Martim Brandão

Martim Brandão
King's College London | KCL · Department of Informatics

Doctor of Engineering

About

47
Publications
4,656
Reads
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298
Citations
Citations since 2016
34 Research Items
276 Citations
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20162017201820192020202120220204060
20162017201820192020202120220204060
20162017201820192020202120220204060
Introduction
Martim Brandão currently works at King's College London, where he does research in Robotics and Artificial Intelligence.
Additional affiliations
November 2019 - March 2020
King's College London
Position
  • PostDoc Position
April 2018 - November 2019
University of Oxford
Position
  • PostDoc Position
April 2017 - March 2018
Waseda University
Position
  • Researcher
Education
April 2013 - March 2017
Waseda University
Field of study
  • Robotics

Publications

Publications (47)
Article
Current work on multi-agent systems at King’s College London is extensive, though largely based in two research groups within the Department of Informatics: the Distributed Artificial Intelligence (DAI) thematic group and the Reasoning & Planning (RAP) thematic group. DAI combines AI expertise with political and economic theories and data, to explo...
Article
Full-text available
This article presents a complete solution for autonomous mapping and inspection tasks, namely a lightweight multi-camera drone design coupled with computationally efficient planning algorithms and environment representations for enhanced autonomous navigation in exploration and mapping tasks. The proposed system utilizes state-of-the-art Next-Best-...
Article
The trade-offs between different desirable plan properties -- e.g. PDDL temporal plan preferences -- are often difficult to understand. Recent work addresses this by iterative planning with explanations elucidating the dependencies between such plan properties. Users can ask questions of the form ``Why does the plan not satisfy property p?'', which...
Article
Temporal planning is a hard problem that requires good heuristic and memoization strategies to solve efficiently. Merge-and-shrink abstractions have been shown to serve as effective heuristics for classical planning, but they have not yet been applied to temporal planning. Currently, it is still unclear how to implement merge-and-shrink in the temp...
Preprint
Full-text available
In this work we propose a holistic framework for autonomous aerial inspection tasks, using semantically-aware, yet, computationally efficient planning and mapping algorithms. The system leverages state-of-the-art receding horizon exploration techniques for next-best-view (NBV) planning with geometric and semantic segmentation information provided b...
Conference Paper
In this work we propose a holistic framework for autonomous aerial inspection tasks, using semantically-aware, yet, computationally efficient planning and mapping algorithms. The system leverages state-of-the-art receding horizon exploration techniques for next-best-view (NBV) planning with geometric and semantic segmentation information provided b...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this work we showcase the design and assessment of the performance of a multi-camera UAV, when coupled with state-of-the-art planning and mapping algorithms for autonomous navigation. The system leverages state-of-the-art receding horizon exploration techniques for Next-Best-View (NBV) planning with 3D and semantic information, provided by a rec...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Drowsiness and fatigue are important factors in driving safety and work performance. This has motivated academic research into detecting drowsiness, and sparked interest in the deployment of related products in the insurance and work-productivity sectors. In this paper we elaborate on the potential dangers of using such algorithms. We first report...
Preprint
Full-text available
In this work we showcase the design and assessment of the performance of a multi-camera UAV, when coupled with state-of-the-art planning and mapping algorithms for autonomous navigation. The system leverages state-of-the-art receding horizon exploration techniques for Next-Best-View (NBV) planning with 3D and semantic information, provided by a rec...
Article
Path planners are important components of various products from video games to robotics, but their output can be counter-intuitive due to problem complexity. As a step towards improving the understanding of path plans by various users, here we propose methods that generate explanations for the optimality of paths. Given the question "why is path A...
Chapter
Full-text available
Vehicle insurance companies have started to offer usage-based policies which track users to estimate premiums. In this paper we argue that usage-based vehicle insurance can lead to indirect discrimination of sensitive personal characteristics of users, have a negative impact in multiple personal freedoms, and contribute to reinforcing existing soci...
Preprint
In this paper we investigate potential issues of fairness related to the motion of mobile robots. We focus on the particular use case of humanitarian mapping and disaster response. We start by showing that there is a fairness dimension to robot navigation, and use a walkthrough example to bring out design choices and issues that arise during the de...
Conference Paper
Inspection and monitoring of assets are repetitive and expensive tasks and have higher risk when facilities are located offshore. Robotics holds the promise of improving the efficiency and safety of such platforms by allowing inspection and continuous monitoring remotely for difficult-to-access facilities. Legged robots, such as quadrupedal robots,...
Article
The process of designing hierarchical motion planners typically involves problem-specific intuition and implementations. This process is sub-optimal both in terms of solution space (amount of possibilities for search-space approximations, choice of planner parameters, etc) and amount of human labour. In this paper we show that the design of hierarc...
Article
In recent years, the development and deployment of autonomous systems such as mobile robots have been increasingly common. Investigating and implementing ethical considerations such as fairness in autonomous systems is an important problem that is receiving increased attention, both because of recent findings of their potential undesired impacts an...
Article
Full-text available
Long-range locomotion planning is an important problem for the deployment of legged robots to real scenarios. Current methods used for legged locomotion planning often do not exploit the flexibility of legged robots, and do not scale well with environment size. In this paper we propose the use of navigation meshes for deployment in large-scale, pot...
Article
This article tackles the problem of designing 3D perception systems for robots with high visual requirements, such as versatile legged robots capable of different locomotion styles. In order to guarantee high visual coverage in varied conditions (e.g., biped walking, quadruped walking, ladder climbing), such robots need to be equipped with a large...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Different legged robot locomotion controllers offer different advantages; from speed of motion to energy, computational demand, safety and others. In this paper we propose a method for planning locomotion with multiple controllers and sub-planners, explicitly considering the multi-objective nature of the legged locomotion planning problem. The plan...
Preprint
Full-text available
Pedestrian detection algorithms are important components of mobile robots, such as autonomous vehicles, which directly relate to human safety. Performance disparities in these algorithms could translate into disparate impact in the form of biased accident outcomes. To evaluate the need for such concerns, we characterize the age and gender bias in t...
Chapter
Full-text available
Modeling heat transfer is an important problem in high-power electrical robots as the increase of motor temperature leads to both lower energy efficiency and the risk of motor damage. Power consumption itself is a strong restriction in these robots especially for battery-powered robots such as those used in disaster-response. In this paper, we prop...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper addresses two issues with the development of ethical algorithms for autonomous vehicles. One is that of uncertainty in the choice of ethical theories and utility functions. Using notions of moral diversity, normative uncertainty, and autonomy, we argue that each vehicle user should be allowed to choose the ethical views by which the vehi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Trajectory optimization and posture generation are hard problems in robot locomotion, which can be non-convex and have multiple local optima. Progress on these problems is further hindered by a lack of open benchmarks, since comparisons of different solutions are difficult to make. In this paper we introduce a new benchmark for trajectory optimizat...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper we tackle the problem of visually predicting surface friction for environments with diverse surfaces, and integrating this knowledge into biped robot locomotion planning. The problem is essential for autonomous robot locomotion since diverse surfaces with varying friction abound in the real world, from wood to ceramic tiles, grass or...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Friction estimation from vision is an important problem for robot locomotion through contact. The problem is challenging due to its dependence on many factors such as material, surface conditions and contact area. In this paper we 1) conduct an analysis of image features that correlate with humans' friction judgements; and 2) compare algorithmic to...
Article
Energy efficiency and robustness of locomotion to different terrain conditions are important problems for humanoid robots deployed in the real world. In this paper, we propose a footstep-planning algorithm for humanoids that is applicable to flat, slanted, and slippery terrain, which uses simple principles and representations gathered from human ga...
Article
Full-text available
Stereo confidence measures are important functions for global reconstruction methods and some applications of stereo. In this article we evaluate and compare several models of confidence which are defined at the whole disparity range. We propose a new stereo confidence measure to which we call the Histogram Sensor Model (HSM), and show how it is on...
Article
In this paper we use an extended footstep planning algorithm to plan optimal humanoid locomotion trajectories subject to constraints on the maximum predicted Zero Moment Point (ZMP) tracking error. The approach can guarantee walking stability bounds with little extra computational burden, thus increasing safety of robots walking in challenging envi...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Energy consumption and stability are two important problems for humanoid robots deployed in remote outdoor locations. In this paper we propose an extended footstep planning method to optimize energy consumption while considering motion feasibility and ground friction constraints. To do this we estimate models of energy, feasibility and slippage in...
Article
Full-text available
The Uncanny valley hypothesis, which tells us that almost-human characteristics in a robot or a device could cause uneasiness in human observers, is an important research theme in the Human Robot Interaction (HRI) field. Yet, that phenomenon is still not well-understood. Many have investigated the external design of humanoid robot faces and bodies...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We propose a new biped locomotion planning method that optimizes locomotion speed subject to friction constraints. For this purpose we use approximate models of required coefficient of friction (RCOF) as a function of gait. The methodology is inspired by findings in human gait analysis, where subjects have been shown to adapt spatial and temporal v...
Article
We present a grid-based 3D reconstruction method which integrates all costs given by stereo vision into what we call a Cost-Curve Occupancy Grid (CCOG). Occupancy probabilities of grid cells are estimated in a Bayesian formulation, from the likelihood of stereo cost measurements taken at all distance hypotheses. This is accomplished with only a sma...
Conference Paper
Humanoid robots have this formidable advantage to possess a body quite similar in shape to humans. This body grants them, obviously, locomotion but also a medium to express emotions without even needing a face. In this paper we propose to study the effects of emotional gaits from our biped humanoid robot on the subjects' perception of the robot (re...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Extensive literature has been written on occupancy grid mapping for different sensors. When stereo vision is applied to the occupancy grid framework it is common, however, to use sensor models that were originally conceived for other sensors such as sonar. Although sonar provides a distance to the nearest obstacle for several directions, stereo has...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We present a novel control architecture for the integration of visually guided walking and whole-body reaching in a humanoid robot.We propose to use robot gaze as a common reference frame for both locomotion and reaching, as suggested by behavioral neuroscience studies in humans. A gaze controller allows the robot to track and fixate a target objec...
Conference Paper
Robots depend on a world map representation in order to navigate on it. Only a part of the space around the agent can be sensed at each time and so measures must be taken in order to reduce the uncertainty of this map and likelihood of collision. In this work we propose the use of a probabilistic occupancy grid to guide active gaze of the robot on...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Humanoid robots are complex sensorimotor systems where the existence of internal models are of utmost importance both for control purposes and for predicting the changes in the world arising from the system’s own actions. This so-called expected perception relies on the existence of accurate internal models of the robot’s sensorimotor chains. We a...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Tracking an object's 3D position and orientation from a color image can been accomplished with particle filters if its color and shape properties are known. Unfortunately, initialization in particle filters is often manual or random, thus rendering the tracking recovery process slow or no longer autonomous. A method that uses image data to generate...

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Projects

Projects (2)
Project
Online LiDAR-SLAM for Legged Robots. Online LiDAR-SLAM for a Handheld device.
Archived project