Martin Barwood

Martin Barwood
Leeds Trinity University · Leeds Trinity Sport, Health and Nutrition (SHN) Department

PhD

About

98
Publications
25,120
Reads
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1,574
Citations
Additional affiliations
August 2013 - July 2016
Northumbria University
Position
  • Research Associate
September 2006 - July 2013
University of Portsmouth
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
July 2006 - July 2013
University of Portsmouth
Position
  • Professor (Associate)

Publications

Publications (98)
Article
Purpose: The Doha 2019 women's World Championship marathon took place in extreme hot (32 °C), humid conditions (74% relative humidity) culminating in unprecedented (41%) failure rates. We explored whether extreme heat or suboptimal pacing was responsible for diminished performance against a temperate "control" (London 2017: 19 °C, 59% relative hum...
Article
Objective: To consider the effect of differing transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) parameters on eating-related measures, and how issues with experimental design (e.g., inadequate blinding) or parameters variation may drive equivocal effects. Methods: Literature searches were conducted across MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Scopus, and Science Dir...
Article
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is becoming an increasingly popular technique for altering eating behaviors. Recent research suggests a possible eating behavior trait-dependent effect of tDCS. However, studies recruit participant populations with heterogeneous trait characteristics, including “healthy” individuals who do not present...
Article
Full-text available
Background Death by drowning is a leading cause of accidental death in the United Kingdom (UK) and worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) states that effective documentation of drowning is required to describe drowning frequency and to underpin effective drowning prevention intervention, thus improving the quality of data describing drownin...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background. Death by drowning is a leading cause of accidental death in the United Kingdom (UK) and worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) states that effective documentation of drowning is required to describe drowning frequency and to underpin effective drowning prevention intervention, thus improving the quality of data describing drowni...
Article
The determinants of energy saving phenomena reported for load carried on the head, back and in a doublepack remain unclear. This study compared the energetic, kinematic and kinetic responses to head (H), back (B) and doublepack (DP) loading. Fifteen volunteers walked on an instrumented treadmill at 3 km.h⁻¹ with 0, 3, 12 and 20 kg in each loading m...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Many young adults demonstrate insufficient rates of physical activity (PA) to yield health benefits. The study tested the effectiveness of a text messaging intervention targeting key psychological determinants and PA. Methods: Participants received either attitude messages, goal priority messages, a combination of these, or generic PA...
Article
The ability to control hedonic appetite is associated with executive functioning, originating in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). These rewarding components of food can override homeostatic mechanisms, potentiating obesogenic behaviours. Indeed, those susceptible to overconsumption appear to have PFC hypo-activation. Transcranial direct current stimula...
Article
Objectives: To profile performance and physiological responses to typical patterns of match-day activity for second-half soccer substitutes. Design: Descriptive. Methods: Following a warm-up, 13 male team sports players underwent ∼85min of rest, punctuated with five min rewarm-ups at ∼25, ∼50, and ∼70min, before ∼30min of simulated soccer matc...
Article
Purpose: To quantify the peak post-pitch-entry physical responses of soccer substitutes while assessing contextual influences. Peak responses may be important performance indicators for substitutes introduced to provide a physical impact. Method: Thirty-three professional substitutes wore Microelectromechanical Systems during 44 matches (4 ± 3 obse...
Article
Full-text available
IntroductionMenthol topical application and mouth rinsing are ergogenic in hot environments, improving performance and perception, with differing effects on body temperature regulation. Consequently, athletes and federations are beginning to explore the possible benefits to elite sport performance for the Tokyo 2021 Olympics, which will take place...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Cycling downhill accelerates heat loss and requires lower work rates leading to cold discomfort. Historically, cyclists have behaviorally thermoregulated prior to cycling downhill by inserting newspapers into their jerseys. Yet, there is no experimental data to support such a method showing improvements in thermal perception and profil...
Article
Hills, SP, Barrett, S, Busby, M, Kilduff, LP, Barwood, MJ, Radcliffe, JN, Cooke, CB, and Russell, M. Profiling the post-match top-up conditioning practices of professional soccer substitutes: An analysis of contextual influences. J Strength Cond Res 34(10): 2805-2814, 2020-Soccer practitioners implement "top-up" conditioning sessions to compensate...
Article
Full-text available
Modifying a soccer substitute’s pre-pitch-entry activities may represent an opportunity to maximise physical performance and minimise injury-risk following match-introduction. Using a professional team that has previously participated in substitute profiling research, this follow-up case study investigated the effects of a modified match-day protoc...
Article
Purpose: Rowers can be in marshaling areas for up to 20 to 25 min before the start of a race, which likely negates any benefits of an active warm-up, especially in cold environments. It is unknown if using a heated jacket following a standardized rowing warm-up can improve 2000-m rowing performance. Methods: On 2 separate occasions, 10 trained m...
Article
Full-text available
Despite empirical observations suggesting that practitioners value the use of substitutions during soccer match-play, limited research has sought to substantiate such claims. This study used online surveys to assess the perceptions of practitioners within professional soccer about the use and practices of substitutes. Thirty-three practitioners com...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
When menthol is applied to the oral cavity it presents with a familiar refreshing sensation and cooling mint flavour. This may be deemed hedonic in some individuals, but may cause irritation in others. This variation in response is likely dependent upon trigeminal sensitivity toward cold stimuli, suggesting a need for a menthol solution that can be...
Article
Full-text available
Whilst the movement demands of players completing a whole soccer match have been well-documented, comparable information relating to substitutes is sparse. Therefore, this study profiled the match-day physical activities performed by soccer substitutes, focusing separately on the pre and post pitch-entry periods. Seventeen English Championship socc...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Hot compared to cold drinks alter sweating responses during very low intensity exercise in temperate conditions. The thermoregulatory, perceptual, and performance effects of hot compared to cold drinks in hot, dry conditions during high-intensity exercise have not been examined. Method Ten participants [mean ± SD characteristics age 25 ± 5...
Article
Purpose:: Exercise performance is impaired in the heat and a contributing factor to this decrement is thermal discomfort. Menthol-spraying of skin is one means of alleviating thermal discomfort but has yet to be shown to be ergogenic using single spray applications. We examined whether repeated menthol-spraying could relieve thermal discomfort, re...
Article
Full-text available
Depending upon competition regulations, the laws of soccer allow between three and an unlimited number of substitutions that can be made on either a permanent or rolling basis. Substitutes are typically introduced to minimise/offset the effects of fatigue, alter tactics, replace players deemed as underperforming or injured, and/or give playing time...
Article
Full-text available
Background It has been suggested that pacing is a thermoregulatory behaviour. We investigated the effect of competition on pacing, performance and thermophysiological strain during exercise in the heat and the psychological factors mediating competition effects. Method Eighteen males (maximum oxygen uptake [VO2max] 3.69 [0.44] L min−1) undertook a...
Article
Introduction. Drowning is a leading cause of accidental death. In cold-water, sudden skin cooling triggers the life-threatening cold shock response (CSR). The CSR comprises tachycardia, peripheral vasoconstriction, hypertension, inspiratory gasp, and hyperventilation with the hyperventilatory component inducing hypocapnia and increasing risk of as...
Article
We propose a model of exercise-induced central fatigue based on interoception and motivation. Predictions of the expected sensory feedback are fed forward by the dorsolateral (DL) prefrontal cortex (PFC) to the anterior insula cortex (AIC). During exercise, the AIC receives feedback from lamina Ⅰ lateral spinothalamic and nucleus tractus solitarii...
Article
Recent research has examined the effect that undertaking a cognitively fatiguing task for ≤90 min has on subsequent physical performance. Cognitive fatigue is claimed to affect subsequent physical performance by inducing energy depletion in the brain, depletion of brain catecholamine neurotransmitters or changes in motivation. Observation of the ps...
Article
Full-text available
Background This study examined whether an increase in deep body temperature contributes to increases in ventilatory flow indicative of bronchodilatation. Method The study employed a within-participant repeated measures design. Nine participants (mean (SD): age 22 (3) years; height 177.7 (8.3) cm; mass 80.2 (19.1) kg) completed three conditions: ex...
Article
Introduction: Accidental cold-water immersion (CWI) triggers the life-threatening cold shock response (CSR) which is a precursor to sudden death on immersion. One practical means of reducing the CSR is to induce an habituation by undergoing repeated short CWIs. Habituation of the CSR is known to be partially reversed by the concomitant experience...
Article
A systematic meta-regression analysis of the effects of acute hypoxia on the performance of central executive and non-executive tasks, and the effects of the moderating variables, arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) and hypobaric versus normobaric hypoxia, was undertaken. Studies were included if they were performed on healthy humans; within...
Chapter
The information presented in this chapter aims to provide an evidence base for practical interventions such as preparatory psychological strategies that are designed to aid persons in coping with accidental immersion and helicopter ditching. Based upon findings from recent laboratory and field-based investigations, this chapter explores the interac...
Article
Aim: To determine if neuromuscular disturbances are modulated following a repeated bout of eccentric exercise METHODS: Following eccentric exercise performed with the elbow-flexors, we measured maximal voluntary force, resting twitch force, muscle soreness, creatine kinase and voluntary activation using motor point and motor cortex stimulation at...
Article
Background: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive neuromodulatory technique and has previously been shown to enhance submaximal exercise by reducing rating of perceived exertion (RPE). The present study examined the effects of tDCS on high-intensity self-paced exercise in temperate conditions and fixed followed by maxima...
Article
BACKGROUND: This case study documents the training, laboratory preparation, and in-race performance data from Great Britain’s top finisher in the 13th edition of the UVU North Pole Marathon. CASE REPORT: We report data from a preparatory laboratory test in simulated cold conditions (−15°C) with and without wind chill during high- and low-intensity...
Article
Maximal eccentric contractions induce an immediate strength loss that results from skeletal muscle damage, the symptoms of which can persist for several days after the exercise insult. The repeated bout effect (RBE) refers to the acute adaptive response precipitated from a single bout of eccentric contractions that result in an attenuated damage re...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Accidental cold-water immersion (CWI) impairs swim performance, increases drowning risk and often occurs whilst clothed. The impact of clothing on thermoregulation and swim performance during CWI was explored with the view of making recommendations on whether swimming is viable for self-rescue; contrary to the traditional recommendations....
Article
Many immersion suit standards require testing of thermal protective properties in calm, circulating water while these suits are typically used in harsher environments where they often underperform. Yet it can be expensive and logistically challenging to test immersion suits in realistic conditions. The goal of this work was to develop a set of corr...
Article
Introduction: Accidental cold-water immersion (CWI) evokes the life threatening cold shock response (CSR) which increases the risk of drowning. Consequently, the safety behaviour selected is critical in determining survival; the present advice is to 'float first' and remain stationary (i.e. rest). We examined whether leg only exercise (i.e., tread...
Article
Full-text available
Recent marine accidents have called into question the level of protection provided by immersion suits in real (harsh) life situations. Two immersion suit studies, one dry and the other with 500 mL of water underneath the suit, were conducted in cold water with 10-12 males in each to test body heat loss under three environmental conditions: calm, as...
Article
L-menthol stimulates cutaneous thermoreceptors and induces cool sensations improving thermal comfort, but has been linked to heat storage responses; this could increase risk of heat illness during self-paced exercise in the heat. Therefore, L-menthol application could lead to a discrepancy between behavioral and autonomic thermoregulatory drivers....
Article
The development of central fatigue is prominent following exercise-induced hyperthermia, but the contribution of supraspinal fatigue is not well understood. Seven endurance-trained cyclists (mean ± SD peak O2 uptake, 62.0 ± 5.6 mL/kg/min) completed two high-intensity constant-load cycling trials (296 ± 34 W) to the limit of tolerance in a hot (34 °...
Article
Unaccustomed eccentric exercise using large muscle groups elicits soreness, decrements in physical function and impairs markers of whole-body insulin sensitivity; although these effects are attenuated with a repeated exposure. Eccentric exercise of a small muscle group (elbow flexors) displays similar soreness and damage profiles in response to rep...
Article
Introduction: Accidental immersion in cold water is an occupational risk. Work suits and life jackets (LJ) should work effectively in combination to keep the airway clear of the water (freeboard) and enable self-righting. We hypothesized that inherent buoyancy, in the suit or LJ, would be beneficial for enabling freeboard, but its distribution may...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Unpleasant physical sensations during maximal exercise may manifest themselves as negative cognitions that impair performance, alter pacing, and are linked to increased rating of perceived exertion (RPE). This study examined whether motivational self-talk (M-ST) could reduce RPE and change pacing strategy, thereby enhancing 10-km time-tri...
Article
Aim: Barefoot running can improve running economy (RE) compared to shod running at low exercise intensities, but data is lacking for the higher intensities typical during many distance running competitions. The influence of barefoot running on the velocity at maximal oxygen uptake (vVO2max) and peak incremental treadmill test velocity (vmax) is un...
Article
Background: L-Menthol stimulates cutaneous thermoreceptors and induces cool sensations improving thermal comfort but has also been linked to heat storage responses. Therefore, L-Menthol application could lead to a conflict in behavioural and thermoregulatory drivers improving comfort but leading to a higher rate of deep body temperature rise; the...
Article
Full-text available
Accidental immersion in cold water is a risk factor for many occupations. Habituation to cold-water immersion (CWI) is one practical means of reducing the cold shock response (CSR) on immersion. We investigated whether repeated thermoneutral water immersion (TWI) induced a perceptual habituation (i.e., could lessen perceived threat and anxiety) and...
Article
This study aimed to examine thermoregulation in different clothing assemblies during a representative cycling exercise protocol. Six men undertook cycling exercise simulating representative thermal exchange challenges while wearing low (LOW), intermediate (INT1 and INT2), or high (HI) amounts of clothing. Exercise was conducted at 14.5 °C, 46.8% re...
Article
An experiment was undertaken to answer long-standing questions concerning the nature of metabolic habituation in repeatedly cooled humans. It was hypothesised that repeated skin and deep-body cooling would produce such a habituation that would be specific to the magnitude of the cooling experienced, and that skin cooling alone would dampen the cold...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: To establish the thermal and performance effects of wearing a lower-body graduated compression garment (GCG) in a hot environment (35.2°C ± 0.1°C) with a representative radiant heat load (~800 W/m²) in contrast to a control (running shorts) and sham condition (a compression garment 1 size larger than that recommended by the manufacturer),...
Article
Full-text available
This study tested the hypothesis that intermittent cooling in air-perfused vests (APV) will not only maintain thermal balance but, due to cyclical activations of cutaneous thermoreceptors, also enhance thermal perceptions. Ten physically active males completed four conditions where they exercised (walking: 5 km h(-1), 2 % gradient) in a hot environ...
Article
Full-text available
When suddenly immersed in cold water, humans typically exhibit the cold shock response, although training can attenuate hyperventilation. This study extends previous findings by considering the influence of physical activity to maintain buoyancy and subsequent swimming performance. Six inexperienced swimmers (three men and three women; mean age 22....
Article
Full-text available
Cold immersion evokes the life-threatening cold shock response (CSR). We hypothesised that anxiety may increase the magnitude of (Study 1), and diminish habituation to (Study 2), the CSR. Study 1: eleven participants completed two 7-min immersions in cold water (15 °C). On one occasion, to induce anxiety, participants were instructed that the water...
Article
Initial power output declines significantly during exercise in hot conditions on attaining a rapid increase in skin temperature when exercise commences. It is unclear whether this initial reduced power is mediated consciously, through thermal perceptual cues, or is a subconscious process. The authors tested the hypothesis that improved thermal perc...
Article
Fatigue occurs prematurely during exercise in hot conditions. The role of thermal perception in driving pacing has yet to be determined. We tested the hypothesis that improved thermal perception (feeling cooler and more comfortable) in the absence of changed thermal state, would alter pacing and improve time trial (TT) performance. Eleven trained c...
Article
Aim: To investigate the effect of different water immersion (WI) treatments on recovery from intermittent shuttle running exercise in comparison to an ecologically relevant control.Methods: Forty males performed 90 minutes intermittent shuttle running, following which they were assigned to either: (1) 12-min standing WI at 12°C; (2) 12-min standing...
Article
The study's purpose was to examine the influence of head-to-head (HH) competition on performance, pacing strategy, and bioenergetics during a 2000-m cycling task. Fourteen participants completed three 2000-m familiarization time trials (TTs) on a Velotron cycle ergometer, before completing an additional TT and a 2000-m simulated HH competition in a...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect different cycling cadences have on heart rate variability (HRV) when exercising at constant power outputs. Sixteen males had ECG and respiratory measurements recorded at rest and during 8, 10 min periods of cycling at four different cadences (40, 60, 80 and 100 revs min(-1)) and two power outputs...
Article
The shortfall between breath-hold time on cold-water immersion and the time required to make an underwater escape from a helicopter provides the rationale for emergency underwater breathing systems (EUBS) for passengers flying over cold water. This study compared three types of EUBS: a compressed gas system (CG); a rebreather system (RB); and a hyb...
Article
Adaptation to an environmental stressor is usually studied in isolation, yet these stressors are often encountered in combination in the field, an example being cold and hypoxia at altitude. There has been a paucity of research in this area, although work with rodents indicates that habituation to repeated short cold exposures has a cross-adaptive...
Article
Full-text available
Unlabelled: Music and video are utilised by recreational gym users to enhance their exercise experience. Music and video have not been investigated for their combined ergogenic effect during high intensity exercise. To induce fatigue, this study was performed in warm (~26°C), moist conditions (~50%RH). Six, non-acclimated, male participants took p...