Martin Bulla

Martin Bulla

PhD

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59
Publications
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Publications

Publications (59)
Article
In species with biparental care, coordination of parental behaviour between pair members increases reproductive success. Coordination is difficult if opportunities to communicate are scarce, which might have led to the evolution of elaborate nest relief rituals in species facing a low predation risk. However, whether such conspicuous rituals also e...
Article
Full-text available
Sex-bias in breeding dispersal is considered the norm in many taxa, and the magnitude and direction of such sex-bias is expected to correlate with the social mating system. We used local return rates in shorebirds as an index of breeding site fidelity, and hence as an estimate of the propensity for breeding dispersal, and tested whether variation i...
Article
Full-text available
Predation is the most common cause of nest failure in birds. While nest predation is relatively well studied in general, our knowledge is unevenly distributed across the globe and taxa, with, for example, limited information on shorebirds breeding in subtropics. Importantly, we know fairly little about the timing of predation within a day. Here, we...
Preprint
Full-text available
Biparental care requires coordination between parents. Such coordination might prove difficult if opportunities to communicate are scarce, which might have led to the evolution of elaborate and noisy nest relief rituals in species facing a low risk of predation. However, whether such conspicuous rituals also evolved in species that avoid predation...
Preprint
Full-text available
Predation is the most common cause of nest failure in birds. While nest predation is relatively well studied in general, our knowledge is unevenly distributed across the globe and taxa, with for example limited information on shorebirds breeding in sub-tropics. Importantly, we know fairly little about the timing of predation within a day and season...
Article
Full-text available
Animals use acoustic signals for communication, implying that the properties of these signals can be under strong selection. The acoustic adaptation hypothesis predicts that species in dense habitats emit lower-frequency sounds than those in open areas because low-frequency sounds propagate further in dense vegetation than high-frequency sounds. Si...
Preprint
Full-text available
Many shorebird species are rapidly declining (Piersma et al. 2016; Munro 2017; Studds et al. 2017), but it is not always clear why. Deteriorating and disappearing habitat, e.g. due to intensive agriculture (Donal et al. 2001; Kentie et al. 2013; Kentie et al. 2018), river regulation (Nebel et al. 2008) or mudflat reclamation (Ma et al. 2014; Larson...
Preprint
Full-text available
Predation is the most common cause of nest failure in birds. While nest predation is relatively well studied in general, our knowledge is unevenly distributed across globe and taxa, with for example limited information on shorebirds breeding in sub-tropics. Importantly, we know fairly little about the timing of predation within a day and season. He...
Preprint
Full-text available
Many animals use acoustic signals for communication, implying that the properties of these signals can be under strong selection. The acoustic adaptation hypothesis predicts that species living in dense habitats emit lower-frequency sounds than those in open areas, because low-frequency sounds generally propagate further in denser vegetation. Signa...
Article
Full-text available
Kubelka et al . (Reports, 9 November 2018, p. 680) claim that climate change has disrupted patterns of nest predation in shorebirds. They report that predation rates have increased since the 1950s, especially in the Arctic. We describe methodological problems with their analyses and argue that there is no solid statistical support for their claims.
Article
Full-text available
Background Marine and intertidal organisms face the rhythmic environmental changes induced by tides. The large amplitude of spring tides that occur around full and new moon may threaten nests of ground-nesting birds. These birds face a trade-off between ensuring nest safety from tidal flooding and nesting near the waterline to provide their newly h...
Preprint
Full-text available
Kubelka et al. (Science, 9 November 2018, p. 680-683) claim that climate change has disrupted patterns of nest predation in shorebirds. They report that predation rates have increased since the 1950s, especially in the Arctic. We describe methodological problems with their analyses and argue that there is no solid statistical support for their clai...
Article
Full-text available
Theoretical models predict that parents feeding offspring should partially compensate for the reduced care of their partner. However, for incubating birds, the level of compensation may depend on how reduced care changes the risk of entire brood failure, for example due to clutch predation, and on individual variation in the timing of depletion of...
Article
Full-text available
In birds, incubation by both parents is a common form of care for eggs. Although the involvement of the two parents may vary dramatically between and within pairs, as well as over the course of the day and breeding season, detailed descriptions of this variation are rare, especially in species with variable male contributions to care. Here, we cont...
Article
Full-text available
It is often claimed that pair bonds preferentially form between individuals that resemble one another. Such assortative mating appears to be widespread throughout the animal kingdom. Yet it is unclear whether the apparent ubiquity of assortative mating arises primarily from mate choice (“like attracts like”), which can be constrained by same-sex co...
Data
Data for Fig 1B. Strength of assortative mating for size as a function of data source. (XLSX)
Data
Data for Fig 2. Strength of assortative mating for body size in relation to sample size. (XLSX)
Data
Assortative mating estimates from the “nearest model” (model 3). For each study–trait combination, the Pearson’s r, the boundaries of the 95% CI, and the number of unique pairs are indicated. Asterisks mark significant (P < 0.05) correlations. Note that 27 out of 32 correlations are higher than those from S2 Table. (DOCX)
Data
Previously unpublished data (nine long-term field studies). All the pairs that have been identified across the nine studies in which both pair members have at least one morphological record, including repeated records from different years. This data set also includes latitude and longitude of the nest site (Lambert azimuthal equal-area projection,...
Data
Previously unpublished data (nine long-term field studies). Data in which we combined the information from S1 and S2 Data. (XLSX)
Data
Published data (Fig 1A). Excel spreadsheet containing two separate sheets with data from literature: 1) data extracted from the publications and 2) the original references. (XLSX)
Data
Assortative mating estimates with and without observer bias, temporal and spatial autocorrelation. The fixed-effect level “Same” refers to measurements from the same observer, from the same month, and from the same site (while “Different” refers to measurements from different observers, measurements taken more than 30 days apart, or measurements ta...
Data
Data summary for experimental studies on captive Zebra finches. Here, each correlation estimate r is the weighted (by [n– 3]0.5, with n = number of pairs) average of correlation coefficients calculated within experimental aviaries. Experiments are numbered as in the Supplementary Methods section. Tarsus length from experiments 4 and 5 (marked with...
Data
Experimental data on Zebra finches, including five experiments. (XLSX)
Data
Simulated observer effects. We simulated 10 million pairs measured by 17 observers, which corresponds to the mean number of observers in the previously unpublished data of this study. Phenotypes of pair members (both sexes) were sampled from a normal distribution with mean = 70 mm (e.g., wing length) and a between-individual SD of 4 mm. Correlation...
Data
Summary of the strength of assortative mating from literature data across eight types of traits. The mixed-effect model includes 825 estimates from “Web of Science search” and “Cited studies.” Pearson’s correlation coefficients of assortment (weighed by sample size (n − 3)0.5, n = number of pairs) are modeled as the response variable. P values were...
Data
Description of nine long-term field studies and experimental Zebra finch data. (DOCX)
Data
Previously unpublished data (nine long-term field studies). All available records of morphological traits which covered more than 95% of individuals included in S1 Data. This data set also includes the location where the individual was caught, the date of catching, and the observer who measured the individual. (XLSX)
Data
Models for the previously unpublished data (Fig 1C). Excel spreadsheet contains six separate sheets; each sheet corresponds to a model to estimate the strength of assortative mating. (XLSX)
Data
Assortative mating for eight morphological measures of size from previously “Unpublished data” (nine field studies, species name abbreviations in Table 1; details in S2, S3 and S4 Tables). A–C. Dots represent estimated assortative mating, bars the 95% CI, and color body size trait for “random alignment model” (A), “average model” (B), and “nearest...
Data
Change in estimates in relation to different thresholds for defining “same” and “different” for variation in time and space. Left panels: dots represent mean Pearson’s correlation coefficients (r), bars the 95% CI based on the same time (top) and space (bottom) models as in Fig 1 (S5 Table). Right panels: distribution of sample sizes (number of pai...
Data
Assortative mating estimates from the “random alignment model.” For each study–trait combination, the average Pearson’s r and the average boundaries of the 95% CI (from 1,000 simulations) and the number of unique pairs are indicated. Asterisks mark significant (P < 0.05) correlations. (DOCX)
Data
Assortative mating estimates from the “average model.” For each study–trait combination, the Pearson’s r, the boundaries of the 95% CI, and the number of unique pairs are indicated. Asterisks mark significant (P < 0.05) correlations. Note that 27 out of 32 correlations are higher than those from S2 Table. (DOCX)
Data
The degree of assortative mating as a function of data source. The overall intercept was removed to directly show the average degree of assortative mating and 95% CI for each of the four levels of the fixed effect and its significance in terms of t-values and P values (calculated with infinite df). The random effects show the proportion of variance...
Preprint
Full-text available
Incubation by both parents is the most common form of care for eggs. Although the involvement of the two parents may vary dramatically between and within pairs, as well as over the day and breeding season, detailed description of this variation (especially in species with variable male contribution to incubation) is rare. Here, we continuously vide...
Article
Full-text available
Chronobiological research has seen a continuous development of novel approaches and techniques to measure rhythmicity at different levels of biological organization from locomotor activity (e.g. migratory restlessness) to physiology (e.g. temperature and hormone rhythms, and relatively recently also in genes, proteins and metabolites). However, the...
Article
Full-text available
Marine organisms adapt to complex temporal environments that include daily, tidal, semi-lunar, lunar and seasonal cycles. However, our understanding of marine biological rhythms and their underlying molecular basis is mainly confined to a few model organisms in rather simplistic laboratory settings. Here, we use new empirical data and recent exampl...
Article
Full-text available
The relative investment of females and males into parental care might depend on the population’s adult sex-ratio. For example, all else being equal, males should be the more caring sex if the sex-ratio is male biased. Whether such outcomes are evolutionary fixed (i.e. related to the species’ typical sex-ratio) or whether they arise through flexible...
Preprint
Full-text available
Chronobiological research has seen a continuous development of novel approaches and techniques to measure rhythmicity at different levels of biological organization from locomotor activity (e.g. migratory restlessness) to physiology (e.g. temperature and hormone rhythms, and relatively recently also in genes, proteins and metabolites). However, the...
Preprint
Full-text available
Biparental care for offspring requires cooperation, but it is also a potential source of conflict, since one parent may care less at the expense of the other. How, then, do parents respond to the reduction of their partner’s care? Theoretical models predict that parents that feed offspring should partially compensate for the reduced care of their p...
Preprint
Full-text available
Recent findings suggest that relative investment of females and males into parental care depends on the population’s adult sex-ratio. For example, all else being equal, males should be the more caring sex if the sex ratio is male biased. Whether such outcomes are evolutionary fixed (i.e. related to the species’ typical sex-ratio) or whether they ar...
Article
Full-text available
The behavioural rhythms of organisms are thought to be under strong selection, influenced by the rhythmicity of the environment. Such behavioural rhythms are well studied in isolated individuals under laboratory conditions, but free-living individuals have to temporally synchronize their activities with those of others, including potential mates, c...
Article
Full-text available
The behavioural rhythms of organisms are thought to be under strong selection, influenced by the rhythmicity of the environment1-4. Such behavioural rhythms are well studied in isolated individuals under laboratory conditions1,5, but free-living individuals have to temporally synchronize their activities with those of others, including potential ma...
Article
Biparental incubation is a form of cooperation between parents, but it is not conflict-free because parents trade off incubation against other activities (e.g. self-maintenance, mating opportunities). How parents resolve such conflict and achieve cooperation remains unknown. To understand better the potential for conflict, cooperation and the const...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Organisms and their cells exhibit alternating phases of activity and inactivity that are regulated by internal ~24h (circadian) clocks. These clocks synchronize to natural fluctuations in day-light, but also likely respond to other factors including the activity of the social group. Although the molecular mechanisms behind circadian clocks have bee...
Article
Full-text available
Incubation is energetically demanding, but it is debated whether these demands constrain incubation-scheduling (i.e., the length, constancy, and timing of incubation bouts) in cases where both parents incubate. Using 2 methods, we experimentally reduced the energetic demands of incubation in the semipalmated sandpiper, a biparental shorebird breedi...
Article
Full-text available
In biparental species, parents may be in conflict over how much they invest into their offspring. To understand this conflict, parental care needs to be accurately measured, something rarely done. Here, we quantitatively describe the outcome of parental conflict in terms of quality, amount, and timing of incubation throughout the 21-day incubation...
Article
Full-text available
It is well established that once birds have laid their eggs they sometimes incubate non-egg objects. However, reports of birds incubating solely non-egg objects (without prior manipulation by researchers) are rare. Here we report on our observation of a Long-billed Dowitcher Limnodromus scolopaceus incubating a clutch composed entirely of mammalian...
Article
Full-text available
Many birds lay eggs speckled with black or reddish-brown spots of protoporphyrin pigment, but the function of these spots is debated. Two recent hypotheses have received considerable attention. Under the "signaling-function hypothesis," speckling reflects female quality and influences allocation of male parental care; under the "structural-function...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – This paper aims to examine the context and nature of marketing used by nonprofit organizations in the Czech Republic. Design/methodology/approach – A number of senior self-designated marketing managers in a wide range of non-profit organizations in Prague were interviewed to generate a descriptive narrative of what these key persons under...

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Projects (4)
Project
The knowledge of neotropical shorebird populations in Argentina and Chile remain scarce. Shorebird species inhabiting southern South America are present in habitats with diverse ecological traits and climatic conditions. Some populations could migrate totally or partially, and many individuals undertake local and regional dispersal movements. However, we are currently focusing on populations breeding in Argentina and Chile. Most shorebirds such as Seedsnipes (Thinocorus rumicivorus, Thinocorus orbignyianus, Attagis gayi, Attagis malouinus), Plovers (Pluvianellus socialis, Oreopholus ruficollis, Charadrius modestus, Charadrius faklandicus), and Oystercatchers (Haematopus palliatus, Haematopus leucopodus, Haematopus ater), inhabit different environments across southern South America. We are willing to review the information available for all these species, including breeding distribution ranges, global/regional/local population size and trends, major migratory flyways, main breeding sites, and foraging areas. Data available and collected from monitoring efforts (banding, geolocation, radiotelemetry), sighting reports from citizen science platforms (e-Bird, Ecoregistros), and conservation projects (NGOs, local birding stakeholders), are welcome to enhance knowledge on this little-known shorebird species.