1) self-referential and 2) autobiographical m...
Article
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Dissociative experiences have been associated with diachronic disunity. Yet, this work is in its infancy. Dissociative identity disorder (DID) is characterized by different identity states reporting their own relatively continuous sense of self. The degree to which patients in dissociative identity states experience diachronic unity (i.e., sense of...
Article
Firmly held beliefs that have a delusional quality are commonly experienced in those with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) and have been reported in those with dissociative identity disorder (DID). However, no study to date has compared delusional belief content and characteristics between these diagnostic groups. This study examined delusion...
Article
This paper investigated a 60-item version of the Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation (MID) with the potential to capture the full range of dissociative symptoms that characterize each of the dissociative disorders (DD). The 28-item Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) was designed to capture a wide range of dissociative phenomena, but colleg...
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The psychological literature has re-awakened its interest in shame. Research demonstrates that shame is negatively linked with intimacy through direct and indirect associations with intimacy fear and intimacy levels. This study explored the pathways between trait shame and perceived risk in intimacy. We hypothesised there would be an indirect relat...
Preprint
Full-text available
This paper investigated a 60-item version of the Multidimensional Inventory of Dissociation (MID) with the potential to capture the full range of dissociative symptoms that characterize each of the dissociative disorders (DD). The 28-item Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) was designed to capture a wide range of dissociative phenomena, but colleg...
Article
p> Introduction Paramedics are routinely exposed to traumatic events. This study describes the rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), psychiatric morbidity and levels of post-traumatic growth (PTG) in New Zealand first responder paramedics, exploring a mix of demographic, professional, crewing status and exposure risk factors associated w...
Article
Objective: Cognitive models posit negative trauma appraisals as maintaining symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder. Recent research has demonstrated that alienation appraisals (feeling disconnected from the self and others) are salient in trauma-related distress. Studies show that alienation appraisals fully mediated the relationship between tr...
Article
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In the December 2012 issue of the Journal, Joel Paris, MD wrote an article about the current status of Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) and the dissociative disorder field in general. He suggests that DID is merely a "fad", and that there is no credible evidence to connect traumatic experiences with the development of DID. We refute several of...
Article
While evidence suggests a division between two qualitatively distinct forms of dissociation, no scale has been specifically designed to differentiate between them. This study describes the development and validation of the Detachment and Compartmentalization Inventory (DCI). The DCI was developed from dissociation theory, 29 existing dissociation s...
Article
Deliberate self-harm (DSH) involves a physical act with the intent of harming the self. There are many precipitants to this behavior, with dissociation receiving increasing attention. The current study examined the quartile risk model for predicting deliberate self-harm, which proposes that four quadrants of dissociation (low normative, high normat...
Article
People respond differently to potentially traumatic events. To explore predictors of a chronic and delayed trajectory of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) after a natural disaster, we analyzed psychometric data collected from 412 residents of Christchurch, New Zealand after a 6.3 magnitude earthquake struck in February 2011. Participants from su...
Chapter
Hearing voices that other people do not hear has long been considered a cardinal sign of madness. This chapter reviews the research supporting the argument that voice hearing is a dissociative phenomenon. It begins with a brief review of population studies, followed by studies of voice hearing in various clinical and nonclinical groups. The chapter...
Chapter
An understanding of the modern construction of dissociative disorders and psychotic disorders rests on an appreciation of the historical forces shaping their evolution. This chapter focuses on the history of dissociation and psychosis, particularly as it relates to the concepts of hysteria and schizophrenia, from around the time of the Enlightenmen...
Chapter
This chapter aims to give an overview of findings on childhood trauma in patients diagnosed with psychotic disorders and dissociative disorders. Existing evidence consistently shows a high prevalence of trauma in people with psychosis. The majority of patients of both sexes living with psychosis had experienced abuse in childhood. Dissociative diso...
Chapter
This chapter focuses on the cognitive processing of perceived or actual threat, and examines the degree to which current findings converge and diverge in the dissociation and psychosis literatures. Phenomenologically, both dissociative and psychotic experiences are characterized by the presence of frightening memories, thoughts, and beliefs. Clinic...
Article
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Individuals with dissociative identity disorder (DID) often report having no access to autobiographical experiences encoded by other identities. This research used the autobiographical Implicit Association Test (aIAT) to determine whether there was transfer of episodic self-referential memory events across amnesic identities. Nineteen DID individua...
Chapter
Full-text available
Introduction Chapter. The book is derived from the Journal of Trauma and Dissociation special (double) issue
Article
Background and objectives: Studies show experiences of negative affective states, such as shame, elevate dissociation. Using vignettes, this study aimed to investigate the reverse, whether experiences of dissociation in the context of varied interpersonal relationships elevate shame. Methods: 269 adults completed online questionnaires (Dissociat...
Article
This study examined shame and responses to it in adult dissociative disorder (DD; n = 24) and comparison psychiatric (n = 14) samples. To investigate how helpful different therapeutic responses are after shame disclosures in therapy, participants heard two vignettes from "mock" patients disclosing a) shame and b) surprise. Participants rated the he...
Article
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Objective: Posttraumatic growth (PTG) is a commonly observed phenomenon in the wake of a distressing event, capturing potentially beneficial effects for posttraumatic adaptation. However, it is not entirely clear what factors are essential for the development of PTG, especially after natural disasters. Most importantly, it is uncertain what type o...
Article
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Dissociative identity disorder (DID) is a chronic post-traumatic disorder where developmental stress in childhood, including abuse, emotional neglect, disturbed attachment, and boundary violations are central and typical etiological factors. Familial, societal and cultural factors may give rise to the trauma and/or they may influence the expression...
Article
This paper examines one particular way a person abused may come to internally position themselves and the abuser to understand their abuse experience. It is based on a differentiation and exploration of the dynamic relationship between shame and humiliation associated with complex feelings the abused has to the abuser. Humiliation is described as d...
Article
Studies have not examined if a direct causal relationship exists between shame and dissociation. The current research examined whether increases in dissociation were evident following exposure to acute shame feelings induced via narrative scripts of shame-evoking situations. Following Gilbert’s (1998) differentiation between external and internal s...
Article
Objectives: Elevated shame and dissociation are common in dissociative identity disorder (DID) and chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and are part of the constellation of symptoms defined as complex PTSD. Previous work examined the relationship between shame, dissociation, and complex PTSD and whether they are associated with intimate re...
Article
Objectives: To conduct a preliminary study comparing different trauma and clinical populations on types of shame coping style and levels of state shame and guilt. Methods: A mixed independent groups/correlational design was employed. Participants were recruited by convenience sampling of 3 clinical populations-complex trauma (n = 65), dissociati...
Article
Full-text available
Childhood maltreatment has diverse, lifelong impact on morbidity and mortality. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) is one of the most commonly used scales to assess and quantify these experiences and their impact. Curiously, despite very widespread use of the CTQ, scores on its Minimization-Denial (MD) subscale-originally designed to assess a...
Data
This Excel spreadsheet that contains the pooled, raw, data from all of the collaborating investigators. This has been submitted at the request of the publishing entity, so that other researchers may also have access to the dataset used in our analyses. (CSV)
Data
Samples included in the analysis. This table lists all of the data sets used for this research by primary investigator, providing the: number of community members in their sample; number of clinical patients used in their sample (alongside the type of clinical sample used); the language used by that research group; and a reference to where else the...
Article
This study investigates the causal role of dissociation in intrusive memory development, and possible underlying aberrant memory processes (e.g., increased perceptual priming). Using an audio-only adaption of the trauma film paradigm, 60 participants were divided into three conditions and presented with different visual tasks—mirror staring, dot-st...
Chapter
Auditory hallucinations are relatively common in those with chronic trauma disorders (12–98 %). They typically begin after a traumatic event and following the development of trauma-related disorders. They often contain themes related to trauma. Auditory hallucinations in chronic trauma disorders are commonly negative in content, heard inside the he...
Article
This study examined the direct and indirect effects of cognitions and anxiety associated with aftershocks on psychological symptoms (anxiety, depression, acute stress) and daily functioning (general and relationship). Participants were 600 adults from Christchurch, New Zealand. Data collection was approximately four months after the fatal 2011 eart...
Article
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Only a select number of studies have examined different forms of child maltreatment in complex dissociative disorders in comparison to other groups. Few of these have used child abuse-related chronic PTSD and mixed psychiatric patients with maltreatment as comparison groups. This study examined child sexual, physical and emotional abuse, as well as...
Article
Full-text available
Studies are beginning to show the importance of appraisals to different types and severities of psychiatric disorders. Yet, little work in this area has assessed whether trauma-related appraisals can differentiate complex trauma-related disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative identity disorder (DID). The current stu...
Chapter
Dissociative experiences are thought to occur acutely (e.g., during or immediately following trauma) or chronically and are considered to reduce the subjective distress accompanying stressful events. Growing evidence is consistent with a model that distinguishes between two qualitatively different types of phenomena—“compartmentalization” and “deta...
Article
Understanding posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in police first-responders is an underdeveloped field. Using a cross-sectional survey, this study investigated demographic and occupational characteristics, coping resources and processes, along with first-responder roles and consequences 18 months following a disaster. Hierarchical linear...
Article
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Cognitive themes in two communities differentially affected by the September 2010 Christchurch earthquake and aftershocks were investigated. Participants (N = 124) completed questions about their thoughts during the earthquake and aftershocks as well as measures of acute stress, anxiety, and depression. Cognitions were qualitatively analyzed into t...
Article
Background Therapist responses to initial shame disclosure in therapy have received little empirical attention.AimThis study explored different therapeutic responses to shame disclosures in terms of their perceived helpfulness. Responses ranged from complete withdrawal from the feeling (withdrawal) to completely tuning into it (non-withdrawal). Giv...
Article
Full-text available
Whilst a growing body of research has examined dissociation and other psychiatric symptoms in severe dissociative disorders (DDs), there has been no systematic examination of shame and sense of self in relationships in DDs. Chronic child abuse often associated with severe DDs, like dissociative identity disorder, is likely to heighten shame and rel...
Article
Post-traumatic stress, depression and anxiety symptoms are common outcomes following earthquakes, and may persist for months and years. This study systematically examined the impact of neighbourhood damage exposure and average household income on psychological distress and functioning in 600 residents of Christchurch, New Zealand, 4–6 months after...
Article
Exposure to overwhelming events can result in difficulties cognitively processing the experience, which may be a precursor to posttraumatic stress symptoms. Trauma-induced dissociation has been proposed to be a mechanism related to these cognitive processing difficulties. Most research on information processing and dissociation has used controlled...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract The DSM-5 formally recognizes a dissociative subtype of PTSD ('PTSD with dissociative symptoms'). This nomenclative move will boost empirical and theoretical efforts to further understand the links between dissociation, trauma and PTSD. This paper examines the empirical literature showing that patients with PTSD can be divided into two dif...
Article
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We respond to Lynn et al.'s (2014) comments on our review (Dalenberg et al., 2012) demonstrating the superiority of the trauma model (TM) over the fantasy model (FM) in explaining the trauma-dissociation relationship. Lynn et al. conceded that our meta-analytic results support the TM hypothesis that trauma exposure is a causal risk factor for the d...
Article
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Objective: Despite its long and auspicious place in the history of psychiatry, dissociative identity disorder (DID) has been associated with controversy. This paper aims to examine the empirical data related to DID and outline the contextual challenges to its scientific investigation. Methods: The overview is limited to DID-specific research in...
Book
Full-text available
3RD Fisherman: "Master, I marvel how the fishes live in the sea." 1ST Fisherman: "Why, as men do a-land -- the great ones eat up the little ones." [William Shakespeare (1564-1616), Pericles (1606-08), Act 2, Scene 1].
Article
Following trauma, most people with initial symptoms of stress recover, but it is important to identify those at risk for continuing difficulties so resources are allocated appropriately. There has been limited investigation of predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder following natural disasters. This study assessed psychological difficulties exp...
Article
This study examined the role of prolonged, repeated traumatic experiences such as childhood and sectarian trauma in the development of posttraumatic aggression and self-harm. Forty-four adult participants attending therapy for complex trauma in Northern Ireland were obtained via convenience sampling. When social desirability was controlled, childho...
Article
The Troubles-Related Experiences Questionnaire (TREQ) was developed to assess exposure to Troubles-related events in Northern Ireland in childhood and adulthood. It was also designed to measure perceived impacts of Troubles exposure. To examine the initial psychometric properties of the TREQ, it was administered to three Northern Irish clinical sam...
Article
During episodes of direct or indirect exposure to traumatic events, a psychological defence mechanism is believed to operate to minimise the integration of aversive stimuli with consciousness. This mechanism, known as dissociation, has received increasing theoretical and research attention in both the clinical and non-clinical population over the l...
Article
The recovered memory debate has created much secular and academic interest and has inspired a great deal of speculation and research into the nature of traumatic memories. Following the work of a number of traumatologists, the present paper argues that traumatic memories are processed differently in human memory than are non-traumatic memories. Spe...
Article
BACKGROUND: This study examined dissociation, shame, guilt and intimate relationship difficulties in those with chronic and complex PTSD. Little is known about how these symptom clusters interplay within the complex PTSD constellation. Dissociation was examined as a principle organizing construct within complex PTSD. In addition, the impact of sham...
Article
The current study sought to elaborate and test a theoretical proposition that introjective personality functioning, which has been implicated in various psychological difficulties (e.g., self-critical depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder), has an emotional foundation in the self-conscious emotion of shame and is supported by dissociation. More...
Article
Full-text available
The relationship between a reported history of trauma and dissociative symptoms has been explained in 2 conflicting ways. Pathological dissociation has been conceptualized as a response to antecedent traumatic stress and/or severe psychological adversity. Others have proposed that dissociation makes individuals prone to fantasy, thereby engendering...
Article
This study examined the experiences of shame and guilt in adult males sexually abused as children. Seven participants attending a service for male sexual abuse completed measures of shame, guilt, dissociation, and childhood trauma history and subsequently participated in a focus group. All participants experienced childhood sexual abuse in the "sev...
Article
Full-text available
We examined performance in a sustained attention to response task (SART) (Experiment 1) and a more traditionally formatted vigilance task (Experiment 2) using novel word stimuli (text-speak) and normally spelt words. This enabled us to address whether the SART is a better measure of sustained attention or of response strategy, and to investigate th...