Martin A Andresen

Martin A Andresen
Simon Fraser University · School of Criminology

PhD
Procrastinating

About

220
Publications
77,427
Reads
How we measure 'reads'
A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. Learn more
6,575
Citations
Introduction
I am a researcher with keen interests in geographical processes. My current research interests revolve around the spatial analysis of crime in cities, spatial point pattern analysis, and the relationship between the economy and crime. I have published over 150 peer-reviewed journal articles and contributions to edited volumes, 3 books, and 3 edited books. My CV can be found on my web site: https://martinxandresen.wordpress.com/
Additional affiliations
September 2015 - August 2019
Simon Fraser University
Position
  • Managing Director
September 2015 - present
Simon Fraser University
Position
  • Professor (Full)
August 2012 - August 2015
Simon Fraser University
Position
  • Professor (Associate)
Education
September 2006 - June 2007
Simon Fraser University
Field of study
  • Web-Based Instruction
September 2001 - July 2006
January 2000 - August 2001
Simon Fraser University
Field of study
  • Economics

Publications

Publications (220)
Article
Full-text available
The security hypothesis posits that the international crime drop can be attributed to, in large part, improvements in security technology. However, in recent years, certain types of property crime are increasing. In this paper, we test the hypothesis that offenders are adapting to increased security in vehicles through burglarizing residences to st...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives To test for statistically significant change in crime rates across neighbourhoods in Vancouver, Canada, resulting from social restrictions within the natural experiment of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods Differential local Moran’s I is used to identify statistically significant change in crime patterns across Vancouver’s neighbourhoods b...
Article
Objectives To test for statistically significant changes in crime rates across neighbourhoods in Saskatoon, Canada resulting from social restrictions within the natural experiment of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods A spatial point pattern test is used to identify statistically significant change in crime patterns across Saskatoon's neighbourhoods b...
Article
Full-text available
As a crime rate denominator, the ambient population has seen very limited use in a multivariate context. The current study employs a new measure of this population, constructed using cell tower location data from OpenCellID, to compare residential and ambient population-based crime rates. The chosen study area is Vancouver, BC, but the conclusions...
Article
Social disorganization theory and the routine activities approach have been extensively applied separately as theoretical frameworks for the spatial analysis of crime, with general support. As hypothetical explanations for complex social phenomena, criminological theories can impact how studies are framed and how the crime problem is approached. Th...
Article
We evaluate the relationships between immigration and crime at the census tract level. Using multiple measures of immigration considering nuances of the immigrant population and a statistical technique allowing for the identification of long- and short-run effects, we provide further evidence of the negative relationship between immigration and cri...
Article
Research has shown that crime is concentrated at a small number of micro-places. This research has found that these spatial patterns are generalisable across different urban settings and are relatively stable over time. Despite this, little is known about the explanatory factors of crime at the micro-spatial scale. Using police incident data and la...
Article
Full-text available
Cities promote the distribution of more and better greenspaces across their urbanized areas. These spaces are not, however, well received in all quarters, and a particular category of greenspace, the public park, is often lamented for its relationship with crime.his has been found true of parks, but little has been done to disaggregate the impact o...
Article
Full-text available
en Some urban spaces are associated with disproportionate numbers of criminal events, while other areas are relatively free from disorder and crime. The relationship between urban space and crime concentration has received increased attention in recent years, with the location quotient frequently presented as a tool to identify and quantify such co...
Article
Full-text available
Environmental criminology, and spatial-temporal criminology more generally, has the potential to contribute to the understanding of victimization. After reviewing the principle theoretical components of environmental criminology, we outline how environmental criminology has contributed to the understanding of victimization, where it has failed, and...
Article
Full-text available
Article
Full-text available
Article
Despite environmental criminologists emphasizing the role that both space and time play in the occurrence of crime, there is still only a small literature on the temporal rhythms of criminal behavior, especially those of sexual violence. Drawing from routine activities theory, this research uses circular statistics to investigate the temporal patte...
Article
The Cantor and Land model of unemployment and crime separates the effects of long- and short-run unemployment. In the long run, increases in unemployment are expected to increase crime, whereas the same increases are expected to decrease crime in the short run. This model has been tested for decades, generally supporting these predictions. In this...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically affected social life. In efforts to reduce the spread of the virus, countries around the world implemented social restrictions, including social distancing, working from home, and the shutter-ing of numerous businesses. These social restrictions have also affected crime rates. In this study, we investigate the...
Article
We empirically evaluate the distribution of spatial patterns at the census tract (CT) level for various immigration and property crime measures in Vancouver, British Columbia, 2003 and 2016, using a spatial point pattern test that identifies significant similarities, or otherwise, in the spatial patterns of (a) multiple measures of immigration, (b)...
Article
We empirically test for spatial heterogeneity or local effects of multiple immigration measures on various property crime classification across Vancouver census tracts, 2016. Using spatially referenced property crime data and census data, we use geographically weighted regression to investigate the neighbourhood-level effects of immigration on crim...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: To investigate the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the frequency of various crime types (property, violent, and mischief) in Vancouver, Canada Methods: Crime data representing residential burglary, commercial burglary, theft of vehicle, theft from vehicle, theft, violence, and mischief are analysed at the city level using interrupte...
Article
Full-text available
We investigate ransom kidnapping in El Salvador, 2000–2005, considering the geospatial patterns of abduction, captivity, and release sites. Both captivity and release sites tend to be at similar distances from abduction locations, and these distances were, on average, longer than the distance between the places where the victims were held captive a...
Article
There are more displaced persons worldwide today than there ever has been before. Many countries, despite the urgent need for collective effort in providing for these persons, have been slow to accommodate them. Applicants continue to face stringent legal and practical barriers to asylum, even in countries party to the various international refugee...
Article
The analysis of geographically referenced data, specifically point data, is predicated on the accurate geocoding of those data. Geocoding refers to the process in which geographically referenced data (addresses, for example) are placed on a map. This process may lead to issues with positional accuracy or the inability to geocode an address. In this...
Article
The complex relationship between crime and economic change has had a long pedigree in criminological research. This article considers the temporal stability of the Cantor and Land model of unemployment and crime using a decomposition model of Canadian provinces, 1981 to 2009. We include multiple economic measures for a more comprehensive representa...
Article
Crime reduction strategies are often faced with the criticism of crime displacement. Conversely, criminologists find that reductions in crime in one area have a ‘diffusion of benefits’ to surrounding areas. However, these findings are limited due to a lack of extensive longitudinal data and qualitative data that provide context. We examine a natura...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose To examine individual perceptions of the consequences of crime, the role of criminogenic models, and whether rational choice and criminal social capital are informative of desistance during emerging adulthood. Methods Data from the Incarcerated Serious and Violent Young Offender Study were used to examine the relationship between different...
Article
Full-text available
Background: A key issue in the analysis of many spatial processes is the choice of an appropriate scale for the analysis. Smaller geographical units are generally preferable for the study of human phenomena because they are less likely to cause heterogeneous groups to be conflated. However, it can be harder to obtain data for small units and small...
Article
Mental health–related calls for service are increasing across Canadian communities. However, the spatial dynamics of these calls for service and their potential relationship with concentrations of crime has not been fully investigated in the Canadian context. The current study examines mental health and other calls for service in a medium-sized (ap...
Article
Objectives: To investigate spatial pattern data signatures in residential burglary resulting from the crime drop. Methods: Geo-referenced crime data, 2003–2016, representing residential burglary are analyzed considering crime concentrations at the street segment level as well as through the use of a nonparametric spatial point pattern test that ide...
Article
A foot patrol program was implemented in Lower Lonsdale, British Columbia, in the summer of 2010 and continues today. As a part of assessing the foot patrol’s effect on crime in the neighbourhood, the spatial similarity was examined by comparing the crime pattern before the foot patrol initiative (2007-2009) with the crime pattern during the foot p...
Chapter
Place-based research in criminology considers the micro-place (street segments, for example) as the unit of analysis. Though research considering criminal events, or police calls for service, occurring at the micro-place has a long history, the contemporary "crime and place" literature that considers citywide analyses of criminal events or police c...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract On 15 September 2015, the College of Pharmacists of British Columbia (BC) implemented a set of by-law and security policy changes in an effort to reduce robberies and burglaries in BC pharmacies. Prior to these by-law and security policy changes, pharmacy robberies were increasing in BC for approximately 5 years. After implementation, phar...
Article
Full-text available
Research on the spatial dimension of crime has developed significantly over the past few decades. An important aspect of this research is the visualization of this dimension and its underlying risk across space. However, most methods of such visualization, and subsequent analyses, only consider crime data or, perhaps, a population at risk in a crim...
Article
Over the past two decades, research has consistently shown that criminal activity concentrates at places. Places also exhibit specialization in criminal activity, largely based on criminal opportunities. However, recent research has also shown that criminal events are only a relatively small fraction of calls for police service, generally 20–30%. T...
Article
Recent research has shown that crime-related police calls for service account for 20–30% of police call-related activity. In this article, we analyse temporal patterns of calls for police service relating to mental health. Approximately, 22,000 mental health-related calls are analysed. Seasonal, monthly, and daily patterns are analysed using ANOVA...
Article
Andresen's spatial point pattern test (SPPT) compares two spatial point patterns on defined areal units; it identifies areas where the spatial point patterns diverge and aggregates these local (dis)similarities to one global measure. We discuss the limitations of the SPPT and provide two alternative methods to calculate differences in the point pat...
Article
Full-text available
Much research exists to demonstrate that strategies related to situational crime prevention are important for reducing opportunities for crime. Despite evidence for these strategies, many municipalities and developers do not implement them consistently or appropriately. The current study explores the impact of disregarding such research in a housin...
Article
Full-text available
The use of social media data for the spatial analysis of crime patterns during social events has proven to be instructive. This study analyzes the geography of crime considering hockey game days, criminal behaviour, and Twitter activity. Specifically, we consider the relationship between geolocated crime-related Twitter activity and crime. We analy...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of a police foot patrol considering micro-geographic units of analysis. Design/methodology/approach Six years of monthly crime counts for eight violent and property crime types are analyzed. Negative binomial and binary logistic regressions were used to evaluate the impact of the polic...
Article
Full-text available
Criminological research has consistently found that crime clusters in both space and time. A subset of this research has investigated repeat victimization (same victim re-victimized within a short period of time) and near-repeat victimization (places near the original victimization are at risk of victimization within a short period of time). Genera...
Article
Full-text available
In contrast to the Canadian crime drop of the 1990s, homicide appeared as an anomaly with a peak in the 1970s. Yet previous studies tend to refer only to completed homicides, and here we also include attempts. The resulting trend is remarkably similar to that in Canadian property crime for five decades, including the period of the crime drop. This...
Article
The devastating Canterbury Earthquakes of 2010 and 2011 left an indelible mark on the city of Christchurch. The social and economic upheaval that immediately followed the Earthquakes has, in time, been replaced with a period of rebuild and transformation. In this study we investigate the effects that the Canterbury Earthquakes had on two important...
Article
Purpose Investigating the day of week and hour of day temporal patterns of crime typically show that (late) nights and weekends are the prime time for criminal activity. Though instructive, mental-health-related calls for service are a significant component of police service to the community that have not been a part of this research. The purpose o...
Article
Full-text available
Article
Recent research in the economics of policing has been concerned with what the police do and how much time they spend on those activities. Some of this research has highlighted that, based on the number of incidents, “crime” comprises only ∼ 20% of the police workload with much of the remaining 80% addressing public safety concerns. In this article,...
Article
The current study investigates gender differences in the spatial distribution of the British Columbia Mental Health Act (MHA), criminal and non-criminal police calls-for-service involving emotionally disturbed persons (EDP). Using a sample of 4341 police incidents over a three-year period, 13 pairwise spatial comparisons of similarity were complete...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Investigate the spatial concentrations and the stability of trajectories for disaggregated crime types on street segments and intersections in Vancouver, Canada. Methods A longitudinal analysis of 16 years of crime data using street segments and intersections as the units of analysis. We use the k-means non-parametric cluster analysis te...
Article
Purpose To investigate the importance of multiple measures of the economy when investigates the role of the economy with crime, as well as the sensitivity of those results. Design/methodology/approach Provincial level data, 1981 – 2009, and a series of statistical specifications. Findings We find overall support for the Cantor and Land (1985)...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Investigate the spatial concentrations and spatial stability of criminal event data at the micro-spatial unit of analysis in Vancouver, British Columbia. Methods Geo-referenced crime data, 2003–2013, representing four property crime types (commercial burglary, mischief, theft from vehicle, theft of vehicle) are analyzed considering crime...
Article
Temporal and spatial patterns of crime in Campinas, Brazil, are analyzed considering the relevance of routine activity theory in a Latin American context. We use geo-referenced criminal event data, 2010-2013, analyzing spatial patterns using census tracts and temporal patterns considering seasons, months, days, and hours. Our analyses include diffe...
Article
Numerous empirical studies have examined fear of crime. Key theoretical constructs include age, gender, vulnerability, marital status, social cohesion, social incivilities, and perceptions of police. While these constructs have extensive empirical support from cross-sectional and longitudinal projects, they focused on Western liberal democratic nat...
Article
Seasonal changes in crime have been documented since the mid-1800s, but no definitive consensus has been reached regarding universal annual patterns. Researchers also tend to focus on a single city over a particular time period, and, due to methodological differences, studies can often be difficult to compare. As such, this study investigates the s...
Chapter
Full-text available
Crime mapping is an activity that dates back to the early nineteenth century in the context of understanding crime in France. Crime mapping has become an important component in crime prevention because it can help in the identification of crime problems and the evaluation of crime prevention initiatives. In this chapter, I cover the state of the ar...
Article
The following research seeks to provide insight into the phenomenon of crime and public transit systems. We utilize a case study, the O-Train in Ottawa, to determine whether the presence of an O-Train station predicts crime in the surrounding neighbourhood. Crime data were obtained from the Ottawa Police Service between January 2006 and December 20...
Article
Full-text available
Article
Geography of crime research dates back to the early 1800s, most of which in English and in the context of the United States and Europe, but with a growing and significant literature studying the developing world. We contribute to this literature through an application of social disorganization theory in a Latin American context: Campinas, Brazil. W...
Article
Purpose: Crime analysts need accurate population-at-risk measures to quantify crime rates. This research evaluates five measures to find the most suitable ambient population-at-risk estimate for 'theft from the person' crimes. Method: 1.Collect 'ambient' datasets: the 2011 Census, aggregate mobile telephone locations, and social media.2.Correlate t...