Martin L. Cody

Martin L. Cody
University of California, Los Angeles | UCLA · Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

Ph,d.

About

186
Publications
7,644
Reads
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10,569
Citations
Additional affiliations
July 1966 - January 2009
University of California, Los Angeles
Position
  • Professor

Publications

Publications (186)
Article
Full-text available
The long-held view that birdsong is exclusively a male trait has been challenged recently by a number of studies and reviews highlighting the prevalence of female song. Despite that, there remains a lack of knowledge on the function of female song, with most evidence thus far focusing on females performing duets with males in courtship displays, ty...
Preprint
Full-text available
The long-held view that bird song is exclusively a male trait has been challenged recently by a number of studies and reviews highlighting the prevalence of female song. In spite of that, there remains a lack of knowledge on the function of female song, with most evidence thus far focusing on females performing duets with males in courtship display...
Article
This paper introduces our several preliminary approaches toward understanding temporal soundspace partitioning in bird communities as a self-organizing phenomenon based on behavioral plasticity. First, we describe this phenomenon from our recordings, and show there are asymmetric relationships and the diversity in the temporal avoidance behaviors a...
Article
Many birds have songs with variable structure and sequences. In earlier studies, we characterized some features from the song structures of California Thrashers (Toxostoma redivivum). In the Thrashers, there were a large number of phrase types, dozens to hundreds and the songs that were sequences of these many phrases were not random, but show some...
Article
Bird songs make an attractive model for studying complex systems. They may range from simple repeated sequences, to complex sequences of different phrase types, much like human language. There is probably no single way to best characterize their complexity. We should avoid saying that that “bird songs are in complexity class X”. The diversity of ex...
Article
Full-text available
We describe songs of the California Thrasher (Toxostoma redivivum), a territorial, monogamous species whose complex songs are composed of extended sequences of phonetically diverse phrases. We take a network approach, so that network nodes represent specific phrases, and links or transitions between nodes describe a subgroup structure that reveals...
Article
Annotation of phrases in birdsongs can be helpful to behavioral and population studies. To reduce the need for manual annotation, an automated birdsong phrase classification algorithm for limited data is developed. Limited data occur because of limited recordings or the existence of rare phrases. In this paper, classification of up to 81 phrase cla...
Article
Full-text available
Projects on the acoustic monitoring of animals in natural habitats generally face the problem of managing extensive amounts of data, both needed for- and produced by- observation or experimentation. While there are many publicly accessible databases for recordings themselves, we are aware of none for annotated song sequences. In this paper, we desc...
Article
Full-text available
An increasingly urbanizing human population presents new challenges for urban planners and designers. While the field of urban design tools is expanding, urban development scenarios require the input of multiple stakeholders, each with different outlooks, expertise, requirements, and preconceptions, and good urban design requires communication and...
Conference Paper
The performance of a sparse representation-based (SR) classifier for in-set bird phrase verification and classification is studied. The database contains phrases segmented from songs of the Cassin's Vireo (Vireo cassinii). Each test phrase belongs to one of 33 phrase classes - 32 in-set categories, and 1 collective out-of-set category. Only in-set...
Article
Birds do not always vocalize at random, but may rather divide up soundspace in such a manner that they avoid overlap with the songs of other bird species. In effect, a high degree of communication efficiency can be achieved by many simultaneously active vocalists that finely integrate songs with minimal overlap. We describe this phenomenon from sev...
Article
Full-text available
Bird songs are acoustic communication signals primarily used in male-male aggression and in male-female attraction. These are often monotonous patterns composed of a few phrases, yet some birds have extremely complex songs with a large phrase repertoire, organized in non-random fashion with discernible patterns. Since structure is typically associa...
Data
Statistical prosperities of repetitions of same phrase. (EPS)
Data
Comparison of degree distributions of different individuals. (EPS)
Data
Full-text available
Detailed description of California Thrasher song and of a method of phrase classification. (PDF)
Data
Repertoire diversity in the acoustic feature space. (EPS)
Data
Audio file of a California Thrasher song. (WAV)
Article
This paper evaluates the performance of a sparse representation-based (SR) classifier for a limited data, bird phrase classification task. The evaluation database contains 32 unique phrases segmented from songs of the Cassin's Vireo (Vireo cassinii). Spectrographic features were extracted from each phrase-segmented audio file, followed by dimension...
Article
Conditions in the GTNP breeding season can differ dramatically among years, even between adjacent years such as 2011 and 2012. Specifically, 2012 was the warmest and driest spring since the early 1990s, with snow melt-out date (SMOD) on April 17, a few days earlier than the long-term average, and 90% aspen leaf-out also earlier than the mean by nea...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Adaptive walk on a fitness soundscape [7] is a new kind of interactive evolutionary computation for musical works. This system provides a virtual two-dimensional grid called a “soundscape” in which each point corresponds to a genotype that generates a sound environment. By using the human abilities of localization and selective listening, the user...
Article
The ability to monitor interactions between individuals over time can provide us with information on life histories, mating systems, behavioural interactions between individuals and ecological interactions with the environment. Tracking individuals over time has traditionally been a time- and often a cost-intensive exercise, and certain types of an...
Article
Deciduous trees and shrubs such as willows, cottonwoods and aspens, are common habitats in Jackson Hole, where their leaf-out dates, dependent on accumulated growing-degree-days (Gdd), vary year to year by well over a month. In 2010 these habitats had not yet leafed out by early June, and many trees and shrubs were not in full leaf until the middle...
Article
The thaw came very late to Jackson Hole in 2011, with snow melt-out on May 15th. This year shares with 2008 and 2010 the claim of the latest spring over recent decades. The spring snow melt-out is a function of both accumulated snowfall and spring temperatures. A second measure of the advent of spring is the accumulation of growing degree-days (GDD...
Article
The phenology of spring leaf replacement was studied in a population of 46 evergreen scrub oaks (Quercus cornelius-mulleri) at the edge of the Mojave Desert in each of five years over the period 1990–2001. The oaks occupied a site that spanned rocky slopes to sandy bajadas. The site receives variable annual rainfall (estimated 12-yr average 195 mm;...
Article
To investigate survivorship and regeneration in desert perennial plants, individual shrubs were mapped, measured and tagged on a nearly level 360 m2 plot of diverse Mojave Desert vegetation in 1981, they were re-mapped and measured 15 years later, in 1996. A large majority of the shrubs persisted between censuses. Modest birth (establishment) and d...
Article
Full-text available
Diversity patterns of breeding bird assemblages (exclusive of raptors and nocturnal species) of western North American oak and Australian eucalypt woodlands are derived from data recorded at 113 census sites distributed over four regions, two on each continent. Regional species richness varies by a factor of 2 among regions. The contribution to reg...
Article
Full-text available
Some 20 species of antbirds occur in lowland Caribbean rainforest in southeast Nicaragua where they form five distinct guilds on the basis of habitat preferences, foraging ecology, and foraging behavior. Three guilds are habitat-based, in Edge, Forest, and Gaps within forest; two are behaviorally distinct, with species of army ant followers and tho...
Article
We have monitored breeding bird densities over a variety of sites and habitats in GTNP since the early 1990s, utilizing fixed-area census sites of around 5 ha in size. The sites are located throughout the park in all habitat types and over a wide range of elevations, and number 30 in all. At some of these monitoring sites we have accumulated data i...
Book
Full-text available
Sustainable Ecosystems Institute (SEI) was charged with evaluating the Draft Recovery Plan (DRP) for the Northern Spotted Owl, as well as scientific comments on the DRP that had been received by US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). SEI convened a scientific panel of 9 eminent owl and forest scientists to carry out the review. The panel was support...
Article
We have conducted a breeding bird monitoring program in GTNP since the early 1990s, utilizing fixed-area census sites of around 5 ha in size. The sites are located throughout the park in all habitat types and elevations, and number 30 in all. Some have been censused each year in June, at the height of the breeding season, others have been censused...
Conference Paper
In this paper, we propose the application of hierarchical self-organizing maps to the unsupervised acoustic classification of bird species. We describe a series of experiments on the automated categorization of tropical antbirds from their songs. Experimental results showed that accurate classification can be achieved using the proposed model. In a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper, we explore the emergence of acoustic categories in sensor arrays. We describe a series experiments on the automatic categorization of species and individual birds using self-organizing maps. Experimental results showed that meaningful acoustic categories can arise as self-organizing processes in sensor arrays. In addition, we discuss...
Article
Full-text available
The spotted owl (Strix occidentalis) is a threatened species in many areas of its western North American range. Concomitant with its decline has been a rapid invasion of its range and habitat by barred owls (Strix varia), a native species that was restricted, until relatively recently, to eastern North America. We assess the theoretical potential f...
Article
Full-text available
For historical and political reasons, Nicaragua’s flora and fauna remain poorly studied. Here we present noteworthy observations of Nicaraguan birds, including several species previously unrecorded in the country, together with notes on latitudinal and altitudinal range extensions for several others within the country.
Article
Abstract Data are presented from bird censuses at 20 mulga (Acacia aneura) sites across Australia. Null (binomial) models show that community composition is far more consistent among censuses than is expected by a random drawing from all candidate species. By denning and using the designations ‘core species’, ‘peripheral species’, and ‘casual speci...
Chapter
This chapter considers the plant species counts on the Barkley Sound islands and evaluates the extent to which species numbers vary over time. It assesses whether the data support an equilibrium value for island species counts, and how these counts are related to the more obvious variables of island area and isolation, and less obvious variables su...
Chapter
Barkley Sound is divided by three deep channels: Loudoun, Imperial Eagle, and Trevor. Between the northwesterly Loudoun and central Imperial Eagle Channels lies the multitude of islands comprising the Broken Group component of Pacific Rim National Park, and between the Imperial Eagle and the southeasterly Trevor Channel are islands of the Deer Grou...
Chapter
This chapter discusses the measurement and meaning of nestedness in species-by-sites matrices (SSMs) and SSM analysis of assembly rules. Species occurrences over a range of sites are represented in the form of a species-by-sites matrix. SSM databases are the standard format for many sorts of ecological and biogeographical studies. If the sites are...
Chapter
This chapter present a brief overview of the theory, concepts, and analytical tools of island biogeography, focusing on the aspects of colonization and extinction dynamics appropriate to continental islands in a setting such as Barkley Sound. It first discusses the main elements of the MacArthur-Wilson (M/W) equilibrium theory of island biogeograph...
Chapter
This chapter discusses the colonization and extinction events and species turnover. It shows how, in the face of ongoing colonization and extinction events, cumulative species numbers on islands increase while the number of residents at any one time remains nearly constant. The chapter also examines the parameters that affect species turnover and c...
Chapter
This chapter assesses forms of dispersal and describes some indications of potential dispersal limitation on island incidence in Barkley Sound. Ferns appear to be the classic plant taxon in which there are no dispersal limitations. The chapter analyzes fern distribution and the influence of habitat and suitable conditions for persistence, and also...
Article
Census work was carried out in mid­ June on 10 of the 30 breeding bird monitoring sites formally established in the mid 1990s. The censuses conducted in 2006 spanned a range of habitats from grassland and sage through willows and cottonwoods to pine and spruce-fir forest. Collectively, the sites cover all habitats within Grand Teton National Park,...
Article
Over the last decade or so, we have monitored breeding bird densities over the entire range of habitats within GTNP, from grasslands and sagebrush to scrub, woodland , and forest. Many field workers, including park scientists, have contributed to the monitoring efforts. In all, there are 30 established monitoring sites, and each has been visited on...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report consists of a critical review and synthesis of recent information on the status of the Northern Spotted Owl. The report has been prepared to support the US Fish and Wildlife Service in their 5-year status review process, as set out in the Endangered Species Act. This report does not make recommendations on listing status, or on manageme...
Article
Sea-rockets (Cakile spp., Brassicaceae) are annual plants of sandy beaches. Cakile edentula (Bigel.) Hook. is native to the eastern coast of North America, C. maritima Scop. to western Europe and the Mediterranean basin. The two species differ in several morphological features, including leaf form, fruits and petal size. Both are long-established a...
Book
This updated and expanded A New Island Biogeography of the Sea of Cortés, first published nearly 20 years ago, integrates new and broader studies encompassing more taxa and more complete island coverage. The present synthesis provides a basis for further research and exploration in upcoming years of the biologically fascinating Sea of Cortés region...
Article
Full-text available
Diversity patterns of breeding bird assemblages (exclusive of raptors and nocturnal species) of western North American oak and Australian eucalypt woodlands are derived from data recorded at 113 census sites distributed over four regions, two on each continent. Regional species richness varies by a factor of 2 among regions. The contribution to reg...
Article
Overview: GTNP Breeding Bird Monitoring Project: 1. Following initial independent work by M. L. Cody and by funding from NPS, we instigated a scheme for long-term monitoring of breeding land bird populations in a wide variety of habitats representative of the northern Rockies and the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). Census sites are located alm...
Article
Some 20 species of antbirds occur in lowland Caribbean rainforest in southeast Nicaragua where they form five distinct guilds on the basis of habitat preferences, foraging ecology, and foraging behavior. Three guilds are habitat-based, in Edge, Forest, and Gaps within forest; two are behaviorally distinct, with species of army ant followers and tho...
Article
Overview: GTNP Breeding Bird Monitoring Project. 1. Following initial independent work by M. L. Cody and 3y funding from NPS, we instigated a scheme for long-term monitoring of breeding land bird populations in a wide variety of habitats representative of the northern Rockies and the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE). Census sites are located alm...
Article
Full-text available
Taxonomic diversity of vascular plants (ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms) was compared between eastern Asia and North America. Eastern Asia has significantly higher species richness in all three classes but the difference was greatest in ferns and least in angiosperms. Differences in taxonomic treatments between the two continents are not likely...
Article
In summer 1997 our NPS-funded project # CA-1460-5-0010, covering a 3-y period from summer 1995 through summer 1997, was completed. The immediate goals of the project were to instigate a system for monitoring the densities of breeding bird species, by establishment of flxed sites as a basis for a long term monitoring plan and of census protocols tha...
Chapter
In view of the wide disparity of approaches among ecologists, it is notable that considerable concordance exists in at least one respect: long-term studies are widely regarded as indispensable, and thus no elaborate case needs to be made for their justification. The potential for change in the populations that make up a local biota and its various...
Chapter
This chapter reviews research from long-term studies of bird communities in the central Rocky Mountains. The majority of such studies are censuses of breeding bird communities, repeated over a series of different years at the same site, but some pertain to wintering bird communities. In some cases, censuses from related habitats at nearby sites are...
Article
1 Dramatic reductions in dispersal potential are characteristic of many diverse taxa, both plants and animals, on oceanic islands. This paper documents the same trend of reduced dispersal ability over the course of just a few generations in some weedy, short-lived and wind-dispersed plants of inshore islands in British Columbia, Canada. 2 We measur...
Article
This report covers year 2 of a three year project, 1995-1997 inclusive, to instigate a permanent program of monitoring landbird species composition and densities in a variety of representative habitats within Grand Teton National Park (GTNP). Habitats range from grassland and sagebrush on the valley floor of Jackson Hole (around 1900 m) through a r...
Article
GTNP (Grand Teton National Park) recently initiated a breeding bird monitoring program, with a view toward assessing population densities of breeding birds and their potential changes, both of residents and neotropical migrants; the 1995 season was the first in which the monitoring protocols of the program were fully instigated. The program goals a...
Chapter
Regional bird diversity is higher in northeastern than in southwestern Australia, owing to the larger area of forests in the northeast and its proximity to New Guinea, a source of speciation via repeated invasions. In protead heathlands bird species are autochthonously produced, and the habitat is more common in southwestern and southern Australia...

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Cited By

Projects

Projects (3)
Archived project
Syntactic network analysis of birds' linguistics.
Project
Quantification of repertoire size and grammatical rules of syntax and inferences of semantics to show that bird song can be regarded as language.
Project
Analysis of trends in different habitats, comparing on-site effects to off-site effects, using site-monitoring data accumulated over several decades. Comparison of resident birds vs. migrant birds.